CN104925949B - Method for purifying water quality - Google Patents

Method for purifying water quality Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104925949B
CN104925949B CN201410097507.3A CN201410097507A CN104925949B CN 104925949 B CN104925949 B CN 104925949B CN 201410097507 A CN201410097507 A CN 201410097507A CN 104925949 B CN104925949 B CN 104925949B
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water
pond
crab
mus
purifying
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CN104925949A (en
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马旭洲
王高龙
王友成
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Shanghai Yuyue Aquatic Product Professional Cooperative
Shanghai Maritime University
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Shanghai Yuyue Aquatic Product Professional Cooperative
Shanghai Maritime University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention relates to the water quality purification field, and especially relates to a method for purifying water quality; the method achieves a purpose of purifying the water quality by pond culture of Chinese mitten crab. The method for purifying the water quality includes the following steps: desilting and tidying a pond, namely carrying out desilting treatment on excessive silt in the crab pond; clearing and drying the pond, namely mixing quick lime, a bleaching powder and tea meal and clearing the pond; putting aristichthys nobilis and a first generation of freshwater shrimps in the middle ten days of February; putting crab seedlings in the first ten days of March; putting margarya melanoides before and after Tomb-sweeping Day in batches; harvesting the freshwater shrimps with a ground bamboo cage in the middle ten days and the last ten days of June; putting a second generation of freshwater shrimps in the first ten days of July; harvesting the crabs, the freshwater shrimps and the aristichthys nobilis from October to November; and during the culture process, carrying out fertilization water treatment and planting waterweeds in the crab pond. Through the intercropping breeding mode, aquatic products are cultured while the water quality is purified, and the obtained cultured river crabs have good quality.

Description

A kind of method for purifying water
Technical field
The present invention relates to field of water quality purification, more particularly to a kind of method for purifying water, methods described is supported by pond Grow Eriocheir sinensiss and reach the purpose for purifying water.
Background technology
Eriocheir sinensiss latin name:Eriocheir sinensis Milne-Edwards, English name:Chinese Mitten crab, belong to Decapoda(Decapoda)Grapsidae(Grapsidae)Eriocheir(Eriocheir), also known as river Eriocheir sinensiss, eriocheir sinensis, clear water Eriocheir sinensiss, steamed crab or Eriocheir sinensiss, are one of famous-particular-excellent breed varieties in current China's inland waters, its cultivation scale Gradually expand, cultured output is improved constantly.The distributing region of Eriocheir sinensiss mainly Northern Asia, western North Korea and in State.Chinese north is distributed from Liaoning Yalujiang Estuary, south to Fujian Jiulongjiang River, west up to three mouths of a gorge of Yichang.Early in 1000 Just to the life habit of Eriocheir sinensiss, particularly breeding migration rule there is certain understanding many years ago.With the artificial of juvenile crab Cultivate and Releasing and enhancing, Eriocheir sinensiss spread all over the country, but quality is with the steamed crab of THE LOWER YANGTZE VALLEY Yangcheng Lake and the victory in Hebei Fragrant Eriocheir sinensiss are the most famous.20 beginnings of the century, Eriocheir sinensiss migrate to Germany with seagoing vessel, then spread along the Rhine, modern throughout perhaps The waters of many European countries.
River crab ecologic refers to the biological property of foundation crab, and crabs production, as river are instructed with ecological principle Eriocheir sinensiss build a good, ecological environment that is being conducive to crab growth promoter, make crab during growth promoter to greatest extent The generation of disease is reduced, the commodity crab formed is pollution-free, individual larger, yellow full cream is fertile, superior in quality.Some areas are due to unilateral Devote exclusive attention to output, increase breeding density and daily ration, feeding quantity, cause the deterioration of cultivation water environment.Deteriorate the quality phase of the crab that water quality is raised The poor quality of the crab raised than ecological clear water, economic benefit is low.
The content of the invention
The shortcoming of prior art in view of the above, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of pond culture Eriocheir sinensiss Method, for solving the problems of the prior art.
For achieving the above object and other related purposes, the present invention provides a kind of method for purifying water, and methods described is led to Cross pond culture Eriocheir sinensiss to purify water, comprise the steps:
1)Desilting and the whole pool:Desilting process is carried out to mud unnecessary in Eriocheir sinensiss pond;
2)Clean up the pond and shine the pool:Cleaned up the pond using quick lime, bleaching powder, tea seed cake mixing;
3)Silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss and first batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) are thrown in mid-February;
4)Crab species are thrown in early March;
5)The Ching Ming Festival before and after throw in Bellamya quadrata in batches;
6)The middle ten days and the last ten days in June harvests Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) using cage;
7)Second batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) is thrown in early July;
8)Eriocheir sinensiss, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss are harvested in 10 to November.
