Powder ridge, the grassland polywater rich grass methods of cultivation
The present invention relates to the crops methods of cultivation, the specially grassland powder ridge polywater rich grass methods of cultivation.
It is reported, China's grassland area has 43,200,000,000 hectares, accounts for world's grassland area 13%, is only second to Australia, is generation
The second grassland, boundary big country.The grassland resources of China mainly includes Northern grassland, grassland in mountain areas of southern China, Coastal beach, wetland and agriculture
District's natural meadows etc., the most famous Xinjiang Yili of China draws and carries grassland, Xilinguole Beit grassland, Hulun Buir Sandy Land's grass
Former and Xilin Hot, Inner Mongolia prairie etc., " it is grey, wild boundless and indistinct, and wind grass is low sees cattle and sheep ", it is seen then that grassland is in China not
Only it is made that tremendous contribution to animal husbandry, the place that many scholar poets yearn for especially.
But in recent years, it is accustomed to causing China's north and south Medulla Tetrapanacis along with use and the tradition farming such as shallow plowing, continuous cropping of a large amount of chemical fertilizer
Former forage yield is gradually lowered, and even, occurs in that more serious problem in Northern grassland area: grassland three is changed.Grassland three is changed
Refer to degenerate, desertify and alkalize, owing to overgrazing and using grassland resources, and the aggravation of the Northwest's desertification process,
Result in grassland area constantly to reduce, sandstorm has become as the environment synonym of northern area；To today, we are difficult to go again
The picture of the imagination " sky is like vault hut, the cage lid vast expanse of open ground ", it more difficult to the imagination, if grassland ecological water and soil conservation can not get being effectively improved again,
Within 10 years, there will be which type of situation later.
Guangxi academy of agricultural sciences industrial crops institute researcher Wei Benhui be devoted to always high yield, retain and conserve soil moisture, water and soil conservation
The research of the methods of cultivation, his invention " powder ridge cultivation technique has and significantly efficiently utilizes moisture, nutrient, photo-thermal etc. naturally to provide
The feature in source, obvious effect of increasing production, is the modern agriculture pattern of a kind of innovation ", moreover, Wei Benhui researcher's research
Arid, semiarid zone high crop yield cultivation technique aspect have also been made many research, and it is natural that he proposes soil, moisture, luminous energy etc.
" powder ridge Increment effect theoretical " and " with root for this ", " supply balanced in nutrition " that resource increment utilizes, " the deeply imperial drought of root cold by force after
Strength " etc. crop Efficient Cultivation new theory, preside over powder ridge agro-farming Study of New Method, autonomous invention powder ridge agro-farming new method, in Liaoning,
8 provinces such as Gansu, Hunan apply on 13 kinds of crops and increase production 10-30% than conventional tillage, are provincial one-tenth by expert testimonys such as academicians
Fruit also regards as originality.Its Patent: method for planting dryland crops by crashing soil, license number: CN 101779537 B, plucks
Want: disclose the tillage cultivation method of a kind of dry land crop, use rotary tillage screw type mechanical deep pine ditch, silt, by farming
The layer native nature that mixes that the soil moved in improve the original of pulverizing and part plough sole floats with arable layer that loosens the soil with plough sole becomes ridge, ridge furrow in echelon,
Furrow width 25-30 centimetre, the silt of ditch depth 80-100 centimetre is distributed in T-shape, ridge, powder ridge face width up to 70-80 centimetre, ridge height 20-
25 meters；Or furrow width 50 centimetres, ditch depth 60-70 rice, then ridge face width about 90 centimetres, high about 20 centimetres, machine ditch silt becomes ridge
After, can sow or plant.Can determine to use different line-spacings and ditch depth specification according to Different Crop plantation demand.Use this
Bright method, soil cultivation holostrome is rarefaction, and serves soil moved in improve the original in zanjon rotary tillage and improve the soil effect, improves the water conservation of soil
Fertilizer-preserving ability and permeability, beneficially crop root prick that the utilization to liquid manure, disease and weeds are relative to be reduced deeply, and crop yield is big
Amplitude improves, and typically can increase production more than 20%, high up to more than 100%.
