CN105248134A - Greenhouse breeding cultivation technique for detoxification sweet potato seedlings - Google Patents

Greenhouse breeding cultivation technique for detoxification sweet potato seedlings Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN105248134A
CN105248134A CN201510787563.4A CN201510787563A CN105248134A CN 105248134 A CN105248134 A CN 105248134A CN 201510787563 A CN201510787563 A CN 201510787563A CN 105248134 A CN105248134 A CN 105248134A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
potato
seedling
temperature
sweet potato
bed
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201510787563.4A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
谢正猛
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Guizhou Renhuai Zhiyuan Technology Development Co Ltd
Original Assignee
Guizhou Renhuai Zhiyuan Technology Development Co Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Guizhou Renhuai Zhiyuan Technology Development Co Ltd filed Critical Guizhou Renhuai Zhiyuan Technology Development Co Ltd
Priority to CN201510787563.4A priority Critical patent/CN105248134A/en
Publication of CN105248134A publication Critical patent/CN105248134A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a greenhouse breeding cultivation technique for detoxification sweet potato seedlings. The technique comprises the following steps that seedling growing land is selected, a seedbed and a greenhouse are built, seed selecting and potato feeding are conducted, and potato seeds are selected and treated; potato feeding time and density and the seedbed are managed, and the preference temperatures in different periods of time are kept; earlier stage high-temperature germination accelerating, medium stage flat temperature seedling growing and later period low-temperature seedling hardening are conducted, and the temperature is correctly measured; watering, ventilating, sun-curing, topdressing, seedling collecting and pest control are carried out. The greenhouse breeding cultivation technique is scientific and effective, the seedling emergence quantity is large and the seedlings are robust. Besides, the cultivated detoxification sweet potato seedlings are high in survival speed, high in survival rate, good in growth vigor, and numerous in branching number; leaves are invisibly green, rooting is fast, sweet potatoes can be borne in advance, the expanding period of potato blocks is long, the size of the potato blocks is increased obviously and the yield can be increased remarkably.