In breeding process, rich water process and plantation pasture and water are also carried out in Eriocheir sinensiss pond, the pasture and water are waterweed(Elodea nuttallii), hydrilla verticillata(Hydrilla verticillata)And Herba vallisneriae Spiralis(Vallisnerianatans);The Yi Le The planting patternss of algae are:Annual the first tenday period of a month in January to February plant waterweed in pond;The planting patternss of the hydrilla verticillata For:Planted using seeding method in March and/or planted using stem segmentation cuttage is cut in the first tenday period of a month in late April to May;The hardship Grass planting patternss be:Planted using seeding method at the beginning of 3 months;
The rich water is processed and carried out altogether four times, before the time of first time rich water process is for plantation pasture and water, second rich water The time of process is mid-April, and the time of third time rich water process is the first tenday period of a month in June, and the time of the 4th rich water process is seven The moon or August.
During the process of first time rich water, per mu using fermentation fertilizer 100kg, carbon ammonium 5kg, potassium hydrogen phosphate 0.5kg.Its reason is General Eriocheir sinensiss pool plantation pasture and water, need more nutrient.Specifically used amount, need to as one sees fit increase and decrease according to former years knowhow.
When second rich water is processed, topdressed according to the growth situation of waterweed.
During the process of third time rich water, fair weather is selected to be topdressed according to the growth potential of hydrilla verticillata.
Second and third rich water processes material used and proportioning is identical with first time, and those skilled in the art can be rule of thumb Appropriate adjustment usage amount.
Topdress for 4th time process when, using settleability grain granulated fertilizer(It is concrete complete entitled:The strong root grain granulated fertilizer of shield grass, produces company For:Sunshine can give birth to bio tech ltd), consumption is every mu of 1-2kg.Directly it has been disseminated to pasture and water root.Due to 7, August part High temperature season, pond water level is constantly raised, and pasture and water rise steadily with water level, and nutrition transportation range is increased, pasture and water jaundice, at this moment Settleability grain granulated fertilizer can be used, strengthens the supplement of pasture and water root nutrition.
After harvesting Eriocheir sinensiss are arranged in second batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) collecting time, using dry pool desilting collecting more.In addition to Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), Other aquatic organisms are mainly silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss, and the harvesting of silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss also can be after harvesting Eriocheir sinensiss using dry pool desilting collecting.
Preferably, the concrete grammar of the desilting process is:Eriocheir sinensiss pond is drained, excessive mud is removed;Have no way desilting, should Carry out freezing and shine pond process, to freeze and should be noted that Jing often drains the remaining water of bottom of pond during shining pond.
The desilting and the whole pool are typically in late December on earth in the annual last ten-days period in November, and it is laggard that commodity crab fishes for listing substantially OK.
If Eriocheir sinensiss bottom of pond portion is that harder soil property or mud are less, can it is first uniform it is dry spill one layer of Calx, turned over machinery or After simple process, dry solarization is carried out, improve bottom Soil structure.In addition rest and reorganization pond shape, dredges the works such as water system, maintenance water inlet It is also suitable for carrying out during this time.
Preferably, it is described clean up the pond and shine the pool carry out in January.
Its concrete grammar is that in the case of one meter or so of the depth of water, quick lime is cleaned up the pond every mu of 75kg, and bleaching powder is cleaned up the pond per mu Consumption is 15kg, and tea seed cake cleans up the pond every mu of consumption for 20kg, full pool spilling head after dissolving.After cleaning up the pond, water is beaten into dry, carry out freezing and shine pond Bottom.
Preferably, the input specification of the silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss be 0.5-0.75 kilogram/tail, every mu of 19-21 tail.
Preferably, the input specification of first batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) is that body is long 1.5-2.5 centimetre, every mu of 1-1.5kg.
Preferably, fair weather is selected when the crab species are thrown in, specification 100-160/kilogram button Eriocheir sinensiss are thrown in, per mu is put in a suitable place to breed Measure as 500-600 only.
Preferably, the injected volume of the Bellamya quadrata is 490-510kg/ mus.