More than studying the dry land crop method of cultivating is unprecedented innovation and reform, how to utilize above technology
Protecting the grassland resources of China, thoroughly changing area, NORTHWEST CHINA portion ecology of grassland deterioration problem obviously has important
Meaning, for the water and soil transformation in the area such as wasteland, meadow, has following patent of invention to carry out relevant exploration: application number:
201410089016.4, patent name: barren hill spiral zanjon of conserving water and soil builds method, the barren hill water-retention that the invention discloses is protected
Soil spiral zanjon builds method, it is intended to the barren hill of transformation severe water and soil erosion and the chain of mountains, by nothing soil to there being soil, thin to soil by soil
Thickness, by not having vegetation to ecological environment Transformation Engineering and the practical technique having vegetation.The present invention is by hillside spiral step zanjon
(1), mountain top cistern (2), hill-side cistern (3), foot of the hill cistern (4), rubble level land, hill-side (5), rubble level land, the foot of the hill
(6), hillside educate the composition such as tree well (7), be used for accumulating rainwater, after rain, permeate rainwater from top to bottom in chain of mountains surrounding, it is to avoid rainwater
Wash away chain of mountains earth, keep the sun tans by the sun or frost and snow frost weathering is formed earth and water source to greatest extent here, it is to avoid constantly
Produce soil erosion, the barren hill and the chain of mountains of the longest flowers, plants and trees are cultivated trees, meadow or vegetation, change China Midwest and do not have
There is the severe and backward ecological environment in vegetation area.
This research carries out water and soil transformation mainly for hillside, wasteland, and hillside to be built spiral step zanjon, mountain top store
Pond, hill-side cistern, foot of the hill cistern etc., not only operation is loaded down with trivial details, has implemented many difficulties in actual environment, special
It is not on the prairie in wide Liaoyuan, the Northwest.Therefore, powder ridge how is utilized deeply to revolve the technology farming side to grassland ecological
Method reform, reaches water conservation, soil moisture conservation；Improve the forage yield animal husbandry development with promotion China simultaneously, improve ecological balance,
Prevent China grassland three from changing problem continuation and deteriorate significant.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide powder ridge, the grassland polywater rich grass methods of cultivation, it is possible to overcome present grassland three to change problem day
Gradually serious, current cropping system cannot keep the problem that grassland ecological water and soil balances.
The technical scheme is that and be achieved in that:
Powder ridge, the grassland polywater rich grass methods of cultivation, comprise the following steps:
(1) at grassland ecological, pasture growing edge zone carries out the farming of powder ridge, uses high-power rotary tillage machine to carry out appropriateness
Deep ploughing；Specific requirement is:
A, carry out with working width 80-200cm strip or annular powder ridge, the degree of depth is 30-40cm；Inventor finds, uses powder ridge
Deeply revolve mechanical cultivation, when the degree of depth is 30-40cm, good water storage soil moisture conservation effect can be played, and working width 80-200cm is permissible
Playing and good protect water effect, working width, when 100cm especially more than 150cm, preserves soil moisture better, this is because working width is the widest,
The volume that bottom solum is soft is the biggest, beneficially water-retaining effect；And the meaning on annular powder ridge is at intermediate area Planting Crops,
Both can conserve water and soil, can increase economic efficiency again.
B, go to edge zone to carry out the farming of powder ridge once every 15-20m at pasture growing, make powder ridge soil above ground level
10-12cm, the trench bottom that loosens the soil is "U" shaped, it is simple to water storage and Hu Shui；Every a segment distance powder ridge farming rather than powder in flakes
Ridge is revolved deeply, can reduce farming cost first and labour force puts into, and second powder ridge soil is above ground level, can be to the rainwater collected
Or snow water plays cofferdam effect, keeping bottom solum 2-3 to have preferable soil moisture content, inventor is by the soil of supination deep to powder ridge
Mensuration shows, the electromotive force of bottom solum is significantly raised, illustrates substantially have " vigor ", loosing soil at deep supination soil, is difficult to
Hardening, it is easy to water conservation protects water, herbage grows root system wherein and deeply pricks, and fibrous root is many, beneficially water and soil conservation.
(2) on the band of non-powder ridge, drain channel is offered, the deep 10-50cm of channel, wide 10-20cm, the starting point of drain channel
Being built up in noncrop area, water storage of digging pit, multiple drain channels are drawn in each water storage hole, towards ridge groove, assist water storage.
(3) overlay film, loosen the soil area manually or mechanically overlay film on powder ridge, preventing and treating moisture evaporation.
(4) pasture growing and management, according to herbage feature planting forage grass, includes fertilising, sowing, nursery, transplanting, field pipe
Be additionally included in the deep supination in powder ridge, crop ped location 2-10 kilogram of water-retaining agent of mu, water-retaining agent use with in the groove of ridge, it is possible to
Mechanical engagement mixed soil ridging is revolved on powder ridge deeply.