Description

A kind of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology
Technical field
The invention belongs to crop cultivation methods technical field, be specifically related to a kind of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology.
Background technology
Sweet potato has another name called yam, and Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea is wound around herbaceous species.The short day crop of sweet potato genus happiness light, property happiness temperature, does not resist cold, more drought-enduring.Mainly be distributed on the south north latitude 40 °.Area under cultivation is maximum with Asia, and China is sweet potato producing country maximum in the world, and long-term sweet potato cultivated area is 7500-8000 ten thousand mu.Account for 4.2% of the Chinese arable land gross area, Chinese Sweet Potato Industry accounts for the cultivated area in the world about 60%, and the results Liao Zhan world always produces the output of about 80%.Sweet potato has good medical value and nutritive value, and sweet potato nature and flavor are sweet flat, nontoxic, can tonifying spleen and stomach, nourishing the heart to keep a sound mind, beneficial strength, promoting lactation, except place stasis of blood dysentery.In 12 kinds of vegetables with cancer-preventing health effect, sweet potato is ranked first, and is described as " anticancer king ".Nutrient sweet potato enriches, and being rich in starch, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin, cellulose and each seed amino acid, is extraordinary nutraceutical.
Because vegetative propagation for many years and insect pass poison, make sweet potato be subject to the impact of multiple virus, inhibit the performance of growth of sweet potato, cause kind of a sexual involution, cause yield of sweet potato to decrease year after year, cultivated area also constantly declines, and drastically influence Yield and qualities.For a change this present situation, Sweetpotato Viruses Elimination is the important technical reform that Present Domestic competitively develops, it effectively can solve the virus kind sexual involution problem that sweet potato produces medium-term and long-term existence, promote sweet potato prodution and development Virus-free Sweetpotato Sweetpotato Viruses Elimination be exactly by sweet potato with virus slough, recover growth of sweet potato person's character, experiment proves, through detoxification, the amount of increase in production of every mu of sweet potato is all more than 80%.
The invention belongs to crop cultivation methods technical field, be specifically related to a kind of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention be exactly for cultivate survive fast, survival rate is high, growth potential is strong, branch amount is many, leaf dark green, root of hair fast, knot potato early, potato block expanding stage is long, potato block obviously increases, the Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling of increase yield significantly, provides a kind of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology.
A kind of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology, it comprises the following steps:
One, the selection in nursery plot:
Select that physical features is high and dry, sunny, near water source, favourable draining, loosing soil and the fertile soil of not planting sweet potato for 3 years more than be nursery plot, in the winter time or combination in early spring use sufficient base manure, plough deeply, harrow broken leveling, make wide furrow;
Two, seedbed and booth are built:
Long 6 ~ 7 meters, wide 1.5 ~ 2 meters, dark 0.5 meter of seedbed thing, bed central authorities are slightly high, in herringbone; Booth cement pillar support, in slope shape; Bed wall surrounding stays the air drain of 17 ~ 20 centimeter square, apart from 13 centimetres, wall; Two bed wall stays a blow vent, communicates with air drain in bed; Horizontal paving stalk or branch on air drain, fill out the stalk after 5 parts of short leaching temperature of hand hay cutter above, 1 part of mule and horse excrement or 1-3 part clay ox excrement make ferment material, and insert in bed after stacking heating and tread, thickness is greater than 25 centimetres, and upper berth 9-12 centimetre of fertile bed soil is for subsequent use;
three,seed selection and row's potato:
1, potato seed is chosen and process:
Choose color of the leather, yellowish pink is normal, full appearance, and anosis, nothing wound, not by damaging to plants caused by sudden drop in temperature with the Virus-free Sweetpotato of wet injury as potato seed; All potato blocks feel like jelly, potato skin depression, have scab, not bright-coloured, and section is without juice or have black muscle or send out a chaff and (all can not be used as potato seed; After choosing, potato seed is cut into the even potato block of size, block weighs 0.15 ~ 0.25 kilogram; First bacteria removing is carried out to potato block before row's potato, with 51 ~ 54 DEG C of water seed soakings 10 minutes, or by 70% thiophanate methyl or 50% carbendazim, 500 times of immersion kinds 5 ~ 10 minutes;
2, potato time and density is arranged:
Adopt raise seedling in greenhouse or adopt booth to add mulch film or the two film nursery of cold bed; Adopt raise seedling in greenhouse 30 ~ 35 days row's potatos before local sweet potato growing optimum period; Booth is adopted to add mulch film or the two film nursery of cold bed, in cultivation first 40 ~ 45 days row's potatos; During row's potato, seeding is carried out in the potato seed handled well, interspaces 1 ~ 2 centimetre between potato seed, row's potato density is every square metre of 15 ~ 20 kilograms of potato seeds; Will note distinguishing end to end during row's potato, must guard against down row, size separately, keeps flat rare row, keeps neat lower uneven in potato seed, even in order to earthing thickness;
Four, seedbed management:
1, the preference temperature of different times is kept:
A. high temperature vernalization in early stage 1 ~ 10 day: before potato seed discharge, about the preheating seedbed to 30 DEG C of heating, makes bed temperature rise to 35 DEG C after row's potato, keeps 3 ~ 4 days, then drop within the scope of 32 ~ 35 DEG C.
B. mid-term flat Wen Changmiao: treat Qi Miaohou, note aeration-cooling gradually, make bed temperature be down to 25 ~ 28 DEG C; Temperature in last stage canopy controls at 30 DEG C ~ 35 DEG C, is reduced to 23 ~ 26 DEG C gradually after one week;
C. later stage low temperature hardening: when height of seedling grows to 18-22 centimetre, to plant before seedling 5 ~ 7 days, taking off film hardening gradually, make seedling bed temperature close to atmospheric temperature, surviving in order to planting;
D. correct measurement temperature: commercially available temperature in respect of error comparatively large, use again after should correcting; Point for measuring temperature should be located in the middle of seedbed respectively, both sides and two, is convenient to safety management; Thermometer is inserted in seedbed should not be crossed dark or excessively shallow, is advisable so that thermometer lower end is equal with potato seed bottom surface; The seedbed of lid film, notes the temperature measuring seedling stem apex layer in film, prevents temperature too high burn potato seedling;
2, water: will water permeable after seeding before blinding, irrigation amount is 1.3-1.5 times that potato is heavy; Watered immediately after adopting one batch of seedling; Grasp megathermal period water not lack, during low temperature hardening, water is few, and making hot temperature bed irrigation amount will lack, and number of times is some more;