When throwing in Bellamya quadrata, it is careful not to add dead Bellamya quadrata, in case ruining water quality.The growth of early stage pasture and water is at the initial stage, Bellamya quadrata has the effect that purifies water, and it is too thin that input easily causes too much water quality, moss amount reproduction.
Preferably, the input specification of second batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) is that body is long 1.5-2.5 centimetre, every mu of 1-2kg.
Preferably, the waterweed plantation when by waterweed kind be bundled into diameter 10-20cm shape, planting density is every Square metres 6.
Waterweed plantation encloses 1/3 area plantation waterweed, waterweed kind with purse seine using nourishing and generating in the middle of pond Need, according to plantation survival rate, to reseed in good time during plant.
Preferably, the luxuriant seeding method is specially:The luxuriant collected from the hydrilla verticillata grass seeds pool is spread to outside purse seine Shoal.
At the beginning of the time of the luxuriant collected from the hydrilla verticillata grass seeds pool generally sows 12 months of the previous year.
Preferably, the stem segmentation cuttage of cutting is specially:Hydrilla verticillata is pulled up from the grass seeds pool, is bundled into Caulis et Folium Oryzae Every 0.6-0.8 rice plantation one.
In cutting stem segmentation cuttage, grass seeds picks up from hydrilla verticillata grass seeds field, and plantation depth of water control is super in just submergence pasture and water Go out 5cm to be advisable.
Hydrilla verticillata actual production due to kind of careless survival rate it is different, in order to improve kind of a careless success rate, can be with two The method of kind is used in combination with.
Preferably, the thickness of sowing of the Herba vallisneriae Spiralis is 475-525g/ mus.
Prior to seeding, after is soaked 2-3 days Herba vallisneriae Spiralis grass seeds, pulled out with handss and rub seed in fruit, mixed soil and disseminate.
Preferably, during Eriocheir sinensis, 3-5 month Eriocheir sinensiss crude protein content of feed is 38%, feeding volume For 14.5-18.5kg/ mus, 6-8 month Eriocheir sinensiss crude protein content of feed is 36%, and feeding volume is 42.05-54.05kg/ mus, June starts to feed appropriate animal fodder(Sea-water ice fresh fish), feeding volume is 0.5-1.0kg/ mus/day;The 9-10 months are Chinese Eriocheir crude protein content of feed be 43%, feeding volume be 27.6-37.6kg/ mus, vegetal bait(Cooked maize)For 0.4- 0.6kg/ mus/day, animal fodder feeding volume(Sea-water ice fresh fish)For 1.0-1.5kg/ mus/day.
The consumption of the Chinese eriocheir sinensises feed is total consumption of feedstuff in the time period unit area, animal fodder and The consumption of plant feed is the consumption in single day unit area, and those skilled in the art can be rule of thumb appropriate when feeding Adjustment feedstuff consumption.
March to June, temperature is raised step by step, and the crab speed of growth is accelerated, and feed request wants " essence ", early-stage fodder egg Bai Hanliang 36%, will be gradually later 34% and 32%.Chilled fish(Animal fodder)Storage and improper use are easily grown to have and are fallen ill Bacterium, or it is to feed too early to avoid thawing too early when feeding.
July, to August part, is temperature highest period in 1 year, is ruined and Eriocheir sinensiss morbidity to prevent and treat high temperature season water quality. Feedstuff is needed based on roughage, and crude protein content of feed is advisable for 30%.The feeding volume of control wild fisheses, plant feed is accounted for The 60-70% of total amount.
September part to Eriocheir sinensiss listing the 5th shelling of Eriocheir sinensiss is fully completed, and now feeds and fattens special feed, feedstuff crude protein Content is 40%, crude fat more than 5%.Semen Maydiss, the Semen Tritici aestivi for boiling is fed, makes the crab roe of crab and crab crea color person golden yellow.Now ice The ratio of the animal baits such as fresh fish cannot be below 60%.
It is furthermore preferred that the feeding method of feedstuff is as follows:Daily afternoon, at dusk, feeds in the shoal near bank, 1 meter or so of distance is preferred.Feeding principle should follow timing, positioning, determine matter, quantitative principle.When June just removes purse seine, Eriocheir sinensiss material when feeding first will material throw near purse seine vicinity, it is gradually that bait throwing in position is close to bank, induce Eriocheir sinensiss to bank While ingesting.Daily regular check crab material feeding situation, according to the situation of ingesting, the sendout of reasonable adjusting pond surrounding bait, separately The feeding volume of outer feedstuff is also needed according to nearest weather, and water temperature, the information summary of ingesting of Eriocheir sinensiss considers daily ration, feeding quantity.