Water-retaining agent is the functional high molecule material that a kind of water absorbing capacity is the strongest, and great majority are aggregated instead by lower-molecular substance
The high polymer that should synthesize or be made up through chemical reaction of macromolecular compound, is also called water-absorbing resins and obtains high-hydroscopicity high score
Son, inventor proves to find: can play good Water-saving effect when mu consumption is at 2-10 kilogram, especially when 5-10 kilogram,
Better, water-retaining agent has the following advantages:
(1) nontoxic, safety and environmental protection, nonpoisonous and tasteless, not Pollution Plant, soil and groundwater, fruit tree flowers, afforestation,
Soilless culture, the fresh-keeping transport of plant, field crop etc., it is especially suitable for herbage and shrub, the forest etc. of arid area；Soil water-retaining
Agent and anti-erosion dose are carbon dioxide, water, ammoniacal nitrogen and sodium or potassium ion to final analyte, without any residual.
(2) soil moisture conservation water-saving.Can effectively suppress moisture to evaporate, prevent erosion, even if under conditions of having irrigation, still
Can water-saving more than 50%.
(3) Soil structure is improved.Making heavy soil, sandy soil and the secondary salt affected soil of the fertilizer that leaks are improved.Promote simultaneously
Enter soil microorganism to grow, improve the turnover utilization ratio of soil organic matter.
(4) service life is long.The characteristic of collection multiple polymers, repeatedly can shrink, make aborning in imbibition and release
With the life-span up to more than 6 years, it it is the soil moisturizing product that service life is the longest in the market.
(5) absorption speed is fast, and general nature water is drawn to saturated maximum duration and is about 15-40 minute, the fastest 0.4 minute.
(6) water and fertilizer utilization is high." the little reservoir " that soil water-retaining agent is formed in soil accepts fertilising, irrigates (or rainfall)
The trace element causing leaching to run off reduces 1/3, protects environment；When arid again, the water-retaining agent suctioning water makes the soil of surrounding
Earth keeps humidity, to supply root system of plant moisture.Even if at desert area and extreme arid climate, reaching in annual rainfall
During 200mm；Also grass tree planting can be planted.
(7) water-retention non-rot root, suctions the water-retaining agent molecule like water and is expanded into hydrogel crystal, even if against root system of plant
Also will not rotten.
(8) even the extreme arid of stable performance, also will not suck-back plant moisture.
Apply fertilizer in described pasture growing and management main farm manure or fertilizer, uses sufficient base manure, topdresses in time；Field is managed
Reason emphasis management of weeds and protection against rodents；Only need to plough shallowly after herbage harvesting 3-10cm, does not destroy original Soil structure, protects soil moisture content.
The use of farm manure can be effectively improved soil with organic matter content, and a large amount of use of chemical fertilizer has had resulted in sternly
The soil issues of weight, as hardened, acidifying, hardening etc., therefore, rational manure use or farm manure are to herbage growth area soil
The earth effect of being greatly improved；Herbage can be attacked by weeds and the plague of rats during growing, and conscientiously accomplish: management of weeds in real time,
Use selective herbicide as far as possible, use steriland herbicide such as glyphosate, N,N'-dimethyl-.gamma..gamma.'-dipyridylium etc. less, in order to avoid causing soil pollution or wanting
Evil, prevents and kill off the plague of rats and is preferably used bait formulation or mouse sticking plate；Further, since bottom solum can be played by the powder ridge technology of revolving deeply of the present invention
Good improving effect, therefore after season herbage harvesting, is not required to deep plough the most continuously, and only need to plough shallowly 3-10cm, i.e. the most easily
Disturbance sub-surface, destroys soil layer construction, deep ploughs again, so can be greatly saved labour cost and production after 3-5
Described pasture growing and management are forbidden during being additionally included in herbage growth arbitrarily trampling, arbitrarily herding.
Described high-power rotary cultivator is more than 160 horsepowers, is furnished with auger, seed manure with broadcasting equipment, equipment for coating film and spray medicine
Equipment, integration can complete powder ridge, deep rotation, fertilising, dispenser, overlay film etc. farming operation.
In invention, the grassland powder ridge polywater rich grass methods of cultivation are suitable for the plantation of multiple herbage.
