CN104365431B - The precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in a kind of hillside - Google Patents

The precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in a kind of hillside Download PDF

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CN104365431B
CN104365431B CN201410686585.7A CN201410686585A CN104365431B CN 104365431 B CN104365431 B CN 104365431B CN 201410686585 A CN201410686585 A CN 201410686585A CN 104365431 B CN104365431 B CN 104365431B
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fruit
treelet
bagging
hillside
emerald green
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CN104365431A (en
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李贞海
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Shangli Mengxian Eco-Agriculture Development Co Ltd
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Shangli Mengxian Eco-Agriculture Development Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses the precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in a kind of hillside, it comprises the following steps: choose the smooth planning that the gradient is the hillside between 20-30 degree, treelet is cultivated, science bud picking, rich water quality management, before treelet rudiment, in order to mushroom stem, branch is drawn in beta pruning, before treelet rudiment, 3-4 healthy and strong sproutings are stayed in every strain, all the other all prune away, flower and fruit management: the 3rd year SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING after treelet field planting, pay attention to rich water quality management, the present invention can improve the emerald green hat single fruit weight of pears and exterior quality, improve the mouthfeel of emerald green hat pears, increase the soluble solid content in fruit, greatly reduce generation and the infringement of sick worm of pericarp rust staining, further increase the soluble solid content in fruit, improve the content of emerald green hat pears total reducing sugar amount and VC, decrease the usage amount of chemical fertilizer, different extermination of disease and insect pest mode by stages and trapping lamp with the use of, effectively prevent the generation of multiple damage by disease and insect.

Description

The precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in a kind of hillside
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of fruits and vegetables culture technique, particularly the precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in a kind of hillside.
Background technology
Pear is in rose family pear, and kind about 25 kinds, is distributed in Asia, Europe, the ground such as north African, original China has 14 kinds, and China is one of original center of world's pears, and principal item is divided into Ussurian pear, white pear, Chinese pear, ocean pears 4 systems, but single rate lags behind U.S., the countries such as method, fruit quality is also well below these countries, and pear tree is wide in China's cultivation scope, nineteen ninety-five statistics, theatre area has developed into about 859.95 ten thousand mu, is only second to apple and oranges and tangerines, at the third place at home, now exceed oranges and tangerines, be only second to apple, pears to weather and soil suitability strong, and wherein kingfisher is preced with pears, person " serissa serissoide ", emerald green hat pear Chinese pear system, has relieving cough and reducing sputum, promote the production of body fluid and quench one's thirst, to bring down a fever removing toxic substances, moistening lung is aid digestion, separate sore, the effects such as wine poison are that Popularization And Development is the fastest in recent years for south China, the high-quality jargonel new varieties that area under cultivation is maximum, its remarkable shortcoming be fruit face easily form rust staining, because a variety of causes causes, hillside terrace cropping fails to popularize, China produce kingfisher hat pears on exterior quality also common manifestation be: fruit regularity is poor, fruit is individual less than normal, fruit shape is not just, color and luster is uneven, is easily subject to the infringement of disease worm, and the disease of emerald green hat pears mainly contains rust of pear, fire blast, scab, black spot, Major Pests is aphid, Janus piri, tortrix moth, little carnivorism, pear sucker, coccid, inherent quality shows as: pulp is quite thick, lithocyte is slightly many, soluble solid content is low, local flavor is lighter, mouthfeel is not good enough, in addition, the light tight bagging of current bilayer can not solve the generation of pericarp rust staining completely, and the light-proof material of bagging have impact on pericarp pigment particularly chlorophyllous content and the soluble solid content of emerald green hat pears, in addition, at present, orchard planting adopts common fertilizer top dressing mostly, and present comprehensive ecological garden is generally plant husbandry and aquaculture one, and a large amount of poultry manure fails to be used.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is for overcoming defect of the prior art, the invention provides a kind of kingfisher hat pears high-yield quick being applicable to southern hillside terraced fields and producing, the precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in the fruit hillside that shape is rectified, the thin meat of uniform color, skin is crisp, nutritious, pear juice is fragrant.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: the precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in a kind of hillside, comprises the following steps:
