CN104718941B - Selenium-rich fruit and vegetable interplanting method - Google Patents

Selenium-rich fruit and vegetable interplanting method Download PDF

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CN104718941B
CN104718941B CN201510104739.1A CN201510104739A CN104718941B CN 104718941 B CN104718941 B CN 104718941B CN 201510104739 A CN201510104739 A CN 201510104739A CN 104718941 B CN104718941 B CN 104718941B
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ryegrass
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soil
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王寿南
胡齐放
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胡齐放
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention relates to a selenium-rich fruit and vegetable interplanting method, in particular to a method for jointly planting osmunda japonica and loquat in hillside forest lands, which specifically comprises the following operation steps: the method comprises the steps of reforming a hillside forest land, planting loquat and osmunda japonica, pruning and fertilizing loquat, cultivating osmunda japonica, and fertilizing, irrigating and cultivating osmunda japonica. According to the technical scheme, the yield and the quality of the osmunda japonica can be remarkably improved, the osmunda japonica can be picked every year after the third year, the yield of the loquat which is interplanted is high, and the agricultural economic benefit is improved.

Description

Selenium-rich fruit and vegetable interplanting method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of agricultural production, in particular to a selenium-rich fruit and vegetable interplanting method.
Background
Osmunda japonica, named Zijiu, belongs to perennial ferns and is widely available in Dabie mountain areas. The osmunda japonica is rich in protein, vitamins, potassium, calcium, scales and other trace elements, can be made into delicious dishes, has the effects of resisting cancer, clearing heat, detoxifying, losing weight, beautifying and the like, has an obvious inhibiting effect on viruses such as influenza, Japanese encephalitis and the like, is a vegetable which is exported for a long time and sold overseas, and is particularly exported to Japan.
At present, osmunda japonica is mostly collected in the field, although local experiments and manual planting are also available, the yield is low, the collected osmunda japonica stems are thin, the quality is poor, and the osmunda japonica withers or does not bud again after being picked for one or two years.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a selenium-rich fruit and vegetable interplanting method which can effectively solve the problems, and is high in yield, thick and strong in osmunda japonica thunb, good in quality, capable of being picked for a long time and free of yield reduction.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a selenium-rich fruit and vegetable interplanting method is a method for jointly planting osmunda japonica and loquat in hillside forest lands, and specifically comprises the following operation steps:
s1: the land of the hillside forest is prepared into a step shape, each planting land after the land preparation is respectively arranged along the contour line of the hillside, the outer side of the slope surface between the adjacent planting lands adopts stones to build a dam bank, the middle part of each planting land is provided with a ditch, the ditch is arranged along the length direction of the planting land and is internally provided with partitions at intervals along the length direction, the partitions divide the ditch into water tanks, the partitions at the two ends of each water tank are respectively provided with a first water flowing port and a second water flowing port, the wall of the outer side of each water tank is provided with a third water flowing port, the height of the third water flowing port on the same water tank is consistent with the height of the water flowing port with the lower height in the first water flowing port and the second water flowing port, the partitions and the third water flowing ports on the adjacent water tanks are respectively arranged in an interval staggered manner, the water tank at the top of the land of the hillside forest is connected with a water supply device, the outer side of the upper part of the dam bank, the water outlet direction of the water spray holes/nozzles obliquely points to the side wall of the dam ridge, the ditch divides a planting field into a first planting field and a second planting field, the first planting field is formed by filling and shaping improved soil, the improved soil is dry field soil, peat soil and fire fertile soil which are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 0.5:1: 0.2-0.8: 1:0.4, the dry field soil is rice field soil taken after the paddy field is drained and sunned for 3-6 months, crops are not sown during the sunning period and the soil is turned over for 2-3 times, and the fire fertile soil is fire ash formed by burning straws, branches and leaves and weeds and forest land soil (native soil of mountain slope forest lands) which are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 1: 2-3;
s2: digging a planting hole with the depth of 0.6m in a second planting field at the end of the first autumn, putting 1.5kg of weeds in the planting hole, compacting by using 0.2kg of lime, 2.0kg of livestock manure and 1.0kg of cake manure, covering a mulching film for thoroughly decomposing, withdrawing the mulching film after thoroughly decomposing, turning and spreading the fertilizers in the planting hole, planting dwarf loquat seedlings in the planting hole at the end of the first winter or in the beginning of the first spring, thoroughly watering the loquat seedlings by using water, watering the loquat seedlings at intervals by using first-stage thin fertilizer water twice after the loquat seedlings are green and mature in the year, watering the loquat seedlings twice at intervals by 20 days after the two times of watering, wherein the first-stage thin fertilizer water contains 2% of urea and 0.5% of potassium chloride, and is respectively pumped slightly in spring, summer, autumn and winter, and flowering and then thinning; planting artificially-propagated/wild osmunda seedlings on a first planting land at intervals in autumn of the same year, wherein the artificial-propagated/wild osmunda seedlings are close to the bottom of a dam ridge, irrigating water in a ditch, the height of the water surface in the ditch is 12-17 cm lower than the height of the ground surface of the first planting land, stopping irrigation after frost fall, and covering a layer of leaves on the ground surface of the first planting land;