Powder ridge, the grassland polywater rich grass methods of cultivation that have employed the present invention have substantive distinguishing features highlighted below with significantly
1, powder ridge, the grassland polywater of the present invention rich grass methods of cultivation have the good effect that conserves water and soil, and soil moved in improve the original ploughs deeply floating
After, the groove that loosens the soil bottom soil is natural water storage " warehouse ", can collect a small amount of rainwater of grassland ecological and snow mountain melt water, deeply
Cultivated 30-40cm can effectively keep moisture to not easily run off, hence it is evident that improves soil environment, and bottom soil, electromotive force increases, " vigor "
Strengthen, keep 3-5 no-tillage or only need shallow plowing, be not available for the conventional methods of cultivation.
2, powder ridge, the grassland polywater of the present invention rich grass methods of cultivation have for the ecology improving grassland ecological local microenvironment
Vital effect, carries out being spaced powder ridge and deeply revolves in edge zone, grassland, can reduce by three changes in greater area of protection grassland
Process, because carrying out these methods of cultivation in edge zone, meadow, being equivalent to establish one " protecting waterwall " at grassland periphery, playing
Significantly water conservation protects effect of water soil moisture conservation, it is provided that moisture necessary to herbage growth, improves soil environment, raising herbage takes root,
Thick root, strong root, improve the water holding capacity of grassland ecological soil, the strong desertification process preventing grassland, for ecological and
Economic benefit is all significantly improved.
3, powder ridge, the grassland polywater of the present invention rich grass methods of cultivation can be effectively improved forage yield and quality, and reason is,
These methods of cultivation can significantly improve soil quality, is deeply screwed into farm manure from powder ridge and uses, substantially increases soil with organic matter
Content, beneficially loosing soil, hygroscopic, water conservation fertilizer conservation, alleviate that a large amount of fertilizer application causes hardens, the problem such as acidifying；Soil
The improvement of earth environment is more beneficial for producing the herbage of high yield, and animal husbandry development is served important function.
Detailed description of the invention:
The powder ridge of inventor Wei Benhui researcher invention is deeply revolved the methods of cultivation and is not only taken in the field of planting of multiple kinds of crops
Obtained immense success, reply grassland " three change " problem also had good enlightenment effect, Wei this brightness academy in Guangxi, sweet
Respectful, Xinjiang and the Inner Mongol have carried out large-area popularization and practice to this technology, specific as follows:
Embodiment 1:2010, herding institute in Guangxi carries out powder ridge cultivation pulse family and herds at herding institute test site, Guangxi
Seem Lablab Album test spent in vain by grass.For examination soil available N 100.3mg/kg, available P 17.8mg/kg, active potassic 107.9mg/kg, organic matter
13.1 g/kg, pH5.72.On July 12nd, 2010, test arranged 2 process wholely, deep and traditional deep of respectively powder ridge 50cm
Pine 50cm(comparison) compare.2 process were spent in vain Seem Lablab Album in 28 carry out yield at JIUYUE 11 days, November 26, December respectively
Investigation.Result shows, use the cultivation of powder ridge spends the volume increase 15.8%, 20.7%, 27.7% that Seem Lablab Album the most relatively compares in vain.
The yield of Seem Lablab Album is spent in the cultivation of powder ridge in vain
Seem Lablab Album is spent in the cultivation of powder ridge in vain, and its crude protein is 16.7583%, increases by 2.7555 percentages than comparison biological 14.0028
Point, the Seem Lablab Album crude fat of spending in vain of powder ridge cultivation is 6.7232%, than 5.0124% increase by 1.7108 percentage points of comparison.
The nutrient analysis of Seem Lablab Album is spent in the cultivation of powder ridge in vain
Embodiment 2:2011 April, Wei this brightness academy leads technical team to carry out at station, grassland, Minxian County, gansu Province
The Demonstration And Extension of the grassland powder ridge polywater rich grass methods of cultivation first.
Herbage variety: Festuca Arundinacea.
Demonstration area: 100 mu.
Water-retaining agent: 8 kilograms, spread fertilizer over the fields after puddling with fertilizer.
Specific implementation method:
(1) pasture growing edge zone carries out annular powder ridge farming, uses 230 horsepowers of vertical helical rotary tillage machines to carry out deeply
Plough；Specific requirement is:
A, with working width 150-200cm carry out annular powder ridge, the degree of depth is 30-40cm.
B, carrying out the farming of powder ridge once every 20m, make powder ridge soil 10-12cm above ground level, the trench bottom that loosens the soil is in " U " word
Shape, it is simple to water storage and Hu Shui.
(2) on the band of non-powder ridge, drain channel is offered, the deep 20-30cm of channel, wide 15-20cm, the starting point of drain channel
Being built up in noncrop area, water storage of digging pit, multiple drain channels are drawn in each water storage hole, towards ridge groove, assist water storage, every non-powder
Ridge band sets up channel 15-20 bar.