3, ventilation, airing: ventilate, airing is the essential condition of nurturing staff; All all sprout seedling, after starting to open up young leaves, when selecting the morning 10 of fine warm weather to afternoon 3 time suitably to open film aeration-cooling, to cut before seedling 3 ~ 4 days, take airing on daytime, evening lid, reach the object of ventilation, printing opacity hardening;
4, topdress: often cut and adopt 1 seedling and combine to water and chase after 1 fertilizer; When selecting seedling leaf does not have dew, impose urea, every 10 square metres are generally no more than 0.25 kilogram; Water immediately after topdressing, play fertilizer efficiency rapidly;
5, collect seedling: when potato seedling grows to 25 cm height, collect seedling in time, otherwise potato seedling is crowded, seedling is below difficult to normal growth, and can reduce next stubble and to emerge number; Collect seedling by the method for cutting seedling, disease infection can be reduced and propagate, can also promote that the base portion after cutting seedling bears regeneration bud, increase seedling amount; Will select strong sprout when cutting seedling, strong sprout, standard was that leaf look dark green, and unfold 7 ~ 8, leaf, Ye great, plumpness, top three leaf flushes; Stipes tubbiness, root restriction is large, and stem is tough not easily to be split off, and the more white slurry that fractures flows out, height of seedling 23-26 centimetre; Seedling age 30 ~ 35 days, thick 4 ~ 6 millimeters of stem; Seedling stem does not have aerial root, there is no scab; The tall and straight solid milk of seedling strain is many; Hundred seedling fresh weights of spring potato seedling are greater than 0.5 kilogram, and hundred seedling fresh weights of summer potato seedling are greater than 1.5 kilograms; Potato seedling is not with damage by disease and insect; Spring, when collecting seedling, pile foundation at least stayed a slice leaf, sent out soon in order to lower stubble seedling;
Five, the extermination of disease and insect pest: at growth of sweet potato in results and storage, main damage by disease and insect has: sweet potato spot disease, sweet potato soft rot, brachmia triannuella, sweet potato violet root rot, sweep stem nematode, prodenia litura, cricket, black cutworm, palaearctic sweet potato, sweet potato root rot; Disease-resistant breeding is mainly selected in prophylactico-therapeutic measures for above damage by disease and insect; Chemical control; Weeding deinsectization; In good time results, enter cellar for storing things in good time; Clean potato cellar for storing things, sterilization; Applying organic manure material, increases soil fertility and improves soil structure, to improve soil water-reataining fertilizer-keeping ability, strengthens soil premunition.
Described potato seed adopts Xushen21 well number or Xu-shu No.22 number.
The advantage of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology of the present invention is: scientific and effective, large and the seedling of output of seedling is strengthened, and the Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling cultivated survives soon, survival rate is high, growth potential is strong, branch amount is many, leaf dark green, root of hair fast, knot potato early, potato block expanding stage length, potato block obviously increase, increase yield significantly.
Embodiment
Sweet potato is important cereal crops, economic crops and high-quality feed crop.The features such as it has drought-enduring resistance to ridge, high yield and high quality, of many uses, productive potential are large, occupy critical role in agricultural production.But produce from current sweet potato, output still low-level, is difficult to make breakthroughs.Tool is investigated, and it is currently affect one of subject matter for the treatment of of sweet potato production development urgency that sweet potato kind soil is degenerated.Sweet potato breeding along with the increase in plantation age there will be that plant diminishes, branch minimizings, leaf-shrinkage, pinniform speckle, growth potential decline, stem tuber diminishes, yield and quality obviously declines, even lose Commercial cultivation value, this phenomenon is just called a year sweet potato kind sexual involution.Sweet potato kind sexual involution is that ubiquity has a strong impact on a significant problem of sweet potato production development for a long time, and the general underproduction is tall and big by more than 30%.Research proves, sweet potato kind sexual involution reason is mainly caused by virus infection." be the important technical reform that Present Domestic competitively develops, it effectively can solve the virus kind sexual involution problem that sweet potato produces medium-term and long-term existence to Sweetpotato Viruses Elimination, promotes sweet potato prodution and development.
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology.Below the present invention is described in further detail.
A kind of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology, it comprises the following steps:
One, the selection in nursery plot:
Select that physical features is high and dry, sunny, near water source, favourable draining, loosing soil and the fertile soil of not planting sweet potato for 3 years more than be nursery plot, in the winter time or combination in early spring use sufficient base manure, plough deeply, harrow broken leveling, make wide furrow.
Two, seedbed and booth are built:
Long 6 ~ 7 meters, wide 1.5 ~ 2 meters, dark 0.5 meter of seedbed thing, bed central authorities are slightly high, in herringbone; Booth cement pillar support, in slope shape; Bed wall surrounding stays the air drain of 17 ~ 20 centimeter square, apart from 13 centimetres, wall; Two bed wall stays a blow vent, communicates with air drain in bed; Horizontal paving stalk or branch on air drain, fill out the stalk after 5 parts of short leaching temperature of hand hay cutter above, 1 part of mule and horse excrement or 1-3 part clay ox excrement make ferment material, and insert in bed after stacking heating and tread, thickness is greater than 25 centimetres, and upper berth 9-12 centimetre of fertile bed soil is for subsequent use.
three,seed selection and row's potato:
1, potato seed is chosen and process:
" good kind has gone out seedling ", chooses color of the leather, yellowish pink is normal, full appearance, and anosis, nothing wound, not by damaging to plants caused by sudden drop in temperature with the Virus-free Sweetpotato of wet injury as potato seed; All potato blocks feel like jelly, potato skin depression, have scab, not bright-coloured, section without juice or have black muscle or send out chaff (haulm characters) all can not be used as potato seed; After choosing, potato seed is cut into the even potato block of size, block weighs 0.15 ~ 0.25 kilogram; First bacteria removing is carried out to potato block before row's potato, with 51 ~ 54 DEG C of water seed soakings 10 minutes, or by 70% thiophanate methyl or 50% carbendazim, 500 times of immersion kinds 5 ~ 10 minutes.
2, potato time and density is arranged:
Adopt raise seedling in greenhouse or adopt booth to add mulch film or the two film nursery of cold bed; Adopt raise seedling in greenhouse 30 ~ 35 days row's potatos before local sweet potato growing optimum period; Booth is adopted to add mulch film or the two film nursery of cold bed, in cultivation first 40 ~ 45 days row's potatos; During row's potato, seeding is carried out in the potato seed handled well, interspaces 1 ~ 2 centimetre between potato seed, potato seedling can be made to grow healthy and strong, row's potato density is every square metre of 15 ~ 20 kilograms of potato seeds; Will note distinguishing end to end during row's potato, must guard against down row, size separately, keeps flat rare row, keeps neat lower uneven in potato seed, even in order to earthing thickness.
Four, seedbed management:
The basic principle of seedbed management is " to urge, be auxiliary, first urge rear refining to refine, urge refining to combine ".
1, the preference temperature of different times is kept:
A. high temperature vernalization in early stage 1 ~ 10 day: before potato seed discharge, about the preheating seedbed to 30 DEG C of heating, makes bed temperature rise to 35 DEG C after row's potato, keeps 3 ~ 4 days, then drop within the scope of 32 ~ 35 DEG C;
B. mid-term flat Wen Changmiao: treat Qi Miaohou, note aeration-cooling gradually, make bed temperature be down to 25 ~ 28 DEG C; Temperature in last stage canopy controls at 30 DEG C ~ 35 DEG C, is reduced to 23 ~ 26 DEG C gradually after one week;
C. later stage low temperature hardening: when height of seedling grows to 18-22 centimetre, to plant before seedling 5 ~ 7 days, taking off film hardening gradually, make seedling bed temperature close to atmospheric temperature, surviving in order to planting;
D. correct measurement temperature: commercially available temperature in respect of error comparatively large, use again after should correcting; Point for measuring temperature should be located in the middle of seedbed respectively, both sides and two, is convenient to safety management; Thermometer is inserted in seedbed should not be crossed dark or excessively shallow, is advisable so that thermometer lower end is equal with potato seed bottom surface; The seedbed of lid film, notes the temperature measuring seedling stem apex layer in film, prevents temperature too high burn potato seedling.
2, water: will water permeable after seeding before blinding, irrigation amount is 1.3-1.5 times that potato is heavy; Watered immediately after adopting one batch of seedling; Grasp megathermal period water not lack, during low temperature hardening, water is few, and making hot temperature bed irrigation amount will lack, and number of times is some more.
3, ventilation, airing: ventilation, airing are the essential condition of nurturing staff; All all sprout seedling, after starting to open up young leaves, when selecting the morning 10 of fine warm weather to afternoon 3 time suitably to open film aeration-cooling, to cut before seedling 3 ~ 4 days, take airing on daytime, evening lid, reach the object of ventilation, printing opacity hardening.
4, topdress: often cut and adopt 1 seedling and combine to water and chase after 1 fertilizer; When selecting seedling leaf does not have dew, impose urea, every 10 square metres are generally no more than 0.25 kilogram; Water immediately after topdressing, play fertilizer efficiency rapidly.
5, collect seedling: when potato seedling grows to 25 cm height, collect seedling in time, otherwise potato seedling is crowded, seedling is below difficult to normal growth, and can reduce next stubble and to emerge number; Collect seedling by the method for cutting seedling, disease infection can be reduced and propagate, can also promote that the base portion after cutting seedling bears regeneration bud, increase seedling amount; Will select strong sprout when cutting seedling, strong sprout, standard was that leaf look dark green, and unfold 7 ~ 8, leaf, Ye great, plumpness, top three leaf flushes; Stipes tubbiness, root restriction is large, and stem is tough not easily to be split off, and the more white slurry that fractures flows out, height of seedling 23-26 centimetre; Seedling age 30 ~ 35 days, thick 4 ~ 6 millimeters of stem; Seedling stem does not have aerial root, there is no scab; The tall and straight solid milk of seedling strain is many; Hundred seedling fresh weights of spring potato seedling are greater than 0.5 kilogram, and hundred seedling fresh weights of summer potato seedling are greater than 1.5 kilograms; Potato seedling is not with damage by disease and insect; Spring, when collecting seedling, pile foundation at least stayed a slice leaf, sent out soon in order to lower stubble seedling.
Five, the extermination of disease and insect pest: at growth of sweet potato in results and storage, main damage by disease and insect has: sweet potato spot disease, sweet potato soft rot, brachmia triannuella, sweet potato violet root rot, sweep stem nematode, prodenia litura, cricket, black cutworm, palaearctic sweet potato, sweet potato root rot.Its concrete prevention and controls is as follows:
Sweet potato spot disease: be the common a kind of disease in Sweet Potato Leaf portion.Caused by sweet potato Phyllosticta hydrangea infects.Blade local or all withered when occurring serious.Prevention and controls: one is in good time results, enters cellar for storing things in good time, avoids frostbite; Two is clean potato cellars for storing things, sterilization.Wipe clean is wanted at old cellar for storing things, or Jiao Bi is dug one deck soil, then uses sulfur fumigation (every cubic metre with 15 grams, sulphur); Three is kind enter with 50% thiophanate methyl wetting powder, 500 ~ 700 times of liquid before cellar for storing things with potato block, or with 50% carbendazol wettable powder, 500 times of liquid, dips potato block l ~ 2 time, dry into cellar for storing things.
Sweet potato soft rot: sweet potato soft rot is one of Major Diseases of sweet potato storing phase.Widely distributed, caused by rhizopus niger (RhizopusnigricansEhvb.), can cause harm various crop.[symptom] infects potato block.Ill initial stage Shu Rou inner tissue is without significant change, and the deliquescing of later potato block, rotting in inside, has vinosity.Potato meat flavescence brown or light brown.The most nascent adularescent fine hair (mycelium) in potato face, the later stage produces black granule.[prevention and controls] one is in good time results, enters cellar for storing things in good time, avoids frostbite; Two is clean potato cellars for storing things, sterilization.Wipe clean is wanted at old cellar for storing things, or Jiao Bi is dug one deck soil, then uses sulfur fumigation (every cubic metre with 15 grams, sulphur); Three is kind enter with 50% thiophanate methyl wetting powder, 500 ~ 700 times of liquid before cellar for storing things with potato block, or with 50% carbendazol wettable powder, 500 times of liquid, dips potato block 1 ~ 2 time, dry into cellar for storing things.
Brachmia triannuella: cry sweet potato leaf folder again.Bits Lepidoptera Gelechidae.Widely distributed, except causing harm except sweet potato, the convolvulaceous plants such as water spinach Lay, morning glory of also causing harm.To weave silk convolution Ipomoea batatas blade with larva, and perch wherein takes food mesophyll, only stays epidermis, when occurring serious, a large amount of potato leaf is rolled up food, has a strong impact on output.[prevention and controls] 1. agricultural measures: one is remove field stubble dead leaf and weeds in time after sweet potato rewarding, to eliminate hibernal pupae; Two is pinch at the initial stage of causing harm the larva killed in new leaf roll in time.2. chemical control is at larva initial stage of origination, with 90% trichlorphon, 800 ~ 1000 times of liquid, or 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate 100O times liquid, in the afternoon 4 time after every mu spray 50 ~ 75 kilograms.
