CN104206161B - A kind of method of submerged plant planting and basin model equipment - Google Patents

A kind of method of submerged plant planting and basin model equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104206161B
CN104206161B CN201410470650.2A CN201410470650A CN104206161B CN 104206161 B CN104206161 B CN 104206161B CN 201410470650 A CN201410470650 A CN 201410470650A CN 104206161 B CN104206161 B CN 104206161B
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plant
basin
water
agar
pasture
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CN201410470650.2A
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CN104206161A (en
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高翔
王高鸿
李小燕
李敦海
刘永定
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中国科学院水生生物研究所
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Abstract

The invention discloses method and the basin model equipment of a kind of submerged plant planting, step includes: (1) selects pasture and water kind;(2) arrangement pasture and water are cleaned;(3) every 100ml water adds 3 4g agar powders, be heated to 85 DEG C 100 DEG C make agar powder be completely dissolved after, be cooled to 40 DEG C standby to 45 DEG C;(4) adding blinding in basin model equipment, insert and treat plant, the agar solution that quickly will be cooled to 40 DEG C is poured in basin, promotes propulsion arm to be ejected by plant agar base after five minutes;(5) kind of pasture and water are thrown;(6) final-period management.This basin model equipment is made up of basin body and push plate, and push plate is positioned over the bottom surface central authorities of basin body, and the metal pushrod of push plate center weldment is through the central aperture of basin body.This implantation methods is easy, and device is simple, the agar base of Nantural non-toxic without limitation on plant strain growth, and can the most harmless degraded, pasture and water kind is planted survival rate to 98.4%, is conducive to kind planting submerged plant the most rapidly and efficiently.

Description

A kind of method of submerged plant planting and basin model equipment
Technical field
The invention belongs to submerged plant planting technical field, the method being specifically related to the plantation of a kind of submerged plant, simultaneously Further relate to the basin model equipment of a kind of submerged plant planting.
Background technology
Submerged plant is in major part biocycle, and plant is sunk in aquatic work, the raw substrate of root, the large-scale water of battalion's set life Raw plant.Their root is the most undeveloped or degenerates, and some is the most flourishing, and each several part of plant all can absorb moisture and supports Material.Aerating tissue is the most flourishing, carries out gas exchange in the case of being conducive to lacking air in water, and the leaf of this kind of plant is big It mostly is banding or thread.Common submerged plant has Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, hornwort, watermifoil, black algae etc..Submerged plant is by being effectively increased sky Parabiosis position, it is provided that refuge, suppresses biological and tripton, improves Underwater Optical and shines and dissolved oxygen condition, for shape Becoming complicated food chain to provide food, place and other essential conditions, the most indirectly supporting carnivorous is aquatic with detrital food chain Bio-diversity rely maintain basis, aquatic ecosystem has the effect of particular importance.Submerged plant degradation phenomena exists Having made widespread reports in world wide, a lot of experts point out that submerged plant degenerates and water pollution, water quality deterioration, excessive development fishing Industry cultivates, and there are much relations.And submerged plant disappears and broken water ecosystem balance, further cause even more serious The outburst of ecocatastrophe such as wawter bloom, bring serious economic loss to the mankind and affect the healthy of people.In order to Seek the Treatment process of low-consumption high-efficiency, solve these water ecological setting problems increasingly sharpened, submerged plant artificial growth thing Progressively paid close attention to by people.
Carried out the reconstruction of Submerged plant communities by artificial growth means, recover the function of aquatic ecosystem, gradually become Important content for water environment Ecological Restoration Project.Submerged plant is of a great variety simultaneously, come in every shape landscape water body build in Sometimes a large amount of artificial growth it is also required to.The method of submerged plant artificial growth mainly has point two big classes at present: sowing and strain are moved Plant.Sowing is that the seed formed by apomixis is carried out.It is then to be bred by nutrition propagule that strain is transplanted, nutrition Brood body mainly has root stock, bulb, tuber, whole strain and disconnected branch etc..But field restoration of the ecosystem and the view battalion submerged plant Make in engineering, mostly use second method i.e. strain method for transplanting.This be due to use seed sow method due to by the depth of water and The restriction of illumination, percentage of seedgermination is relatively low, even if germination survival rate is the highest, and growth cycle is long, and responding time can not Ensure, therefore on using, there is limitation.