Preferably, during Eriocheir sinensis, ecologic breeding index is:40-50 centimetre of transparency, pH value 7.5~ Between 8.5, more than the mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 5, total ammonia nitrogen is 0.1-0.2 mg/litres, and nitrous acid is less than 0.1 mg/litre, hydrogen sulfide Content is less than below 0.02 mg/litre.
When dissolved oxygen is less than 3 mg/litres, or lying prone on pasture and water easily occur debarking in Eriocheir sinensiss.Ammonia nitrogen is higher than 0.5 milli G/l, more than the mg/litre of nitrite 0.1, hydrogen sulfide needs to use microbial ecological agent to reduce ammonia nitrogen higher than 0.02 mg/litre Concentration.
Preferably, during Eriocheir sinensis, method for controlling water level is as follows:By the end of January at the beginning of 2 months, pond water inlet, water Position is maintained at 20-30 cms, is easy to plant waterweed;2-6 month water levels gradually rise up to 60 centimetres(2 months to March water level is protected Hold in 30 cms, April is maintained at 40 cms, May water level is maintained at 50 centimetres, and June is maintained at 60 centimetres of left sides It is right);July starts constantly to add deep water level, and to early September peak level is reached, and the peak level is not higher than 1.2 meters.
According to temperature and condition of water quality during the 7-9 months, constantly add deep water level;The reason for peak level is not higher than 1.2 meters It is that water level is raised, causes pasture and water highly to extend, nutrition supply deficiency easily occur in pasture and water, careless color jaundice is unfavorable for the high warm season Section protects grass work.
The control of water level contributes to adjusting Eriocheir sinensiss growth and pasture and water grow optimum temperature.
Preferably, the whole Herba vallisneriae Spiralis in Eriocheir sinensiss pond are being removed by the end of July.
Preferably, pasture and water area coverage is 60% or so, and is uniformly distributed.
Preferably, the first tenday period of a month in June, pond waterweed grows fine, and needs manual control growing way, is cut off using instrument and floats over water The waterweed of surface layer, prevents later stage top layer water level height from causing rotten grass.
Second aspect present invention provides the method for purifying water answering in field of water quality purification or aquaculture field With.
The present invention supports aquaculture model by set, and the cultivation of aquatic products, gained culture of Chinese mitten crab are carried out while purifying water Because best in quality(The more common specification difference of crab male and female specification average size is big by 12.5%(It is female), 13%(It is male)Left and right), unit price height In common crab price, while supporting Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) by three-dimensional set, two batches are received within 1 year, further increase cultivation income.Additionally, this It is bright ensure aquatic products income while, also greatly purify cultivation ground water quality, the operability of effective guarantee this patent pattern.
Specific embodiment
Embodiments of the present invention are illustrated below by way of specific instantiation, those skilled in the art can be by this specification Disclosed content understands easily other advantages and effect of the present invention.The present invention can also pass through concrete realities different in addition The mode of applying is carried out or applies, the every details in this specification can also based on different viewpoints with application, without departing from Various modifications and changes are carried out under the spirit of the present invention.
It should be clear that process equipment not concrete dated in the following example or device using conventional equipment in the art or Device;All pressure values and scope are all referring to absolute pressure.
In addition, it is to be understood that one or more method and steps mentioned in the present invention do not repel before and after the combination step Can also there is additive method step or additive method step can also be inserted between the step of these are specifically mentioned, unless separately It is described;It should also be understood that the combination annexation between one or more the equipment/devices mentioned in the present invention is not repelled Can also there is other equipment/device before and after the unit equipment/device or two equipment/devices specifically mentioning at these it Between can also insert other equipment/device, unless otherwise stated.And, unless otherwise stated, the numbering of various method steps is only Differentiate the convenient tool of various method steps, rather than to limit the ordering of various method steps or limiting enforceable model of the invention Enclose, being altered or modified for its relativeness is of the invention enforceable when being also considered as in the case of without essence change technology contents Category.