Sweet potato violet root rot: being caused by sweet potato purple volume load, except causing harm except sweet potato, also infecting the various crop such as potato, cotton, soybean, peanut, apple, pears, peach.[prevention and controls] one is that field finds that diseased plant is rooted out together with sick soil by diseased plant in time, then carries out disinfection with formalin or limewash.During results, the residual body of diseased plant is concentrated and to be burnt or buried; Two is that grave illness field and gramineous crop carry out crop rotation in more than 3 years, and rice field-upland field rotation is best; Three is applying organic manure material, increases soil fertility and improves soil structure, to improve soil water-reataining fertilizer-keeping ability, strengthens premunition.
Sweep stem nematode: caused by destruction stem eelworm, except causing harm except sweet potato, the crops and weeds such as potato of also causing harm, broad bean, wheat, corn, castor-oil plant, little japanese bearbind, yellow wormwood artemisia.[prevention and controls] 1. strict quarantine does not allocate and transport potato seed from lesion.2. select anosis potato seed potato seed to hot water treatment of seeds with 51 ~ 54 degrees Celsius, the seedbed pure land or with 3% carbofuran Granules 0.5 Kilograms Per Square Meter process, to cultivate anosis strong sprout.3. Fusarium Wilt of Sweet potato seedling 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate or 40% Isofenphos methyl emulsion, 100 times of immersions 10 minutes.4. chemicals treatment soil 5% Aldicarb granule every mu of use 2 ~ 3 kilograms, applies during potato transplantation of seedlings in cave, and this medicine field term of validity 50 ~ 60 days, effectively can prevent and treat the generation of haulm characters, and doublely controls other insect pests.Also by 3% Isofenphos methyl granule every mu of use 3 ~ 4 kilograms, appropriate soil can be mixed and applies in cave.
Prodenia litura: have another name called lotus Autographa spp, larva cries agrotis, multicolored worm, black silkworm, wild tiger etc.In China, distributed pole is wide.Larva is polyphagous pest-insect, and sweet potato of causing harm, to eat Ye Weizhu, also eats tender stem or petiole time serious.Prevention and controls noctuid is contained the phase of sending out and finds pieces of an egg on blade back sweet potato, and Lian Ye extracts.Use black light lamps adult.Before larva 2 age, with 90% trichlorphon 800 ~ 1000 times, or 50% Phoxim emulsion, 1000 times of liquid, or 50% Folithion emulsion, 1000 times of liquid spray.
Cricket: this Eimeria orthoptera Gryllidea, it is of a great variety, and feeding habits are complicated, cause harm the heaviest to sweet potato, soybean.There is for 1 generation in 1 year in this worm, survives the winter in soil with ovum, and April, ovum started hatching.Nymph and adult all can be caused and be caused harm.This worm lives in caves, out movable when evening 20 ~ 23, stings food Roots Neck of Sweet Potato, and cause potato seedling to wilt withered, be short of seedling disconnected ridge.Prevention and controls: with 90% chlorophos, 800 times of liquid, admixes in the broken fresh grass of hand hay cutter, and in being spread on potato ridge at dusk, or every mu with 2 ~ 2.5 kilograms, lindane powder, mixes 10 kilograms of wheat brans and evenly spreads people's potato field.
Black cutworm: this Eimeria Lepidoptera Noctuidae, larva is commonly called as grub, cutworm, root eating insect.Omnivorousness is strong, and except causing harm except sweet potato, to cotton, corn, Chinese sorghum, tobacco etc. have seriously causes harm.Prevention and controls: 1. weeding deinsectization: in egg-laying period mid-April Ex-all weeds, reduces spawning place and larva foodstuff source.2. chemical control: combine during plantation and prevent and treat sweep stem nematode 40% Isofenphos methyl 200 times of immersion seedling base portions 10 minutes, or fill with nest with 3000 times of liquid, or every mu is spreaded manuer in holes with Aldicarb granule.Doublely can control nematodosis and cutworm, grub etc.; Spray 90% chlorophos powder, 800 ~ 1000 times of liquid in two length of times, or with 50% phoxim 0.3 kilogram to 2 kilograms, water, mix dry fine earth 20 kilograms, be evenly spread on around potato seedling; Also can trap and kill with poisonous weeds.After cutworm 3 age, if it is serious to cause harm, mix 90% chlorophos, 800 times of liquid, 25 ~ 40 kilograms every mu with the broken fresh grass of hand hay cutter, be sprinkling upon on potato ridge at dusk and kill.3. paulownia leaves trapping, artificial capture method: put paulownia leaves 70 ~ 90 for every mu, after foliation, early morning every day turns over leaf Kill the larva, and a time foliation effect can keep 4 ~ 5 days.Also can catch in soil near killed plant early morning.
Palaearctic sweet potato: have another name called japanese bearbind hawkmoth, belongs to Lepidoptera Sphingidae.Widely distributed, all there is generation national each sweet potato production area.Mainly to cause harm sweet potato, also take food the convolvulaceous plants such as morning glory.The leaf of larva food evil sweet potato and tender stem, can eat up leaf time serious, affect output very large.[prevention and controls] be agricultural measures winter, how cultivated rake sweet potato in spring field 1., destroys its environment of surviving the winter, kills pupa, reduces worm source; In early days in conjunction with field management, catch and kill larva; Utilize the florisugent habit of adult, contain adult the phase of sending out and use syrup period poison bait, or many places are catched and killed to nectar source, to reduce field ovum amount.2. 1.5 ~ 2 kilograms, chemical control every mu use 2.5% chlorophos powder 1.5%1605 powder dusts; Or use 90% trichlorphon, or 80% ddvp emulsion, 2000 times of liquid sprayings; Or the 500 times of liquid sprayings of 20%Bt emulsion.
Sweet potato root rot: also known as root rot, is that heavier a kind of disease occurs in recent years, embraces bacterium cause by sweet potato Beancurd sheet sickle, except causing harm except sweet potato, and the convolvulaceous plant such as morning glory, field bindweed of also causing harm.[prevention and controls]: 1. select disease-resistant breeding: as red No. 4 of Xushen21 well, Zhengzhou.2. crop rotation in more than 3 years is carried out in crop rotation grave illness field, can with peanut, sesame, seeding corn and other crops crop rotation.3. strengthen cultivation management: spring potato is suitably early planted, have the place of irrigation conditions should to return Miao Houpu and water 1 water, to improve premunition planting.Summer potato strives early planting after wheat harvest, and waters in time.Deep ploughing is digged, applying organic manure, does not execute band bacterial manure.
Described potato seed adopts Xushen21 well number or Xu-shu No.22 number.
The advantage of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology of the present invention is: scientific and effective, large and the seedling of output of seedling is strengthened, and the Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling cultivated survives soon, survival rate is high, growth potential is strong, branch amount is many, leaf dark green, root of hair fast, knot potato early, potato block expanding stage length, potato block obviously increase, increase yield significantly.