Existing employing strain is transplanted the submerged plant that carries out and is manually planted, and generally has following three kinds of methods:
One, controlling water level manual inseminating method.Within water level pump drainage is reduced to 25cm, then by manually carrying out individual plant or list From plantation, it is stepped up water level further according to plant strain growth situation.This method is applicable to the water level easy to manually control such as pond or stream Small size pond.But it is big to have quantities, labor intensity is high, the shortcoming that construction cost is high, and easily by ectocine, therefore subject range On there is limitation.
Two, pincers load method.Clamp submerged plant with the professional planting tool of band pliers to insert in bed mud, then unclamp pliers, So that submerged plant root is colonizated in bed mud.This method is relatively wide for waters, pump drainage difficulty, it is impossible to the large area of controlling water level Lake, river are suitable for.There is cost relatively low, the advantage that labor intensity is moderate.But owing to water-bed situation cannot be seen clearly, after planting The easily upper drift of plant, to the water surface, causes planting effect poor, the shortcoming that survival rate is the highest.
Three, kind of a method is thrown.Throw kind of method and use clay or ooze parcel submerged plant root, then utilize the action of gravity of ooze And make submerged plant root be grown on down on bed mud.No matter this method water body water level height is the most applicable, there is the suitability wide Feature.But the shortcoming of the method is that clay or ooze are washed due to rushing of water body, loose obscission easily occurs, ultimately causes Floating on plant, survival rate also can be affected.The throwing kind rule improved ooze or clay outer wrapping cotton, gauze, nylon paper, Plastic foils etc., then tie up with cotton cord.Although it is so it can be avoided that ooze or clay come off causes drift on pasture and water, but wrap up in outward thing fall Solve and rot time-consumingly the longest, often limit newborn root system and grow among bed mud and cotton cord is tied up and also can be produced plant strain growth not Profit impact.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is to provide a kind of simple and effective submerged plant planting method, easy to implement the method, operation letter Just, when solving submerged plant artificial growth during restoration of the ecosystem and water landscape are built due on float, the factor such as tie up Cause the problem that survival rate is low, also solve the problem in deepwater regions (depth of water is more than 1.2 meters) artificial growth difficulty, and special Be not applicable to the submerged plant large area of well developed root system, become more meticulous artificial growth.
Another object of the present invention is to there are provided the basin model equipment of a kind of submerged plant planting, and this device is tied Structure is simple, easy to use, can quickly prepare plant-agar base.
In order to realize above-mentioned purpose, the present invention uses techniques below measure:
The primary solutions of the present invention is to be realized by plant-agar base, and described plant-agar base, is logical Cross prepared by basin model equipment, be made up of submerged plant plant, agar gel and blinding.The wherein foundation portion of submerged plant Sub-fraction together with stem imbeds the middle and upper part of agar gel, and blinding becomes the middle and lower part of tower-like embedment agar gel.End form Become submerged plant plant, agar gel and the plant-agar base structure of blinding one.
A kind of method of submerged plant planting, the steps include:
1. the selection of pasture and water.Selecting well developed root system or easily take root, plant is adaptable, grows rapid submerged plant Kind.
2. pasture and water early stage processes.Clean out the plant of the healthy and strong well developed root system of growth, clean root earth, pluck Lao Ye, Huang Leaf and residual branch are put in order stand-by.
3. clog the preparation of agar solution.According to every 100ml water add 3g-4g agar powder ratio (bulking value is 3% ~ 4%) make agar powder suspension turbid liquid, be heated to 85 DEG C-100 DEG C make agar powder be completely dissolved after, be cooled to 40 DEG C standby to 45 DEG C With.
4. pasture and water are clogged in basin model.Basin model outer wall is placed in tank, adds a certain amount of in basin body The blinding of even particle size, blinding becomes tower-like and is stacked in push plate.Plant body is inserted basin central authorities, makes root system certainly So distribution, righting plant, the agar solution that quickly will be cooled to 40 DEG C is poured in basin body.Agar solution solidification after five minutes, promotes Plant-agar base is ejected by the propulsion arm being connected with push plate.
5. pasture and water throw and plant.According to the cultivation requirement needed for engineering design, the closeest in conjunction with factors such as plant height, individual plant cover degrees Plant, with reference to planting density be: 20 ~ 200 strains/m2, plant-agar base is thrown and plants to specifying position.
6. final-period management.Observe weekly the growing state of pasture and water, within about about ten days, send out roots from agar base Being, and the root system newly grown penetrates in bed mud, final pasture and water can be colonizated in normal growth in bed mud.