Embodiment
1st, Eriocheir sinensiss pond is built:
Eriocheir sinensiss pond should be selected in have abundant water resources, water nonpollution, bottom of pond mud are few, position is compared with quiet, secluded place, it is desirable to irrigation and drainage side Just, energization, path.The size and shape in Eriocheir sinensiss pond preferably standardization rectangle, area several mu to tens mu all can, this enforcement Example is 10.14 mu, and 1.8 meters or so of the pond highest depth of water is easy to Water-quality control.Eriocheir sinensiss pond bottom flat, bed mud is with 10-15 centimetre Preferably, there is certain slope on bank, and slope ratio is with 1:More than 3 are preferred.The key of Eriocheir sinensiss pond construction is escaping-preventing facilities.Conventional escaping-preventing facilities are Aluminum skin, it is smooth and solid with surface, with use time length, easy for installation, lower-price characteristic.
2nd, pond treatment:
1)Desilting and the whole pool:In late December on earth last ten-days period in November, Eriocheir sinensiss pond is drained, remove excessive mud;Can not be clear Become silted up, should increase and freeze the time for shining pond, to freeze and should be noted that Jing often drains the remaining water of bottom of pond during shining pond.If bottom is harder soil property Or mud is less, can it is first uniform it is dry spill one layer of Calx, with machinery turn over or simple process after, carry out dry solarization, improvement bottom soil Earth structure.In addition rest and reorganization pond shape, dredges the work such as water system, maintenance water inlet and is also suitable for carrying out during this time.
2)Clean up the pond and shine the pool:Clean up the pond many after pond desilting and the whole pool, more in January.Clean up the pond using quick lime, bleaching Powder, tea seed cake mixing are cleaned up the pond.In the case of one meter of the depth of water, quick lime is cleaned up the pond every mu of 75kg, and bleaching powder every mu of consumption of cleaning up the pond is 15kg, tea seed cake cleans up the pond every mu of consumption for 20kg, full pool spilling head after dissolving.After cleaning up the pond, water is beaten into dry, carry out freezing and shine bottom of pond.
3)Rich water:February, before plantation pasture and water, need the fertilising that adds water.General Eriocheir sinensiss pool plantation pasture and water, need more Nutrient, it is proposed that per mu using fermentation fertilizer 100kg, carbon ammonium 5kg, potassium hydrogen phosphate 0.5kg.Specifically used amount, need to produce according to former years Experience increases and decreases as one sees fit.Topdress for the first time:Mid-April, according to the growth situation of waterweed, if the long potential difference of pasture and water, can be appropriate Topdress.Suggestion amount carbon ammonium 5kg, the potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.5kg for topdressing.Topdress for the second time:The first tenday period of a month June, according to hydrilla verticillata Growing way, if hydrilla verticillata growing way is bad, selects fair weather, topdresses in good time.Third time is topdressed:7th, August part high temperature season, pond Pool water level is constantly raised, and pasture and water rise steadily with water level, and nutrition transportation range is increased, pasture and water jaundice.This can be using heavy Drop property grain granulated fertilizer, strengthens the supplement of pasture and water root nutrition, and consumption is every mu of 1-2kg, has directly been disseminated to pasture and water root.
4)Plantation pasture and water:The pasture and water of the plantation in pond are mainly waterweed, hydrilla verticillata.It is concrete to plant the careless time and operate thin Section is as follows:
Waterweed:In annual the first tenday period of a month in January to February, the area that 1/3 is enclosed in the middle of pond with purse seine plants in advance Yi Le Algae, waterweed plantation using nourishing and generating, by waterweed kind be bundled into diameter 10-20cm shape, per square metre of planting density 6 , according to plantation survival rate, reseed in good time.
Hydrilla verticillata:Hydrilla verticillata plantation is using luxuriant seeding method or cuts stem segmentation cuttage:Luxuriant seeding method:In March Part or so, at the beginning of last Dec, the luxuriant that will be collected from the hydrilla verticillata grass seeds pool, the shoal being spread to outside purse seine.Cut stem segmentation Cuttage:Hydrilla verticillata plantation is more in the first tenday period of a month in late April to May, and grass seeds picks up from hydrilla verticillata grass seeds field, by hydrilla verticillata from grass Plant the pool to pull up, with Caulis et Folium Oryzae handle is bundled into, every 0.7 meter of plantation one.Plantation depth of water control exceeds in just submergence pasture and water 5cm is advisable.Actual production is different due to kind of careless survival rate, in order to improve kind of a careless success rate, can combine in two ways To use.