The smooth planning on A, hillside: select sunny, soil is fertile, the gradient is hillside between 20-30 degree, carry out terrace-type and build garden, every layer of transfer is 4 meters;
B, treelet cultivation: in early and middle ten days plantation in late November to December, spacing 4 × 4 meters between total departure main breed, field planting hole dig 1 meter square, often cheat end backfill table soil and add farmyard manure 40 jin, 1 jin, fused calcium magnesium phosphate, composite fertilizer 1 jin and the mixing of 0.5 jin, potash fertilizer, main breed and pollinizers proportioning 4: 1, to breed strain pollinizers every four strain main breeds, pollinizers select snowflake, cropping depth will carry according to the original soil trace of nursery stock, the cultivation of " three bury three step on one carry seedling " simultaneously, after field planting, bottom 1 × 1 meter of plastic film covering treelet;
C, science bud picking: the May of Second Year, the sprouting of determining strain treelet below 50cm is all erased, and 3-4 sprouting is stayed in every strain, as main cultivation of bearing fruit;
D, rich water quality management: before treelet rudiment, in order to mushroom stem: stalk: the marsh gas water after pig manure carries out mixed culture fermentation by weight the ratio of 1.2:0.8:1 topdresses once to treelet, after treelet bud picking in May, topdress once with described marsh gas water again, August, weeding in December are respectively topdressed once with described marsh gas water after loosening the soil
Branch is drawn in E, beta pruning: before treelet rudiment, and 3-4 healthy and strong sproutings are stayed in every strain, and all the other all prune away, and remaining branch draws branch in June by east, south, west, north four direction, and branch angle is 45-50 degree;
F, flower and fruit management: the 3rd year SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING after treelet field planting, pay attention to rich water quality management, florescence spray concentration is the borax of 0.2-0.3 ﹪, within after fallen flowers about 10 days, carry out vegetables and fruits, flower amount is many, the suitable early vegetables and fruits of tree that tree vigo(u)r is weak: flower amount is few, suitable vegetables and fruits or few vegetables and fruits late that growing way is prosperous, be that 20 ~ 25:1 carries out vegetables and fruits by leaf-fruit ratio, bagging, casing material is selected: adopt the white interior paper yellow of outer paper wax, the double layer light transmission bagging of light transmittance 18.8%, the bagging date: need after Sheng is spent bagging in 25-40 day, bagging time: carry out after drying up by dew in the morning, avoid the noon at sunlight exposure, the morning, the fruit of body southwestward set by 9:00-10:30 cover, afternoon, 14:30-17:30 overlapped the fruit relative to bagging in morning direction, tree crown top and the exposed fruit of skeleton branch back should overlap less, bagging order is first up and then down, from inside outwards,
G, the extermination of disease and insect pest: when late Febuary, perula loosened, carry out overall sterilization with Baume 5 degree of lime sulfurs.Before early March is bloomed, doubly embroider with 25 ﹪ powder Wettable Powder 2000 times would rather mix sterilization with 50 ﹪ thiophanate methyls 800.Before the middle ten days in April bagging, used in combination with 25 8000 times, arsenic worm phosphorus with 80 ﹪ large raw M-45 wetting powder 800-1000 times.After May bagging, doubly used in combination with 50 ﹪ missible oil 1000-2000 times with 25 ﹪ carbendazol wettable powders 250.June, fruit expanding period, doubly used in combination with 20 ﹪ fenpropathrin milk oil 2000 times with 70 ﹪ mancozeb wettable powders 1000.In addition, 1 electronic insect-killing agent is installed in every 3 mu of full garden, carries out omnidistance green non-pollution desinsection, to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: compare current kingfisher hat pear cultivation method, 1, the delicate fragrance generally adopted at present is abandoned, the bold snowflake in the north that adopts does pollinizers, the emerald green hat single fruit weight of pears and exterior quality can be improved, improve the mouthfeel of emerald green hat pears, increase the soluble solid content in fruit; 2, improve current light tight bagging methods, greatly reduce generation and the infringement of sick worm of pericarp rust staining, further increase the soluble solid content in fruit; 3, the natural pond liquid of Appropriate application pig manure water by fermentation, improves the content of emerald green hat pears total reducing sugar amount and VC, decreases the usage amount of chemical fertilizer; 4, different extermination of disease and insect pest mode by stages and trapping lamp with the use of, effectively prevent the generation of multiple damage by disease and insect.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is hillside terraced fields kingfisher hat pear cultivation distribution schematic diagram,
Fig. 2 is field planting hole covering with plastic film schematic diagram,
Fig. 3 is main breed and pollinizers distribution schematic diagram,
Fig. 4 is that fixed pole draws a schematic diagram,
Fig. 5 is vegetables and fruits distribution schematic diagram,
Fig. 6 is that electronic deinsectization lamp distribution schematic diagram is installed in orchard.