The basin model equipment of a kind of submerged plant planting, including basin body and push plate.Push plate is for fix in the center of circle Connecting the disk of a propulsion arm, basin body is cylindric flowerpot shape, and the circular hole of a diameter 2mm is arranged at bottom, and the push rod of push plate is just The good circular hole through basin bottom central authorities, the disk of push plate is closely sealed well with basin body bottom surface.Basin body size is according to treating Plantation pasture and water grass plant height degree determines, outer circumference diameter (cylindrical external diameter) controls at the 1/5 to 1/6 of grass plant height, and minimum is the least In 3cm maximum less than 15cm, height is between 3cm to 8cm.Push plate disk diameter is the 1/2 of basin body outer circumference diameter, top Push rod is long 8cm, the metal bar of diameter 2mm.Basin moulded dimension is unsuitable excessive, is beneficial to root system and quickly grows, can be according to strain High factor rationally determines with reference to above-mentioned.
Clogging agar solution in the present invention can be appropriate according to pasture and water plant strain growth situation to be planted and plantation waters nourishment Add or supplement various growth hormone, mineral nutrition salt.
Described easily take root and the submerged plant of well developed root system includes common Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, Herba potamogetonis distincti, black algae, water caltrop etc..
The blinding used in the present invention selects the quartz or Dali that particle diameter density between 5mm-15mm is bigger Stone or cobblestone, blinding adds weight and maintains (1.8 ~ 3.5) with plant fresh weight ratio: 1.Can be big according to waters to be planted stormy waves Little and plant volume adequacy strengthen stone consumption but no more than basin body long-pending 1/3.
Plant inserts basin model depth should be big as far as possible, there to be more than 2cm root tissue to imbed in agar base Good.
Compared with the prior art the present invention, has the following advantages that and effect:
1. survival rate is high.Form the base that agar gel makes in pasture and water foundation portion, and directly pasture and water are planted bed mud In or use other method for planting such as ooze or clay parcel to compare, stormy waves punching can be reduced and wash, a variety of causes such as tie up and cause The plantation floated on plant and cause is dead.Plantation survival rate is to 98.4%.
2. Nantural non-toxic, is not intended to plant strain growth.Agar base Nantural non-toxic, has extraordinary molecule permeability with strong Degree, can guarantee that mineral element and oxygen and the mineral element in water body and the free flow of oxygen near plant root, is not intended to The growth of plant root, and can the most harmless degraded.And agar base and plant foundation portion condense naturally, are integrally forming, no Plant strain growth can be produced constraint and limit plant strain growth.
3. it is suitable for the plantation of extensive pasture and water.Plant-agar base makes simple, with low cost, has good stablizing Property, it is easy to transport, using the teaching of the invention it is possible to provide the nutrient of plant short-term growth and moisture, it is particularly suitable for large-scale production and goes out for people The pasture and water Seedling that work post is planted.
4. aquatic macrophyte community forms speed soon, the quick reparation of good stability, beneficially water area ecological environment.
5. artificial culture is simple to operate.Compared with planting with tradition, owing to there are an agar gel base, base in pasture and water foundation portion Backing portion embeds stone, and density is much larger than water, therefore just can realize pasture and water without artificial lower water and automatically sink and contact with bed mud, And along with the growth of plant root, root system the most naturally can grow from agar base, and finally penetrate in bed mud.
The most applied widely.The method is adapted to pond, park, river, lake, the applicable depth of water without substantially limiting, not and It is particularly suitable on a large scale, becoming more meticulous, quickly plants.
7. low cost.Agar powder low price price is 70 to 130 yuan every kilogram, and early stage is without any infrastructure and sets Standby construction, is substantially reduced material and cost of labor, and can shorten construction period, have preferable economic benefit.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is plant-agar base schematic diagram.
Wherein 1 is (submerged plant) plant, and 2 is agar gel, and 3 is blinding.
Fig. 2 is basin model equipment structural representation.
Fig. 3 is basin model equipment intermediateness structural representation.