Herba vallisneriae Spiralis:Herba vallisneriae Spiralis plantation to be adopted based on sowing, and at the beginning of the sowing time mostly is 3 months, thickness of sowing is 500g/ mus.Specifically Operational approach is:After Herba vallisneriae Spiralis grass seeds is soaked 2-3 days, pulled out with handss and rub seed in fruit, mixed soil and disseminate.
5)Throw in Bellamya quadrata
Throw in batches before and after Clear and Bright, add up to 500kg/ mus or so.When throwing in Bellamya quadrata, it is careful not to add dead Bellamya quadrata, with It is anti-to ruin water quality.The growth of early stage pasture and water is at the initial stage, and there is Bellamya quadrata the effect for purifying water input to easily cause water quality too much It is too thin, moss amount reproduction.
6)Breeding species are thrown in
Crab species:Early March, selects fair weather, and per mu is thrown in/kilogram of specification 125 button Eriocheir sinensiss, and mu stocking rate is 500.
Silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss:Specification is thrown in mid-February for 0.5-0.75 kilogram per mu each 20 tail.
Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan):Two batches of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan)s can be harvested every year, first batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) is thrown in mid-February, and per mu is thrown in the excellent of 2 centimetres of body length 1.3 kilograms of matter shrimp species, the middle ten days and the last ten days in June is harvested using cage.Second batch put the Seedling time immediately first batch afterwards, per mu of early July 1.5 kilograms of 2 centimeter length shrimp seedling being thrown in, after commodity crab harvesting is arranged in second batch of collecting time, using dry pool desilting collecting more.
3rd, feeding and management
March 11, temperature was raised step by step to June 5, and the crab speed of growth is accelerated, and feed request wants " essence ", early-stage fodder Protein content 38%, feeding volume is 17.1kg/ mus.
6 days-August of June crude protein content of feed on the 29th is 36%, and feedstuff feeding amount is 50.5kg/ mus.June 10 started to throw Appropriate fresh wild fisheses are fed, feeding volume is 0.5-1.0kg/ mus/day(Daily food ration rule of thumb can be appropriately adjusted). Note:Harmful levels of pathogens is easily grown in chilled fish storage and improper use, or it is to feed too early to avoid thawing too early when feeding.
August 30 days to the crude protein content of feed of October 15 is 43%, and feeding volume is 34.1kg/ mus, and September 1 day is to October 15 During day, cooked maize feeding volume is 0.4-0.6kg/ mus/day, and August 30 days is to the animal fodder feeding volume of October 15(It is chilled Fish)For 1.0-1,5kg/ mus/day.
The feeding method of feedstuff:Daily afternoon at dusk, feeds in the shoal near 1 meter of bank.Feeding principle should Follow timing, positioning, determine matter, quantitative principle.When June just removes purse seine, Eriocheir sinensiss material when feeding first will material throw close The vicinity of purse seine, gradually that bait throwing in position is close to bank, induction Eriocheir sinensiss ingest to bank.Daily regular check crab material feeding feelings Condition, according to the situation of ingesting, the sendout of reasonable adjusting pond surrounding bait, in addition the feeding volume of feedstuff also need according to nearest day Gas, water temperature, the information summary of ingesting of Eriocheir sinensiss considers daily ration, feeding quantity.
4th, water quality management
Ecologically breeding river crabs index:40-50 centimetre of transparency, between pH value 7.5~8.5, it is more than the mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 5, Dissolved oxygen is less than 3 mg/litres, or lying prone on pasture and water easily occur debarking in Eriocheir sinensiss.Total ammonia nitrogen is 0.1-0.2 mg/litres, sub- Nitric acid is less than 0.1 mg/litre, and hydrogen sulfide content is less than below 0.02 mg/litre.Ammonia nitrogen is higher than 0.5 mg/litre, nitrite More than 0.1 mg/litre, hydrogen sulfide needs to use microbial ecological agent to reduce ammonia nitrogen concentration higher than 0.02 mg/litre.
Water lev el control:The control of water level contributes to adjusting Eriocheir sinensiss growth and pasture and water grow optimum temperature.The beginning of February by the end of January, The firm beginning of spring, pond water inlet, water level is maintained at 20-30 cms, is easy to plant waterweed.February and March water level keep In 30 cms, the April is maintained at 40 cms, and May water level is maintained at 50 centimetres, and June is maintained at 60 centimetres Left and right.July initially enters high temperature season, and period according to temperature and condition of water quality, constantly adds deep water level, reaches to early September Peak level.Simultaneously water level need to be prevented more than 1.2 meters.Water level is raised, and causes pasture and water highly to extend, and nutrition supplying easily occur in pasture and water Should be not enough, careless color jaundice is unfavorable for that high temperature season protects grass work.