In the drawings, 1, spacing H3 between main breed 2, field planting 3,1 × 1 meters, hole films 4, pollinizers 5, electronic deinsectization lamp H1, terraced fields transfer H2, main breed, determine spacing in the rows from spacing α, branch angle between H4, fruit.
Embodiment
In order to make those skilled in the art understand technical scheme of the present invention better, in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings below.
The precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in a kind of hillside, comprises following concrete steps:
1, the smooth planning on hillside: select sunny, soil is fertile, the gradient is hillside between 20-30 degree, is excellent to southwest to the east of slope aspect.Carry out terrace-type and build garden, every layer of transfer is 4 meters of (see figure 1)s,
2, treelet cultivation: preferably in early and middle ten days plantation in late November to December, between terraced fields transfer H1 and main breed, spacing H2 is 4 × 4 meters of (see figure 1)s, each 1 meter of length and width is dug in field planting hole 2, the degree of depth is 1 meter, i.e. 1 meter of square (see figure 2), often cheat end backfill table soil and add farmyard manure 40 jin, 1 jin, fused calcium magnesium phosphate, composite fertilizer 1 jin and the mixing of 0.5 jin, potash fertilizer.The proportioning of main breed 1 and pollinizers 4 is 4: 1, proportioning mode: to join 1 row pollinizers different from traditional four lines main breed, but to breed strain pollinizers every four strain main breeds, be conducive to (see figure 3) of pollinating, pollinizers can select the kind such as delicate fragrance, snowflake, chrysanthemum, yellow, the emerald green hat of circle, preferred snowflake kind, through planting discovery for many years, snowflake has as pollinizers the advantage that fruit-setting rate is high, single really heavy, soluble solid content is high.Although south generally uses delicate fragrance for pollinizers at present, certain completely filled fruit seed number is the highest with delicate fragrance, but adopt snowflake to be the parameter that after pollinizers, fruit full seed base instinct reaches delicate fragrance, and fruit single fruit weight is the highest with snowflake, reach more than 300g, other kinds are all between 180-240g, minimum with kingfisher hat, about only having the half of about snowflake, and soluble solid content is also the highest with snowflake, reach more than 12.3%, obviously exceed chrysanthemum and delicate fragrance, if the flower amount of pollinizers is inadequate in addition or weather influence, artificial pollination can be increased, cropping depth will carry (see figure 2) according to the original soil trace of nursery stock, the cultivation of " three bury three step on one carry seedling " simultaneously, after field planting, (see figure 2) bottom treelet is covered with 1 × 1 meter of film 3, under nurse tree, temperature and humidity is stable.
3, science bud picking: the May of Second Year, the sprouting of determining strain treelet below 50cm is all erased (see Fig. 4, determining spacing in the rows from H3 is 50cm), and 3-4 sproutings are stayed in every strain, as main cultivation of bearing fruit.