Claims (2)

1. a Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology, it is characterized in that, it comprises the following steps:
One, the selection in nursery plot:
Select that physical features is high and dry, sunny, near water source, favourable draining, loosing soil and the fertile soil of not planting sweet potato for 3 years more than be nursery plot, in the winter time or combination in early spring use sufficient base manure, plough deeply, harrow broken leveling, make wide furrow;
Two, seedbed and booth are built:
Long 6 ~ 7 meters, wide 1.5 ~ 2 meters, dark 0.5 meter of seedbed thing, bed central authorities are slightly high, in herringbone; Booth cement pillar support, in slope shape; Bed wall surrounding stays the air drain of 17 ~ 20 centimeter square, apart from 13 centimetres, wall; Two bed wall stays a blow vent, communicates with air drain in bed; Horizontal paving stalk or branch on air drain, fill out the stalk after 5 parts of short leaching temperature of hand hay cutter above, 1 part of mule and horse excrement or 1-3 part clay ox excrement make ferment material, and insert in bed after stacking heating and tread, thickness is greater than 25 centimetres, and upper berth 9-12 centimetre of fertile bed soil is for subsequent use;
three,seed selection and row's potato:
1, potato seed is chosen and process:
Choose color of the leather, yellowish pink is normal, full appearance, and anosis, nothing wound, not by damaging to plants caused by sudden drop in temperature with the Virus-free Sweetpotato of wet injury as potato seed; All potato blocks feel like jelly, potato skin depression, have scab, not bright-coloured, section without juice or have black muscle or send out chaff all can not be used as potato seed; After choosing, potato seed is cut into the even potato block of size, block weighs 0.15 ~ 0.25 kilogram; First bacteria removing is carried out to potato block before row's potato, with 51 ~ 54 DEG C of water seed soakings 10 minutes, or by 70% thiophanate methyl or 50% carbendazim, 500 times of immersion kinds 5 ~ 10 minutes;
2, potato time and density is arranged:
Adopt raise seedling in greenhouse or adopt booth to add mulch film or the two film nursery of cold bed; Adopt raise seedling in greenhouse 30 ~ 35 days row's potatos before local sweet potato growing optimum period; Booth is adopted to add mulch film or the two film nursery of cold bed, in cultivation first 40 ~ 45 days row's potatos; During row's potato, seeding is carried out in the potato seed handled well, interspaces 1 ~ 2 centimetre between potato seed, row's potato density is every square metre of 15 ~ 20 kilograms of potato seeds; Will note distinguishing end to end during row's potato, must guard against down row, size separately, keeps flat rare row, keeps neat lower uneven in potato seed, even in order to earthing thickness;
Four, seedbed management:
1, the preference temperature of different times is kept:
A. high temperature vernalization in early stage 1 ~ 10 day: before potato seed discharge, about the preheating seedbed to 30 DEG C of heating, makes bed temperature rise to 35 DEG C after row's potato, keeps 3 ~ 4 days, then drop within the scope of 32 ~ 35 DEG C;
B. mid-term flat Wen Changmiao: treat Qi Miaohou, note aeration-cooling gradually, make bed temperature be down to 25 ~ 28 DEG C; Temperature in last stage canopy controls at 30 DEG C ~ 35 DEG C, is reduced to 23 ~ 26 DEG C gradually after one week;
C. later stage low temperature hardening: when height of seedling grows to 18-22 centimetre, to plant before seedling 5 ~ 7 days, taking off film hardening gradually, make seedling bed temperature close to atmospheric temperature, surviving in order to planting;
D. correct measurement temperature: commercially available temperature in respect of error comparatively large, use again after should correcting; Point for measuring temperature should be located in the middle of seedbed respectively, both sides and two, is convenient to safety management; Thermometer is inserted in seedbed should not be crossed dark or excessively shallow, is advisable so that thermometer lower end is equal with potato seed bottom surface; The seedbed of lid film, notes the temperature measuring seedling stem apex layer in film, prevents temperature too high burn potato seedling;
2, water: will water permeable after seeding before blinding, irrigation amount is 1.3-1.5 times that potato is heavy; Watered immediately after adopting one batch of seedling; Grasp megathermal period water not lack, during low temperature hardening, water is few, and making hot temperature bed irrigation amount will lack, and number of times is some more;
3, ventilation, airing: ventilate, airing is the essential condition of nurturing staff; All all sprout seedling, after starting to open up young leaves, when selecting the morning 10 of fine warm weather to afternoon 3 time suitably to open film aeration-cooling, to cut before seedling 3 ~ 4 days, take airing on daytime, evening lid, reach the object of ventilation, printing opacity hardening;
4, topdress: often cut and adopt 1 seedling and combine to water and chase after 1 fertilizer; When selecting seedling leaf does not have dew, impose urea, every 10 square metres are generally no more than 0.25 kilogram; Water immediately after topdressing, play fertilizer efficiency rapidly;
5, collect seedling: when potato seedling grows to 25 cm height, collect seedling in time, otherwise potato seedling is crowded, seedling is below difficult to normal growth, and can reduce next stubble and to emerge number; Collect seedling by the method for cutting seedling, disease infection can be reduced and propagate, can also promote that the base portion after cutting seedling bears regeneration bud, increase seedling amount; Will select strong sprout when cutting seedling, strong sprout, standard was that leaf look dark green, and unfold 7 ~ 8, leaf, Ye great, plumpness, top three leaf flushes; Stipes tubbiness, root restriction is large, and stem is tough not easily to be split off, and the more white slurry that fractures flows out, height of seedling 23-26 centimetre; Seedling age 30 ~ 35 days, thick 4 ~ 6 millimeters of stem; Seedling stem does not have aerial root, there is no scab; The tall and straight solid milk of seedling strain is many; Hundred seedling fresh weights of spring potato seedling are greater than 0.5 kilogram, and hundred seedling fresh weights of summer potato seedling are greater than 1.5 kilograms; Potato seedling is not with damage by disease and insect; Spring, when collecting seedling, pile foundation at least stayed a slice leaf, sent out soon in order to lower stubble seedling;
Five, the extermination of disease and insect pest: at growth of sweet potato in results and storage, main damage by disease and insect has: sweet potato spot disease, sweet potato soft rot, brachmia triannuella, sweet potato violet root rot, sweep stem nematode, prodenia litura, cricket, black cutworm, palaearctic sweet potato, sweet potato root rot; Disease-resistant breeding is mainly selected in prophylactico-therapeutic measures for above damage by disease and insect; Chemical control; Weeding deinsectization; In good time results, enter cellar for storing things in good time; Clean potato cellar for storing things, sterilization; Applying organic manure material, increases soil fertility and improves soil structure, to improve soil water-reataining fertilizer-keeping ability, strengthens soil premunition.
2. a kind of Virus-free Sweetpotato seedling booth breeding cultivation technology according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described potato seed adopts Xushen21 well number or Xu-shu No.22 number.
CN201510787563.4A 2015-11-17 2015-11-17 Greenhouse breeding cultivation technique for detoxification sweet potato seedlings Pending CN105248134A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201510787563.4A CN105248134A (en) 2015-11-17 2015-11-17 Greenhouse breeding cultivation technique for detoxification sweet potato seedlings