s3: irrigating after the frightened dormancy in the second year, starting bud buds of the osmunda japonica in 4-5 months, opening water spraying holes/nozzles at night after the bud buds for spraying/atomizing for 3-5 min every day, and not picking the osmunda japonica in the first year; after green and mature young tips of the loquats in spring turn to green, applying fertilizers twice at intervals by using second-level thin fertilizer water, wherein the interval between the two-level fertilizer water is 20 days, the second-level thin fertilizer water contains 5% of urea and 1% of potassium chloride, trimming and pulling the loquats to enable the loquat crowns to be round-headed, the angle between a main branch and a main rod is 50-55 degrees, thinning flowers after blooming, applying poultry manure and compound fertilizers once in autumn in the second year, wherein the application amount of the poultry manure is 500-800 kg/mu, and the application amount of the compound fertilizers is 200-250 kg/mu; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in 8-month late year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate seed for 4-4.5 h to 1kg of seeds before sowing ryegrass seeds, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, mixing the soaked ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fat soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, harvesting for the second time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, covering the harvested forage grass and leaves on the ground surfaces of the first and second planting fields, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the second time, and stopping irrigation after frost fall;
s4: from the third year onwards, the following operations are repeated each year: irrigating after the frightening, applying a bud-assisting fertilizer to the osmunda japonica in 3 and 4 months, opening a water spraying hole/nozzle at night after bud buds for spraying/fog spraying for 3-5 min, picking the osmunda japonica 3-4 times in 4-5 months, after the spring end loquat is newly born, slightly green and mature, watering the loquat with three-level thin fertilizer water at intervals for two times, wherein the interval between the two watering is 20d, the three-level thin fertilizer water contains 8% of urea and 1.5% of potassium chloride, pruning and pulling the loquat tree to ensure that the angle between the main branch and the main rod of the new loquat is 50-55 degrees, thinning the flower after blooming, applying a fruit tree water-flushing fertilizer in the early stage of loquat fruit expansion, and spraying an organic selenium fertilizer in the end stage of loquat fruit expansion; picking deviceRespectively applying livestock manure and a compound fertilizer once after fruits and in autumn, wherein the application amount of the livestock manure is 500-800 kg/mu each time, and the application amount of the compound fertilizer is 200-250 kg/mu each time; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in 8-month late year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate seed for 4-4.5 h to 1kg of seeds before sowing ryegrass seeds, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, mixing the soaked ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fat soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, harvesting for the second time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, covering the harvested forage grass and leaves on the ground surfaces of the first and second planting fields, and leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the second time; stopping irrigation after frost, wherein the germination-assisting fertilizer is prepared by mixing fire-fat soil and human urine/urea;
the livestock manure is feces collected by feeding livestock; pulverizing and mixing sorghum, wheat and soybean according to a mass ratio of 6:3:1 to prepare a fermentation substrate, uniformly mixing yeast selenium and the fermentation substrate according to a mass ratio of 1:5, adding water, fermenting at 28 ℃ for 70 days, mixing the fermented product with feed for feeding livestock and poultry, and collecting the feces of the livestock and poultry.
The planting of the osmunda japonica is mainly the control of water and fertilizer, and the osmunda japonica prefers water and is fond of yin but is afraid of waterlogging and extremely harsh on growing soil. The invention can uniformly irrigate the whole hillside forest land by the irrigation system formed by the water ditch through the reformation of the hillside forest land, meanwhile, the water level in the ditch is controlled to be 12-17 cm lower than the ground surface of the first planting field, the water-loving irrigation of the osmunda japonica is guaranteed, the waterlogging does not occur, the osmunda japonica is planted close to the bottom of the dam ridge, the planting effect is far better than that of flat ground, the osmunda japonica is influenced by the dam ridge, so that the newly-emerged stems and leaves grow to the side far away from the dam bank, the phytohormone in the stems and leaves stimulates the roots to sprout more spores, the yield is improved, meanwhile, the arrangement of the dam banks can prevent water flow above the first planting field from flowing from the ground surface of the first planting field and permeating into the ditch from the lower part of the first planting field, prevent the osmunda japonica from waterlogging, in addition, the dam ridge built by the stones can play a role in fixing at the initial stage of forest land transformation, and prevents landslide from causing damage to the mountain slopes and forest lands in rainy seasons; the water spraying holes/nozzles spray in a short time at night to simulate a rainy day, so that part of rainwater is sprayed on the osmunda japonica buds sparsely, the growth of the osmunda japonica buds is promoted, and the osmunda japonica buds are thicker; meanwhile, the prepared improved soil is matched with the optimal requirement of growth of the osmunda japonica in acidity and fertilizer cultivation, so that the osmunda japonica is thicker and stronger, the ryegrass can grow luxuriantly on the soil quality of the first planting field, the harvested ryegrass and leaves are covered, the osmunda japonica can better live through the winter, the osmunda japonica spores in the next year are guaranteed, the ryegrass and the leaves are rotten, the fertility of the first planting field can be well supplemented and the acidity can be adjusted by applying the bud-assisting fertilizer, and the osmunda japonica can be picked every year.