Water quality adjustment:If pond pasture and water growth situation is poor, or miscarriage causes residual bait amount big, is easily caused water Matter is worse than optimal cultivation water index.Different months can improve pond water quality using microbial ecological agent in good time.2 to June is every Month microbial ecological agent regulating water quality is used, 7 to September is high due to temperature, the reason such as daily ration, feeding quantity is big, water body organic matter is more, is changed to A microbial ecological agent is used per two weeks.Using dosage is 3.5 kilograms per mu.
Pasture and water conserve:2-6 months are low due to temperature, and water transparency is high, is very easy to cause moss to overgrow.Control moss Growth mainly added by medicine and manually pull out integrated control.The first tenday period of a month in June, pond waterweed grows fine, and need to artificially control Growing way processed, the waterweed for floating over water body top layer is cut off using instrument, prevents later stage top layer water level height from causing rotten grass.Pasture and water coverage rate Product is maintained at pond area 60% or so, and pasture and water are uniformly distributed in pond, there is 3-4 rice fat pipes between every piece of pasture and water, are easy to pond Pool water quality is exchanged and facility.Eriocheir sinensiss eating hydrilla verticillata and Herba vallisneriae Spiralis root, notably in leeward pull residual grass out, to prevent corruption daily It is rotten rotten.In order to prevent the rotten grass of hay from ruining water quality, by the end of July Jing wholes Herba vallisneriae Spiralis are removed from pond.
Disease control:Under natural ecological condition, crab has stronger vitality and resistances against diseases.Pond culture environment becomes The property changed is larger, easily occurs being unfavorable for the environment that crab grows, and the occurrence probability of crab disease is greatly increased.Disease control is former Then:Disease-free first to prevent, ill morning is controlled;There is worm elder generation parasite killing, then sterilize;It is oral administration and externally used, supplement the nutrients, health invigorating with immunity.
5th, the harvesting of Eriocheir sinensiss and temporarily support
October to November is the collection period of Eriocheir sinensiss." autumn wind rises, Eriocheir sinensiss foot pruritus " ripe Eriocheir sinensiss meeting nature is from Eriocheir sinensiss pond Climb, found breeding migration route, so safe and harmless Eriocheir sinensiss harvesting, should utilize the habit of evening Eriocheir sinensiss disembarkation, will harvest Commodity be put into special storage pond, holding pond.Storage pond, holding pond is divided into indoor temporarily supporting and temporarily supports with outdoor.It is 3-5 that outdoor storage pond, holding pond selects area Mu, pond is deep 1.5 meters, and rectangle, East and West direction is preferable.The bottom of pond gradient 1:3, with aluminum dermatotome as anti-escape wall.Storage pond, holding pond requires water quality Index is good, and kind has submerged plant to perch for Eriocheir sinensiss.It is outdoor temporarily to support temporarily supporting for suitable more than one week time.Indoor storage pond, holding pond design There are two mouths of a river of one-in-and-one-out, water inlet is high, and outlet is low.Bottom spreads one layer of sandstone, and water lev el control is relatively low, and essentially one has One anhydrous state of water, indoor requirement is shady and cool without high light, and the temporary of time is supported within interior is temporarily supported suitable one week.
After harvesting Eriocheir sinensiss are arranged in second batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) collecting time, using dry pool desilting collecting more.(Other aquatic products master If silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss, the harvesting of silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss is also using dry pool desilting collecting after harvesting Eriocheir sinensiss)
According to said method, the condition of production of 2012 and 2013 is distinguished as shown in Table 1 and Table 2, the water of crab in table Matter index is interval value(Such as ammonia nitrogen:0.1-0.4mg/L), minute is that March to October crab harvests.Crab harvesting is not required to Determine water quality.
Table 1
Throw in kind situation of Profit Breed variety Input weight(Kg/ mus) Harvest weight(Kg/ mus)
Crab 4.16 61
One batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) 1.5 6.5
Regrowth hair Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) 1.5 13
Silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss 12 22.6
Effects of purification quality Water quality index Crab farming pond Cultivation source water
Dissolved oxygen More than 5mg/L 2-5mg/L
Ammonia nitrogen Less than 0.2mg/L 0.1-0.4mg/L
Cultured water Less than 0.1mg/L 0.05-0.15mg/L
PH value 8.5~9.5 7.5-8.5
Crab average size is within 2012:Male 233g, it is female:169g.