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201510787563.4A CN105248134A (en) 2015-11-17 2015-11-17 Greenhouse breeding cultivation technique for detoxification sweet potato seedlings

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN105248134A true CN105248134A (en) 2016-01-20

Family

ID=55088354

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201510787563.4A Pending CN105248134A (en) 2015-11-17 2015-11-17 Greenhouse breeding cultivation technique for detoxification sweet potato seedlings

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN105248134A (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105830698A (en) * 2016-03-29 2016-08-10 镇远县百福农业科技示范有限公司 Seedling hardening method for sweet potato tissue-cultured test-tube plantlets
CN106613190A (en) * 2016-12-02 2017-05-10 海南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所 Expanding propagation and planting method for ipomoea batatas virus-free seedlings
CN107242001A (en) * 2017-07-05 2017-10-13 海南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所 A kind of detoxification sweet potato potato seed method for culturing seedlings
CN107371746A (en) * 2017-08-25 2017-11-24 石家庄市农林科学研究院 The film of Virus-free Sweetpotato three covers method for culturing seedlings
CN108522191A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-09-14 三明市丰隆农业科技有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of sweet potato
CN110972860A (en) * 2019-12-05 2020-04-10 天津丰华裕隆农业发展股份有限公司 Sweet potato seedling raising method with high survival rate
CN111328659A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-06-26 山东省烟台市农业科学研究院 Ultrahigh-temperature greenhouse seedling raising method for sweet potatoes
CN112997830A (en) * 2021-04-22 2021-06-22 台州市农业科学研究院 Sweet potato seedling method by leaving field