In addition, the survival rate of the loquat trees planted by the scheme is 100%, the loquat trees are green leaves all the year round, and the shaded fence is formed on the periphery of the osmunda japonica, so that the requirement of the osmunda japonica on the growth environment is met, and the period of the whole forest land transformation is shortened. In addition, the combined planting of loquat and osmunda japonica can improve the economic benefit of vegetable planting. Dwarfing loquat seedlings can be directly purchased from seedling raising plants and can be quickly grown, meanwhile, the fertilizer decomposed in advance can guarantee the nutrient requirement of the loquat seedlings and prevent the organic fertilizer from decomposing to burn the roots of the loquat seedlings, the fertilizer application which changes year by year is set according to the growth requirements of the loquat seedlings in different periods, the loquat seedlings are survived in the first year and need low-concentration fertilizer to be watered with fertilizer and all flowers are thinned, the loquat seedlings are sound in the second year and need medium-concentration fertilizer to be watered with fertilizer and 90% of flowers are thinned, the loquat yield is guaranteed in the third year and later, and the higher-concentration fertilizer is needed to be watered with fertilizer and 20-30% of flowers are thinned. In addition, the dwarfed loquat reduces the labor intensity of flower thinning, fruit thinning, bagging and harvesting of the loquat, and simultaneously ensures the reasonable shade of the osmunda japonica.
Certainly, the main functions of the factors are simply explained, the high-yield osmunda japonica thunb can be picked at high yield every year through the mutual coordination of the factors, and the picked osmunda japonica thunb is thick and strong and has good quality.
The detailed scheme is as follows:
the height of the dam ridge is 60-80 cm, the filling thickness of the improved soil is 30-35 cm, a sandy soil layer is arranged on the lower side of the filling layer of the improved soil, the bottom of the dam ridge extends into the sandy soil layer, and the height of the ground surface of the second planting field is 20-25 cm higher than that of the first planting field. And after the second year, tea trees can be planted on the second planting land, and the tea trees are positioned on the inner sides of the loquat trees and are arranged at intervals in a staggered mode. The improved soil is prepared by mixing dry land soil, peat soil and topsoil according to the weight ratio of 0.5:1:0.2, and the bud-promoting fertilizer is prepared by 50kg of topsoil and 10L of urine of human. The dwarf loquat branches are luxuriant as if a fence is formed outside the ditch, and at the moment, larger tea seedlings are planted inside the ditch, so that tea trees like yin, the tea trees can well grow, multiple crops are interplanted, and the whole economic benefit is improved.
In addition, the selenium-rich fertilizer obtained by mixing, compacting and composting the livestock and poultry manure rich in organic selenium with weeds, lime and cake fertilizer and the application of the organic selenium fertilizer in the fruit expansion period can effectively absorb the organic selenium by the loquats, so that the selenium content in the loquats is more than three times of that of common loquats, and the loquats become health-care fruits. The fruit tree water flush fertilizer is used before the organic selenium fertilizer, can effectively promote the absorption of the fruit tree on the organic selenium fertilizer, and can also achieve the effects of color increasing, sweetening, strong disease resistance, fruit cracking prevention, early ripening, mellow fruit, storage resistance and the like.
Above-mentioned technical scheme can show output and the quality that improves the osmunda japonica thunb, and can both pick the osmunda japonica thunb annually after the third year, and the loquat of planting simultaneously also can realize the high yield, improves peasant's economic benefits.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of a slope surface provided with a ditch;
fig. 2 is a schematic sectional view of the slope.
Detailed Description
In order that the objects and advantages of the invention will be more clearly understood, the following description is given in conjunction with the accompanying examples. It is to be understood that the following text is merely illustrative of one or more specific embodiments of the invention and does not strictly limit the scope of the invention as specifically claimed.
The following examples 1 to 2 are carried out in a cool wind farm (Yuexi county lotus village cool wind group) jointly developed by Anqingwan Chimu agricultural science and technology limited company, Uygur lake Hengnuo energy technology limited company and Yuexi county Hongsheng agricultural science and technology limited company, wherein the spores are tender white spores emitted from roots of osmunda japonica, the spores are picked after growing into the osmunda japonica, dilute excrement water is prepared by mixing human urine and 2 times of water, and the urea water is prepared from 100 to 200g of urea and 1L of water. In the following examples 1 and 2, the specific application amount of the fertilizer, which is not specified, can be determined by those skilled in the art according to the effect and the application period of the fertilizer, so as to ensure the reliable planting of crops. In the present invention, the percentages of the components are mass concentrations unless otherwise specified.