Table 2
Crab average size in 2013 is hero:226g, it is female:160g.
In sum, the present invention effectively overcomes various shortcoming of the prior art and has high industrial utilization.
The principle and its effect of above-described embodiment only illustrative present invention, it is of the invention not for limiting.It is any ripe Know the personage of this technology all can carry out modifications and changes under the spirit and the scope without prejudice to the present invention to above-described embodiment.Cause This, such as those of ordinary skill in the art is complete with institute under technological thought without departing from disclosed spirit Into all equivalent modifications or change, should by the present invention claim be covered.

Claims (11)

1. a kind of method for purifying water, comprises the steps:
1) desilting and the whole pool:Desilting process is carried out to mud unnecessary in Eriocheir sinensiss pond;
2) clean up the pond and shine the pool:Cleaned up the pond using quick lime, bleaching powder, tea seed cake mixing;
3) silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss and first batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) are thrown in mid-February;
4) crab species are thrown in early March;
5) the Ching Ming Festival before and after throw in Bellamya quadrata in batches;
6) the middle ten days and the last ten days in June is using cage harvesting Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan);
7) second batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) is thrown in early July;
8) Eriocheir sinensiss, Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan), silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss are harvested in 10 to November;
In breeding process, also carry out in Eriocheir sinensiss pond rich water process and plantation pasture and water, the pasture and water be waterweed, hydrilla verticillata and Herba vallisneriae Spiralis;The planting patternss of the waterweed are:Annual the first tenday period of a month in January to February plant waterweed in pond;The wheel blade is black The planting patternss of algae are:Planted using seeding method in March and/or be segmented cuttage using stem is cut in the first tenday period of a month in late April to May Plantation;The planting patternss of the Herba vallisneriae Spiralis are:Planted using seeding method at the beginning of 3 months;
The rich water is processed and carried out altogether four times, and before the time of first time rich water process is for plantation pasture and water, second rich water is processed Time be mid-April, time of third time rich water process is the first tenday period of a month in June, the time that the 4th rich water is processed be July or August;
During Eriocheir sinensis, 3-5 month crude protein content of feed be 38%, feeding volume be 14.5-18.5/ mus, the 6-8 months Crude protein content of feed is 36%, and feeding volume is 42.05-54.05/ mus, and June starts to feed appropriate animal fodder, is thrown The amount of feeding is 0.5-1.0kg/ mus/day;9-10 month crude protein content of feed be 43%, feeding volume be 27.6-37.6kg/ mus, plant Property bait be 0.4-0.6kg/ mus/day, animal fodder feeding volume be 1.0-1.5kg/ mus/day.
2. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that it is described clean up the pond and shine the pool carry out in January.
3. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the input specification of the silver carp Aristichthys nobiliss is 0.5- 0.75 kilogram/tail, every mu of 19-21 tail.
4. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the input specification of first batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) is body It is long 1.5-2.5 centimetre, every mu of 1-1.5kg.
5. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the crab species select fair weather when throwing in, Specification 100-160/kilogram button Eriocheir sinensiss are thrown in, every mu of stocking rate is 500-600.
6. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the injected volume of the Bellamya quadrata is 490-510kg/ Mu.
7. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the input specification of second batch of Macrobrachium nipponensis(de Haan) is body It is long 1.5-2.5 centimetre, every mu of 1-2kg.
8. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the thickness of sowing of the Herba vallisneriae Spiralis is 475- 525g/ mus.
9. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that during Eriocheir sinensis, Eriocheir sinensiss pond Ecologic breeding index is:40-50 centimetre of transparency, between pH value 7.5~8.5, more than the mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 5, total ammonia nitrogen is 0.1-0.2 mg/litres, nitrous acid is less than 0.1 mg/litre, and hydrogen sulfide content is less than below 0.02 mg/litre.
10. the method for purifying water as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that during Eriocheir sinensis, water level control Method processed is as follows:By the end of January at the beginning of 2 months, pond water inlet, water level is maintained at 20-30 centimetre;2-6 month water levels gradually rise up to 60 lis Rice;July starts constantly to add deep water level, and to early September peak level is reached, and the peak level is not higher than 1.2 meters.
11. methods for purifying water as described in claim 1-10 any claim are in field of water quality purification or aquaculture The application in field.
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