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102326486A (en) * 2011-08-05 2012-01-25 宋吉昌 Planting technology of purple sweet potatoes
CN102369829A (en) * 2010-08-10 2012-03-14 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Method for raising seedlings of purple sweet potatoes
CN102845213A (en) * 2012-09-29 2013-01-02 山西省农业科学院玉米研究所 Sweet potato seedling raising method
CN103609274A (en) * 2013-10-10 2014-03-05 孔赟荣 High-yield cultivation method of selenium-rich purple sweet potatoes
CN104663183A (en) * 2013-11-26 2015-06-03 孔赟荣 Culture method of super purple sweet potato

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102369829A (en) * 2010-08-10 2012-03-14 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Method for raising seedlings of purple sweet potatoes
CN102326486A (en) * 2011-08-05 2012-01-25 宋吉昌 Planting technology of purple sweet potatoes
CN102845213A (en) * 2012-09-29 2013-01-02 山西省农业科学院玉米研究所 Sweet potato seedling raising method
CN103609274A (en) * 2013-10-10 2014-03-05 孔赟荣 High-yield cultivation method of selenium-rich purple sweet potatoes
CN104663183A (en) * 2013-11-26 2015-06-03 孔赟荣 Culture method of super purple sweet potato

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
杨国红: "甘薯育苗:做好准备 管好苗床", 《河南科技报》 *
郑婉霞主编: "《甘薯栽培与加工技术》", 29 February 2012, 北京:科学普及出版社 *

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105830698A (en) * 2016-03-29 2016-08-10 镇远县百福农业科技示范有限公司 Seedling hardening method for sweet potato tissue-cultured test-tube plantlets
CN106613190A (en) * 2016-12-02 2017-05-10 海南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所 Expanding propagation and planting method for ipomoea batatas virus-free seedlings
CN107242001A (en) * 2017-07-05 2017-10-13 海南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所 A kind of detoxification sweet potato potato seed method for culturing seedlings
CN107371746A (en) * 2017-08-25 2017-11-24 石家庄市农林科学研究院 The film of Virus-free Sweetpotato three covers method for culturing seedlings
CN108522191A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-09-14 三明市丰隆农业科技有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of sweet potato
CN110972860A (en) * 2019-12-05 2020-04-10 天津丰华裕隆农业发展股份有限公司 Sweet potato seedling raising method with high survival rate
CN111328659A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-06-26 山东省烟台市农业科学研究院 Ultrahigh-temperature greenhouse seedling raising method for sweet potatoes
CN112997830A (en) * 2021-04-22 2021-06-22 台州市农业科学研究院 Sweet potato seedling method by leaving field

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN105248134A (en) Greenhouse breeding cultivation technique for detoxification sweet potato seedlings
CN100418400C (en) Standard planting method of medicinal lycoris radiata
CN105519347A (en) Organic cultivation method based on rotation of autumn melons, vegetable broad beans, rice and water chestnuts
CN102972188B (en) Greenhouse cultivation method for small-size watermelons
CN108207506A (en) A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and cordate houttuynia
CN105993485A (en) Strawberry production method
CN103155906A (en) Aphidoletes aphidimyza mass reproduction technology and application technology
CN102037833A (en) Technology and method for cultivating organic water melons
CN104350902A (en) Rhubarb planting method
CN102986437A (en) Method for cultivating radix zanthoxyli artificially
CN103202153B (en) A kind of implantation methods of the anti-soft rot of konjaku
CN105613024A (en) Organic cultivation and rotation method for watermelons, rice and water chestnuts in spring and summer
CN105766298A (en) Crop rotation organic cultivation method for summer and autumn watermelons, vegetable broad beans, rice and chufas
CN1689395A (en) Greenhouse seedlings raising and plastic mulching cultivation techniques for large-leaf gentian root
CN109122142A (en) A kind of implantation methods of organic paddy rice
CN107173054A (en) A kind of method into age plantation cultivation under woods Stropharia rugoso-annulata
CN105191625A (en) Pollution-free high-yield cultivation method for sweet corn
CN101755583A (en) Anti-season culture technology and method of organic watermelons
CN106258421A (en) A kind of rice field-upland field rotation organic cultivation method of precocious Fructus Solani melongenae
CN105794429A (en) An eggplant planting method
CN106233997A (en) A kind of rice field-upland field rotation organic cultivation method of long season Fructus Capsici
CN104025824A (en) High-yield cultivation method for broad beans
CN102972189A (en) Greenhouse cultivation method for small-size watermelons
CN105612969A (en) Chili high-yield cultivation method
CN105638146A (en) Lettuce cultivation method

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
C06 Publication
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
C10 Entry into substantive examination
RJ01 Rejection of invention patent application after publication

Application publication date: 20160120

RJ01 Rejection of invention patent application after publication