The fruit tree water flush fertilizer applied in the early stage of the loquat fruit expansion period is water flush fertilizer for Yunzheng brand fruit trees produced by Zhengzhou Yunzhui agriculture science and technology limited company, the application method is that 800-fold water flush drip irrigation is diluted and 1200-fold water flush drip irrigation is carried out, and 1.5 kilograms of water flush is carried out by a dropper per mu; the organic selenium fertilizer sprayed at the end of the expanding period of the loquat fruits is selenium source brand organic selenium fertilizer produced by modern agriculture and technology limited company of Anhui selenium, the application method of the organic selenium fertilizer is to dilute 500 times of liquid, uniformly spray the liquid on the leaves of crops, and spray the liquid twice at intervals, wherein each time is 7 days; the spraying amount is determined according to the tree form and the tree age, the tree form and the tree age are large, the spraying amount is correspondingly increased, and generally 1L-1.5L per mu is obtained. Certainly, the fruit tree water flush fertilizer and the organic selenium fertilizer produced by other companies can be used, and the same effect is achieved. The livestock manure is feces collected by feeding livestock; pulverizing and mixing sorghum, wheat and soybean according to a mass ratio of 6:3:1 to prepare a fermentation substrate, uniformly mixing yeast selenium and the fermentation substrate according to a mass ratio of 1:5, adding water, fermenting at 28 ℃ for 70 days, mixing the fermented product with feed for feeding livestock and poultry, and collecting the feces of the livestock and poultry.
Example 1
The method comprises the steps of building a fire line on a selected mountain slope forest land to smelt the mountain, burning the land thoroughly on a sunny day, shoveling tree roots and grass roots after burning the land, preparing the mountain slope forest land into a step shape, respectively arranging planting lands 11 after preparation along the contour lines of the mountain slope, adopting stones to stack dam banks 12 outside the slope surface between the adjacent planting lands 11, arranging a ditch 13 in the middle of each planting land 11, arranging water ditches 13 along the length direction of the planting lands 11, arranging partition sections 131 in the water ditches 13 along the length direction, dividing the water ditches 13 into water tanks by the partition sections 131, respectively arranging a first water flowing port 132 and a second water flowing port 132 on the partition sections 131 at two ends of each water tank, arranging a third water flowing port 133 on the wall of the outer side of each water tank, keeping the height of the third water flowing port 133 on the same water tank consistent with the height of the water flowing port with the lower height of the first water flowing port and the second water flowing port 132 (if the height of the first water flowing port is lower than the height, the height of the third water flowing port 133 is consistent with that of the first water flowing port), the partitions 131 on the adjacent ditches 13 are arranged in a staggered manner at intervals, the third water flowing ports 133 on the adjacent ditches 13 are arranged in a staggered manner at intervals, the top ditches 13 of the hillside forest land are connected with a water supply device, the outer side of the upper part of the dam ridge 12 is provided with horizontal spray pipes 14, the pipe bodies of the spray pipes 14 are provided with spray holes at intervals, the water outlet directions of the spray holes are obliquely directed to the side wall of the dam ridge 12, the ditches 13 divide the planting field 11 into a first planting field 111 positioned at the inner side of the ditches 13 and a second planting field 112 positioned at the outer side of the ditches 13, the first planting field 111 is filled and prepared by adopting improved soil, the improved soil is dry field soil, peat soil and burnt soil are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 0.5:1:0.2, the dry field soil is rice field soil taken after the water of the rice field is drained and the rice field is sunned for 3-6 times, crops are not sowed during the sunn, the fire-fertile soil is prepared by mixing fire ash formed by burning straws, branches and leaves and weeds with forest land soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 2; the height of the dam ridge 12 is 60-80 cm, the filling thickness of the improved soil is 30-35 cm, a sandy soil layer 15 is arranged on the lower side of the filling layer of the improved soil, the bottom of the dam ridge 12 extends into the sandy soil layer 15, the width of the first planting field 111 is 30-40 cm, the width of the second planting field 112 is 1-1.2 m, and the height of the ground surface of the second planting field is 20-25 cm higher than that of the first planting field;
digging a planting hole with the depth of 0.6m in a second planting area 112 at the end of the first autumn, putting 1.5kg of weeds in the planting hole, then compacting by using 0.2kg of lime, 2.0kg of livestock manure and 1.0kg of cake fertilizer, covering a mulching film for thoroughly decomposing, withdrawing the mulching film after thoroughly decomposing, turning and spreading the fertilizer in the planting hole, planting a dwarfed loquat seedling 11b in the planting hole at the end of the first winter or in the beginning of the current spring, thoroughly watering with water, watering with first-stage dilute fertilizer water twice at intervals after the loquat extracts new tips, turns green and matures, watering with the first-stage dilute fertilizer water at intervals for 20 days, wherein the first-stage dilute fertilizer water contains 2% of urea and 0.5% of potassium chloride, and the loquat, respectively slightly blooms in the spring, the summer, the autumn and the winter and then all is removed; planting the artificially propagated osmund seedlings 11a at intervals on the first planting field 111 close to the bottom of the dam bank 12 in autumn of the same year, wherein the width of a planting hole is 20-25 cm, the planting hole is 20 multiplied by 20cm, the seedlings are planted according to the planting distance of 15cm, when the seedlings are transplanted, the osmund seedlings 11a are transplanted with soil without damaging root systems, after the seedlings are planted, root water is poured, the water is poured into the ditch 13, the water surface height in the ditch 13 is 12-17 cm lower than the ground surface height of the first planting field 111, after frost falls, the irrigation is stopped, a layer of leaves is laid on the ground surface of the first planting field 111, and the fallen leaves of the mixed trees and the pine needles can be selected for laying;