(3) overlay film, loosen the soil area manually or mechanically overlay film on powder ridge, preventing and treating moisture evaporation.
(4) pasture growing and management:
A () herbage meadow is also carried out powder ridge and deeply revolves, the degree of depth is 20-30cm, holds furrow ditch successfully between every furrow face, and field is with surrounding
Hold gutter successfully, be so conducive to drought resisting of draining flooded fields；At annular powder ridge intermediate zone plantation Semen Tritici aestivi.
B Festuca Arundinacea grass seeds is carried out germination percentage mensuration by (), select the seed of germination percentage more than 95% to be coated process, medicine
Agent is 6% Tebuconazole suspension seed-coating agent, sows after being completely dried.
C () is sowed when daily mean temperature 20 DEG C, use drilling, and depth of planting 3-4cm, the most shallow blinding, thickness exists
D () uses farm manure, become thoroughly decomposed, and every mu of consumption is 2000-3000kg, the lower water-retaining agent 8 kilograms of order；Later stage chases after in time
Fertilizer, based on compound organic and inorganic fertilizer or compound fertilizer but it also may use the fertilizer become thoroughly decomposed, and the use root that topdresses is executed, it is possible to
Row replacement after intertillage, notes dressing time: topdressing to emerge before tiller in herbage for the first time is carried out, and with carbamide, compound fertilizer is
Main, to increase tiller；Second time is topdressed should be at graminous pasture jointing to booting.
(e) weeding: herbage is in seedling stage easily by weed infestation, and kind of particularly sowing in spring, therefore, tame forage grass must enter
In row, weeding herbicide selects there is directional selectivity herbicide, N,N'-dimethyl-.gamma..gamma.'-dipyridylium can be used to carry out weeding, separately after harvesting
External field arranges that 10-20 point, in order to protection against rodents, uses glutinous Mus plate effect good.
F () gathers in, impose compound organic and inorganic fertilizer 50-80 kilogram every mu at once after harvesting every time.
The following is the measurement result to green forage yield in grassland in Gansu district:
Data show, the Festuca Arundinacea grass seed yield using the methods of cultivation of the present invention to plant has higher production-increasing function,
Meanwhile, also having well raising to Grass Quality, turf height high from fertile tillers is found out, uses the powder ridge technology of revolving deeply to cultivate right
Herbage growth is grown and is improved significantly and improve, and the general more conventional methods of cultivation width of quality, the withered and yellow phase is delayed, when educating the green phase
Between long, coverage is big, and the ecological environment to grassland is obviously improved effect, and resistance against diseases strengthens simultaneously, has in this and soil
Machine matter content is high, and soil aciditiy is low direct relation.
Semen Tritici aestivi average yield per mu in annular growing area plantation reaches 550.5kg, does not the most additionally water in growth course
Irrigating, Semen Tritici aestivi grows fine, it is achieved that improve ecological balance and Semen Tritici aestivi increases income bumper harvests.
Embodiment 3: inventor has also carried out correlation test in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolian grassland.
Concrete testing program is as follows:
Powder ridge, grassland in Xinjiang polywater rich grass methods of cultivation testing program-Xinjiang Yili of China
Inner Mongolian grassland powder ridge polywater rich grass methods of cultivation testing program-Huhehaote, the Inner Mongol
Use and deeply revolve the methods of cultivation such as the powder ridge of embodiment 1 and test in pasture growing district and rimland, test face
Amass and reach 500 mu.The following is and use the experimental result that carries out of the methods of cultivation of the present invention:
The polywater rich grass methods of cultivation in powder ridge, Xinjiang Yili of China grassland are tested Xinjiang big Leaf alfalfa effect of increasing production
The polywater rich grass methods of cultivation in Inner Mongolian grassland powder ridge are tested Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. effect of increasing production
In the test of Xinjiang and Inner Mongolian grassland it can clearly be seen that use the farming of powder ridge to the yield of herbage by good
Effect of increasing production, is also obviously improved the quality of Xinjiang big Leaf alfalfa and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. meanwhile, and protein content substantially increases, to cattle,
The nutritive value of sheep improves, moreover, the Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. powder ridge farming Tanaka that Inner Mongol Hohhot district is carried out, and can be obvious
Finding out, rhizomes of Leymus chinensis penetrates occupies very capable, and can form powerful root net, and dish knot fixing soil effect is very big, serves
Good water and soil conservation function.