4, rich water quality management: before treelet rudiment, topdress once with the marsh gas water after pig manure (or with mushroom stem: stalk: pig manure mixes by weight the ratio of 1.2:0.8:1) fermentation to treelet, after treelet bud picking in May, then topdress once with above-mentioned marsh gas water.August, weeding in December are loosened the soil and are respectively topdressed once with after above-mentioned marsh gas water, show through planting experiment for many years, use the marsh gas water after aforementioned proportion mixed culture fermentation than use other chemical fertilizer both to decrease usage amount that pig manure natural pond liquid arbitrarily discharges pollution to water body and other chemical fertilizer, improve the kingfisher hat pears of 11% total sugar content and 20.2% soluble solid (mineral matter that can be water-soluble, sugar, acid and vitamin etc.) in Vc content.
5, branch is drawn in beta pruning: before treelet rudiment, and 3-4 healthy and strong sproutings are stayed in every strain, and all the other all prune away, and remaining branch draws branch in June by east, south, west, north four direction, and branch angle α is 45-50 degree (see Fig. 4).
6, flower and fruit management: the 3rd year SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING after treelet field planting, payes attention to rich water quality management, and florescence spray concentration is the borax (can not use industrial borax) of 0.2-0.3 ﹪, carries out flower and fruit protecting, improves the fruit-setting rate of fruit and prevent dehiscent fruit.Within after fallen flowers about 10 days, carry out vegetables and fruits, flower amount is many, the suitable early vegetables and fruits of tree that tree vigo(u)r is weak: the suitable slow vegetables and fruits that flower is measured less, growing way is prosperous or few vegetables and fruits, be generally that 20-25:1 carries out vegetables and fruits (see Fig. 5, also acceptable fruit spacing method, between fruit, spacing H4 is 20-30cm) by leaf-fruit ratio, reach the high yield of every strain 35-50 jin, for every strain 50 kilograms, one kilogram of three fruit, a strain needs stay 150 flowers.Bagging, casing material is selected: generally use the light tight bag of general dual layer (outer yellow interior black) at present, little to the pericarp rust staining amount effect of removing emerald green hat pears completely, and the light tight bag of general dual layer has completely cut off the Net long wave radiation of natural daylight completely, decrease the especially chlorophyllous content of pericarp pigment, and this method adopts double layer light transmission bagging (the white interior paper yellow of outer paper wax, light transmittance 18.8%), paper light tight with general dual layer, single ply bag and not bagging process are compared, emerald green hat pears exterior quality can be improved, make peel smooth, reduce the infringement of disease worm, improve soluble solid content, the bagging date: need after Sheng is spent bagging (usually in 23-May 12 April) in 25-40 day, bagging time: carry out (especially avoiding the noon at sunlight exposure) after drying up by dew in the morning, general morning 9:00-10:30 cover tree body southwestward fruit, afternoon, 14:30-17:30 overlapped the fruit relative to bagging in morning direction, bagging methods: same as the prior art, no longer repeat at this, in addition, tree crown top and the exposed fruit of skeleton branch back should overlap less, to avoid sun burn, bagging order is first up and then down, from inside outwards.
7, the extermination of disease and insect pest: adopt different prophylactico-therapeutic measures by stages, when late Febuary, perula loosened, carry out overall sterilization with Baume 5 degree of lime sulfurs.Before early March is bloomed, doubly embroider with 25 ﹪ powder Wettable Powder 2000 times would rather mix sterilization with 50 ﹪ thiophanate methyls 800.Before the middle ten days in April bagging, used in combination with 25 8000 times, arsenic worm phosphorus with 80 ﹪ large raw M-45 wetting powder 800-1000 times.After May bagging, doubly used in combination with 50 ﹪ missible oil 1000-2000 times with 25 ﹪ carbendazol wettable powders 250.June, fruit expanding period, doubly used in combination with 20 ﹪ fenpropathrin milk oil 2000 times with 70 ﹪ mancozeb wettable powders 1000.In addition, full garden every 3 mu of installations 1 electronic insect-killing agent 5(is shown in Fig. 5), carry out omnidistance green non-pollution desinsection, to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals.