irrigating after the frightened dormancy in the second year, starting bud buds of the osmunda japonica in 4-5 months, opening water spray holes at night every day after the bud buds for spraying for 3-5 min, topdressing and seedling lifting by using diluted liquid dung or urea water before and after the spores, and not picking the osmunda japonica in the first year by using the bud buds; after the young tips of the loquats turn green and mature in spring, fertilizing twice at intervals by using second-level thin fertilizer water, wherein the fertilizer is applied at intervals of 20d, the second-level thin fertilizer water contains 5% of urea and 1% of potassium chloride, trimming and pulling the loquats 11b to enable the crowns of the loquats 11b to be round, the angle between a main branch and a main rod to be 50-55 degrees, pulling the pulling piece down along the reverse direction of the growth of the branches by using a flexible rope, fixing the other end of the flexible rope by using a bamboo stick inserted on the ground, adjusting the angle between the main branch and a trunk to be 50-55 degrees, and after the branches are formed, releasing the flexible rope; removing 90% of flowers after blooming, and applying poultry manure and compound fertilizer once in autumn in the next year, wherein the application amount of the poultry manure is 500-800 kg/mu, and the application amount of the compound fertilizer is 200-250 kg/mu; broadcasting ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in 8-month late year, and before sowing ryegrass seeds2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate are added into each 1kg of seeds for soaking the seeds for 4-4.5 hours, the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquor, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquor6000.8-1.0, mixing the soaked ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fat soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, harvesting for the second time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, covering the harvested forage grass and leaves on the ground surfaces of the first and second planting fields, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the second time, and stopping irrigation after frost fall;
from the third year onwards, the following operations are repeated each year: irrigating after the frightening, applying a bud-helping fertilizer to the osmunda japonica in 3 and 4 months, topdressing and seedling lifting by using diluted liquid manure or urea water before or after spores, opening water spray holes at night every day after buds are sprayed for 3-5 min, picking the osmunda japonica 3-4 times in 4-5 months, not damaging roots during picking, and applying the diluted liquid manure once after each picking; after the newly born loquat turns green slightly and matures in spring end, fertilizer is applied twice at intervals by using three-level thin fertilizer water, the interval between the two fertilizer application is 20d, the three-level thin fertilizer water contains 8% of urea and 1.5% of potassium chloride, the loquat tree 11b is trimmed and pulled, the angle between the main branch of the newly born loquat and the main rod is 50-55 degrees, flower thinning is carried out after blooming, fruit tree flushing fertilizer is applied at the early stage of the loquat fruit expansion period, and organic selenium fertilizer is sprayed at the end of the loquat fruit expansion period; respectively applying livestock manure and a compound fertilizer once after picking fruits and in autumn, wherein the application amount of the livestock manure is 500-800 kg/mu each time, and the application amount of the compound fertilizer is 200-250 kg/mu each time; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in 8-month late year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate seed for 4-4.5 h to 1kg of seeds before sowing ryegrass seeds, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, the rye grass seeds after seed soaking are mixed with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fertilized soil for sowing, the sowing amount per mu of the rye grass seeds is 0.8kg,the method comprises the steps of harvesting ryegrass for the first time when the ryegrass grows to be 40-45 cm high as farm and animal forage, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, harvesting for the second time when the ryegrass grows to be 35-40 cm high again, covering the harvested forage and leaves on the ground surfaces of a first planting field and a second planting field, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the second time, stopping irrigation after frost fall, and preparing a bud-aid fertilizer from 50kg of fire fertile soil and 10L of human urine storage liquid.
Example 2
The method comprises the steps of building a fire line on a selected mountain slope forest land to smelt the mountain, burning the land thoroughly on a sunny day, shoveling tree roots and grass roots after burning the land, preparing the mountain slope forest land into a step shape, respectively arranging planting lands 11 after preparation along the contour lines of the mountain slope, adopting stones to stack dam banks 12 outside the slope surface between the adjacent planting lands 11, arranging a ditch 13 in the middle of each planting land 11, arranging water ditches 13 along the length direction of the planting lands 11, arranging partition sections 131 in the water ditches 13 along the length direction, dividing the water ditches 13 into water tanks by the partition sections 131, respectively arranging a first water flowing port 132 and a second water flowing port 132 on the partition sections 131 at two ends of each water tank, arranging a third water flowing port 133 on the wall of the outer side of each water tank, keeping the height of the third water flowing port 133 on the same water tank consistent with the height of the water flowing port with the lower height of the first water flowing port and the second water flowing port 132 (if the height of the first water flowing port is lower than the height, the height of the third water flowing port 133 is consistent with that of the first water flowing port), the partitions 131 on the adjacent ditches 13 are arranged in a staggered manner at intervals, the third water flowing ports 133 on the adjacent ditches 13 are arranged in a staggered manner at intervals, the top ditches 13 of the mountain slope forest land are connected with a water supply device, the outer sides of the upper parts of the dam ridges 12 are provided with water spraying pipes 14 which are arranged transversely, the pipe bodies of the water spraying pipes 14 are provided with spray heads at intervals, the water outlet directions of the spray heads are obliquely directed to the side walls of the dam ridges 12, the ditches 13 divide the planting field 11 into a first planting field 111 positioned on the inner side of the ditches 13 and a second planting field 112 positioned on the outer side of the ditches 13, the first planting field 111 is formed by filling and shaping improved soil, the improved soil is dry field soil, peat soil and burnt soil which are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 0.8:1:0.4, the dry field soil is taken after the paddy field is drained and the paddy field is sunned for 3-6 months, crops are not sowed in, the fire-fertile soil is prepared by mixing fire ash burnt by straws, branches and leaves and weeds with forest land soil (the native soil of a mountain slope forest land) according to the weight ratio of 1: 3; the height of the dam ridge 12 is 60-80 cm, the filling thickness of the improved soil is 30-35 cm, a sandy soil layer is arranged on the lower side of the filling layer of the improved soil, the bottom of the dam ridge 12 extends into the sandy soil layer, the width of the first planting field 111 is 30-40 cm, and the width of the second planting field 112 is 1-1.2 m;
digging a planting hole with the depth of 0.6m in a second planting area 112 at the end of the first autumn, putting 1.5kg of weeds in the planting hole, then compacting by using 0.2kg of lime, 2.0kg of livestock manure and 1.0kg of cake manure, covering a mulching film for thoroughly decomposing, withdrawing the mulching film after thoroughly decomposing, turning and spreading the fertilizers in the planting hole, planting dwarf loquat 11b seedlings 11b in the planting hole at the end of the first winter or in the beginning of the first spring, thoroughly watering with water, watering with first-stage dilute fertilizer water twice at intervals after the fresh tips of the loquat grow out to turn green and mature in the year, watering with the interval of 20 days between the two times of watering, wherein the first-stage dilute fertilizer water contains 2% of urea and 0.5% of potassium chloride, respectively watering once in the spring, the summer, the autumn and the winter, and completely removing after blooming; planting the artificially propagated osmund seedlings 11a at intervals on the first planting field 111 close to the bottom of the dam bank 12 in autumn of the same year, wherein the width of a planting hole is 20-25 cm, the planting hole is 20 multiplied by 20cm, the seedlings are planted according to the planting distance of 15cm, when the seedlings are transplanted, the osmund seedlings 11a are transplanted with soil without damaging root systems, after the seedlings are planted, root water is poured, the water is poured into the ditch 13, the water surface height in the ditch 13 is 12-17 cm lower than the ground surface height of the first planting field 111, after frost falls, the irrigation is stopped, a layer of leaves is laid on the ground surface of the first planting field 111, and the fallen leaves of the mixed trees and the pine needles can be selected for laying;
irrigating after the frightened dormancy in the second year, starting bud buds of the osmunda japonica in 4-5 months, opening water spray holes at night every day after the bud buds for spraying for 3-5 min, topdressing and seedling lifting by using diluted liquid dung or urea water before and after the spores, and not picking the osmunda japonica in the first year by using the bud buds; after the young loquat spring shoots turn green and mature, fertilizer is applied twice at intervals by using second-stage diluted fertilizer water, the interval between the two-stage fertilizer application is 20d, the second-stage diluted fertilizer water contains 5% of urea and 1% of potassium chloride, the loquat 11b is trimmed and pulled to enable the crowns of the loquat 11b to be round-head-shaped, the angle between the main branch and the main rod is 50-55 degrees, and the pulling is performed by using a flexible rope along the branchesPulling down the strips in the opposite direction of growth, fixing the other ends of the flexible ropes by using bamboo sticks inserted on the ground, adjusting the angle between the main branches and the trunk to be 50-55 degrees, and after the branches are formed, releasing the flexible ropes; removing 90% of flowers after blooming, and applying poultry manure and compound fertilizer once in autumn in the next year, wherein the application amount of the poultry manure is 500-800 kg/mu, and the application amount of the compound fertilizer is 200-250 kg/mu; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in 8-month late year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate seed for 4-4.5 h to 1kg of seeds before sowing ryegrass seeds, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid6000.8-1.0, mixing the soaked ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-fat soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, harvesting for the second time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, covering the harvested forage grass and leaves on the ground surfaces of the first and second planting fields, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the second time, and stopping irrigation after frost fall;
from the third year onwards, the following operations are repeated each year: irrigating after the frightening, applying a bud-helping fertilizer to the osmunda japonica in 3 and 4 months, topdressing and seedling lifting by using diluted liquid manure or urea water before or after spores, opening water spray holes at night every day after buds are sprayed for 3-5 min, picking the osmunda japonica 3-4 times in 4-5 months, not damaging roots during picking, and applying the diluted liquid manure once after each picking; after the newly born loquat turns green slightly and matures in spring end, fertilizer is applied twice at intervals by using three-level thin fertilizer water, the interval between the two fertilizer application is 20d, the three-level thin fertilizer water contains 8% of urea and 1.5% of potassium chloride, the loquat tree 11b is trimmed and pulled, the angle between the main branch of the newly born loquat and the main rod is 50-55 degrees, flower thinning is carried out after blooming, fruit tree flushing fertilizer is applied at the early stage of the loquat fruit expansion period, and organic selenium fertilizer is sprayed at the end of the loquat fruit expansion period; respectively applying livestock manure and a compound fertilizer once after picking fruits and in autumn, wherein the application amount of the livestock manure is 500-800 kg/mu each time, and the application amount of the compound fertilizer is 200-250 kg/mu each time; first, theSowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in 8-month late two years, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to soak seeds for 4-4.5 h before sowing ryegrass seeds, wherein the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid is prepared by diluting 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquor, and OD in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquor6000.8-1.0, mixing the soaked ryegrass seeds with 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire-rich soil, sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of the ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting the ryegrass for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm to be used as agricultural and livestock forage grass, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when harvesting for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, harvesting the ryegrass for the second time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, covering the harvested forage grass and leaves on the ground surfaces of a first planting field and a second planting field, leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when harvesting for the second time, stopping irrigation after frost fall, dissolving the urea by using water according to the weight ratio of 100:5, and mixing and preparing the urea with the fire-rich soil before preparation.