Claims (1)

1. the precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in hillside, is characterized in that: it comprises the following steps:
The smooth planning on A, hillside: select sunny, soil is fertile, the gradient is hillside between 20-30 degree, carry out terrace-type and build garden, every layer of transfer is 4 meters;
B, treelet cultivation: in early and middle ten days plantation in late November to December, spacing 4 × 4 meters between total departure main breed, field planting hole dig 1 meter square, often cheat end backfill table soil and add farmyard manure 40 jin, 1 jin, fused calcium magnesium phosphate, composite fertilizer 1 jin and the mixing of 0.5 jin, potash fertilizer, main breed and pollinizers proportioning 4: 1, to breed strain pollinizers every four strain main breeds, pollinizers select snowflake, cropping depth will carry according to the original soil trace of nursery stock, the cultivation of " three bury three step on one carry seedling " simultaneously, after field planting, bottom 1 × 1 meter of plastic film covering treelet;
C, science bud picking: the May of Second Year, the sprouting of determining strain treelet below 50cm is all erased, and 3-4 sprouting is stayed in every strain, as main cultivation of bearing fruit;
D, rich water quality management: before treelet rudiment, in order to mushroom stem: stalk: the marsh gas water after pig manure carries out mixed culture fermentation by weight the ratio of 1.2:0.8:1 topdresses once to treelet, after treelet bud picking in May, topdress once with described marsh gas water again, August, weeding in December are respectively topdressed once with described marsh gas water after loosening the soil;
Branch is drawn in E, beta pruning: before treelet rudiment, and 3-4 healthy and strong sproutings are stayed in every strain, and all the other all prune away, and remaining branch draws branch in June by east, south, west, north four direction, and branch angle is 45-50 degree;
F, flower and fruit management: the 3rd year SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING after treelet field planting, pay attention to rich water quality management, florescence spray concentration is the borax of 0.2-0.3 ﹪, within after fallen flowers about 10 days, carry out fruit thinning, flower amount is many, the suitable early fruit thinning of tree that tree vigo(u)r is weak: flower amount is few, suitable fruit thinning or few fruit thinning late that growing way is prosperous, be that 20 ~ 25:1 carries out fruit thinning by leaf-fruit ratio, bagging, casing material is selected: adopt the white interior paper yellow of outer paper wax, the double layer light transmission bagging of light transmittance 18.8%, the bagging date: need after Sheng is spent bagging in 25-40 day, bagging time: carry out after drying up by dew in the morning, avoid the noon at sunlight exposure, the morning, the fruit of body southwestward set by 9:00-10:30 cover, afternoon, 14:30-17:30 overlapped the fruit relative to bagging in morning direction, tree crown top and the exposed fruit of skeleton branch back should overlap less, bagging order is first up and then down, from inside outwards,
G, the extermination of disease and insect pest: when late Febuary, perula loosened, overall sterilization is carried out with Baume 5 degree of lime sulfurs, before early March is bloomed, doubly embroider with 25 ﹪ powder Wettable Powder 2000 times would rather mix sterilization with 50 ﹪ thiophanate methyls 800, before the middle ten days in April bagging, used in combination with 25 8000 times, arsenic worm phosphorus with 80 ﹪ large raw M-45 wetting powder 800-1000 times, after May bagging, doubly used in combination with 50 ﹪ missible oil 1000-2000 times with 25 ﹪ carbendazol wettable powders 250, June fruit expanding period, doubly used in combination with 20 ﹪ fenpropathrin milk oil 2000 times with 70 ﹪ mancozeb wettable powders 1000.
CN201410686585.7A 2014-11-26 2014-11-26 The precocious emerald green hat pears high-yield quick cultivation method in a kind of hillside Active CN104365431B (en)

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CN104756812A (en) * 2015-03-25 2015-07-08 东海县黑龙潭生态农业发展有限公司 Cultivation method for early-maturing thin-shelled walnut applicable to hilly and mountainous areas
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CN106069517A (en) * 2016-06-24 2016-11-09 苏州市泰盛农业科技有限公司 A kind of Cuiguan pear high yield preventing disease and pest implantation methods
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