In the above examples 1 and 2, the planting amount of the osmunda japonica is 2000-2500 plants per mu, 330 kg of fresh osmunda japonica is produced per mu per year, the length of the picked fresh osmunda japonica is 15-20 cm, the root diameter of the root of the fresh osmunda japonica is 0.8-1.2 cm, and the fibrosis degree of the fresh osmunda japonica is low.
The method is characterized by being used for planting the fresh osmunda japonica thunb in the traditional flat ground, wherein the planting amount of the osmunda japonica thunb per mu is 4500-6000, 300 kilograms of fresh osmunda japonica thunb are produced per mu in each year, the length of the picked fresh osmunda japonica thunb is 15-20 cm, the root diameter of the root of the fresh osmunda japonica thunb is 0.3-0.6 cm, and the surface fibrosis degree of the fresh osmunda japonica thunb is.
In addition, in examples 1 and 2, 70 loquat plants are carried in 11b per mu, and 28-35 kg of loquat can be obtained from each loquat plant 11b after the third year, wherein the selenium content in the loquat is more than three times of that in the common loquat.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and it should be noted that those skilled in the art, after learning the present disclosure, can make several equivalent changes and substitutions without departing from the principle of the present invention, and these equivalent changes and substitutions should also be considered as belonging to the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. A selenium-rich fruit and vegetable interplanting method is a method for jointly planting osmunda japonica and loquat in hillside forest lands, and specifically comprises the following operation steps:
s1: the method comprises the steps of preparing hillside forest lands in a stepped manner, arranging planting lands after land preparation along contour lines of hillsides respectively, building dam banks on the outer sides of slopes between adjacent planting lands by adopting stones, arranging ditches in the middle of each planting land, arranging the ditches along the length direction of the planting lands, arranging partition sections in the ditches along the length direction at intervals, dividing the ditches into water tanks by the partition sections, arranging a first water flow port and a second water flow port on the partition sections at two ends of each water tank respectively, arranging a third water flow port on the wall of the outer side of each water tank, keeping the height of the third water flow port on the same water tank consistent with the height of the water flow port with the lower height in the first water flow port and the second water flow port, arranging the third water flow ports on the adjacent ditches in a staggered manner at intervals, connecting the ditches at the tops of the hillside forest lands with a water supply device, arranging water spraying pipes transversely outside the upper parts of the dam banks, and arranging water spraying holes, the water outlet direction of the water spray holes/nozzles obliquely points to the side wall of the dam ridge, the ditch divides a planting field into a first planting field and a second planting field, the first planting field is formed by filling and shaping improved soil, the improved soil is dry field soil, peat soil and fire fertile soil which are mixed and prepared according to the weight ratio of 0.5-0.8: 1: 0.2-0.4, the dry field soil is rice field soil taken after the paddy field drains water and is exposed to the sun for 3-6 months, crops are not sown during the period of exposure to the sun and are turned over for 2-3 times, and the fire fertile soil is prepared by mixing ash formed by burning straws, branches and leaves and weeds and forest soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 2-3;
s2: digging a planting hole with the depth of 0.6m in a second planting field at the end of the first autumn, putting 1.5kg of weeds in the planting hole, compacting by using 0.2kg of lime, 2.0kg of livestock manure and 1.0kg of cake manure, covering a mulching film for thoroughly decomposing, withdrawing the mulching film after thoroughly decomposing, turning and spreading the fertilizers in the planting hole, planting dwarf loquat seedlings in the planting hole at the end of the first winter or in the beginning of the first spring, thoroughly watering the loquat seedlings by using water, watering the loquat seedlings at intervals by using first-stage thin fertilizer water twice after the loquat seedlings are green and mature in the year, watering the loquat seedlings twice at intervals by 20 days after the two times of watering, wherein the first-stage thin fertilizer water contains 2% of urea and 0.5% of potassium chloride, and is respectively pumped slightly in spring, summer, autumn and winter, and flowering and then thinning;
planting artificially-propagated/wild osmunda seedlings on a first planting land at intervals in autumn of the same year, wherein the artificial-propagated/wild osmunda seedlings are close to the bottom of a dam ridge, irrigating water in a ditch, the height of the water surface in the ditch is 12-17 cm lower than the height of the ground surface of the first planting land, stopping irrigation after frost fall, and covering a layer of leaves on the ground surface of the first planting land;
s3: irrigating after the frightened dormancy in the second year, starting bud buds of the osmunda japonica in 4-5 months, opening water spraying holes/nozzles at night after the bud buds for spraying/atomizing for 3-5 min every day, and not picking the osmunda japonica in the first year; after green and mature young tips of the loquats in spring turn to green, applying fertilizers twice at intervals by using second-level thin fertilizer water, wherein the interval between the two-level fertilizer water is 20 days, the second-level thin fertilizer water contains 5% of urea and 1% of potassium chloride, trimming and pulling the loquats to enable the loquat crowns to be round-headed, the angle between a main branch and a main rod is 50-55 degrees, thinning flowers after blooming, applying poultry manure and compound fertilizers once in autumn in the second year, wherein the application amount of the poultry manure is 500-800 kg/mu, and the application amount of the compound fertilizers is 200-250 kg/mu; sowing ryegrass on first and second planting lands in 8-month late year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to soak seeds for 4-4.5 h before sowing ryegrass seeds, diluting bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid by 10 times for bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, wherein OD600 in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid is 0.8-1.0, sowing ryegrass seeds after soaking, mixing 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and 10kg of fire fertile soil, sowing ryegrass seeds per mu, wherein the sowing amount of ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting the ryegrass for the first time when the ryegrass grows to be 40-45 cm in plant height, leaving 5-8 cm in stubble for the first time, promoting tillering and regeneration of ryegrass, harvesting the ryegrass for the second time when the ryegrass grows to be 35-40 cm in plant height, covering harvested grasses and leaves on the ground surfaces of the first and second planting lands, and leaving 1-3 cm in the second time of ryegrass, stopping irrigation after frost;
s4: from the third year onwards, the following operations are repeated each year: irrigating after the eclipta, applying a bud-assisting fertilizer to the osmunda japonica once in 3-4 months, opening a water spraying hole/nozzle to perform spraying/fog spraying for 3-5 min at night after bud germination, picking the osmunda japonica 3-4 times in 4-5 months, watering fertilizers twice at intervals by using three-level thin fertilizer water after the spring end loquat is newly turned green and mature, wherein the intervals between the two fertilizers are 20d, the three-level thin fertilizer water contains 8% of urea and 1.5% of potassium chloride, pruning and pulling the loquat tree to enable the angle between the main branch and the main rod to be 50-55 degrees, thinning the flower after blooming, applying a fruit tree water-flush fertilizer in the early stage of loquat fruit expansion, and spraying an organic selenium fertilizer in the end stage of loquat fruit expansion; respectively applying livestock manure and a compound fertilizer once after picking fruits and in autumn, wherein the application amount of the livestock manure is 500-800 kg/mu each time, and the application amount of the compound fertilizer is 200-250 kg/mu each time; sowing ryegrass on the first and second planting lands in 8-month late year, adding 2kg of bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid and 1.5g of ammonium molybdate to each 1kg of ryegrass seeds before sowing for 4-4.5 h, diluting the bacillus subtilis GB03 bacterial liquid by 10 times of bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid, wherein OD600 in the bacillus subtilis GB03 mother liquid is 0.8-1.0, and each 1kg of ryegrass seeds and 8kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer after seed soaking, uniformly mixing 10kg of topsoil and sowing, wherein the mu sowing amount of ryegrass seeds is 0.8kg, harvesting the ryegrass for the first time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 40-45 cm as pasture for agriculture and livestock, leaving 5-8 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the first time to promote tillering and regeneration of the ryegrass, harvesting the ryegrass for the second time when the ryegrass grows to the height of 35-40 cm again, covering the harvested pasture and leaves on the ground surfaces of the first and second planting fields, and leaving 1-3 cm of stubble when the ryegrass is harvested for the second time; stopping irrigation after frost, wherein the germination-assisting fertilizer is prepared by mixing fire-fat soil and human and animal urine/urea;
the livestock manure is feces collected by feeding livestock; pulverizing and mixing sorghum, wheat and soybean according to a mass ratio of 6:3:1 to prepare a fermentation substrate, uniformly mixing yeast selenium and the fermentation substrate according to a mass ratio of 1:5, adding water, fermenting at 28 ℃ for 70 days, mixing the fermented product with feed for feeding livestock and poultry, and collecting the feces of the livestock and poultry.
2. The method for interplanting selenium-rich fruits and vegetables according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the height of the dam ridge is 60-80 cm, the filling thickness of the improved soil is 30-35 cm, a sandy soil layer is arranged on the lower side of the filling layer of the improved soil, the bottom of the dam ridge extends into the sandy soil layer, and the height of the ground surface of the second planting field is 20-25 cm higher than that of the first planting field.
3. The method for interplanting selenium-rich fruits and vegetables according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the improved soil is prepared by mixing dry land soil, peat soil and fire fertile soil according to the weight ratio of 0.5:1: 0.2.
4. The method for interplanting selenium-rich fruits and vegetables according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the germination-assisting fertilizer is prepared from 50kg of fire-fertilizing soil and 10L of human and animal urine.
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