Wherein 4 is basin body, and 5 is push plate, and 501 is disk, and 502 is propulsion arm.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment 1:
A kind of method of submerged plant planting, the steps include:
1. the selection of pasture and water.Select Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis popular name noodles grass, shoulder pole grass, quillwort dish etc., belong to Hydrocharctaceae Vallisneria Perennial submerged plant, for one of modal submerged plant of China.Herba vallisneriae Spiralis well developed root system, reproduction speed is fast, and growth is rapid, Regeneration capacity is strong, cradles rear recovery time short, the Herba vallisneriae Spiralis cradled only 15 d just can restoration ecosystem to gathering in front level (Gu Lin Sister-in-law etc., 1994), a large amount of nutritive salt after cradling, can be taken from water body out of.Herba vallisneriae Spiralis annidation is wide, absorption dirt and nutrition Salt ability is strong, therefore Herba vallisneriae Spiralis is to reduce water pollution, alleviates water body eutrophication degree, and the important heavy water of water ecology reparation is planted Thing.
2. Herba vallisneriae Spiralis early stage processes.From East Lake, aquatic appended near diving region, loke shore littoral zone gathers the some strains of Herba vallisneriae Spiralis.Institute Gathering Herba vallisneriae Spiralis plant strain growth healthy and strong, it is more complete that root system retains ratio, and average plant height is 20cm, and mean fresh is that 5.8g tap water rushes Wash clean, cuts off stolon with shears, plucks yellow leaf Lao Ye, is placed in water standby.
3. basin modelling.According to the average plant height of Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, design basin body outer circumference diameter is 3.5cm, and height is 3cm, Push plate disk diameter is 1.75cm.
4. clog the preparation of agar solution.Weigh agar powder (Wuhan Chu Cheng just cyclopentadienyl science and technology Engineering Co., Ltd, cas:9002- 18-0, Wuhan, Hubei, the place of production) 100g, measure tap water and be settled to 2.5L, after being heated to 85 DEG C to 100 DEG C, treat that agar powder is complete Dissolve be placed in the baking oven of 45 DEG C cools down stand-by.
5. Herba vallisneriae Spiralis is clogged in basin model.Place push plate 5, basin body 4 outer wall is immersed in tank, to basin 11g blinding 3, quartz that blinding 3 selects average diameter to be 10mm or marble or goose is added in push plate 5 bottom body 4 Cobble, makes stone be stacked into tower-like.One strain Herba vallisneriae Spiralis plant 1 enters basin body 4 central authorities, and penetrating the degree of depth is that the above 2cm of root exists Basin body 4 is internal, and grass roots scatters naturally, then takes out the agar solution in baking oven, treats that temperature is down to about 40 DEG C and (is touched with hands Without obvious hot feeling) rapidly agar solution is poured in basin alms bowl.After 5 minutes, agar solution is solidified as agar gel 2 completely, uses top Plant 1 is ejected by push rod 502 together with agar base, and the plant made-agar base can be placed on to wait in water to throw and plants.
6. Herba vallisneriae Spiralis throws and plants.In the glass jar of 50cm* 50cm * 75cm, built-in bed mud about 15cm, add clear water to water Deep 75cm, to throwing kind 12 strains of every cylinder with the Herba vallisneriae Spiralis plant of agar base, plants 10 cylinder 120 strains altogether, is placed in outdoor and cultivates, Experiment is carried out 30 days altogether.
7. final-period management.Observed and recorded Herba vallisneriae Spiralis growing state, has new root to emit in the 7th day substantially observes agar base Go out, had to the 15th day a large amount of new root grow from agar base and gradually penetrate in bed mud, and observed new crawling Crawl stem grows outwards to dissipate inside agar base and forms new plant, and new plant starts to take root in bed mud.To Within 30 days, agar base diminishes, and the root system newly grown has been grown in bed mud, and statistics survival rate is 98.4%, and passes through stolon Newly grow 83 strains.
Described Herba vallisneriae Spiralis can be replaced and easily takes root and the submerged plant such as the Herba potamogetonis distincti of well developed root system, black algae, water caltrop.Described Step 4 clogs in agar solution the phytohormone that can add suitable concentration: auxin IAA, indolebutyric acid IBA etc., mineral nutrition Salt N, P, k etc..
Embodiment 2:
As shown in Figure 1, 2, 3, the basin model equipment of a kind of submerged plant planting, it includes basin body 4, push plate 5 liang Part.Push plate 5 is positioned over the bottom surface central authorities of basin body 4, closely sealed with bottom surface well, and the metal of push plate 5 center weldment pushes away Bar 502 is through the central aperture of basin body 4.Basin body 4 is cylindric flowerpot shape, and a diameter 2mm small sircle hole, basin body are arranged at bottom 4 sizes are according to treating that kind of a height for planting submerged plant plant 1 determines, outer circumference diameter controls at the 1/5 to 1/6 of plant height, and minimum is not Less than 3cm, maximum less than 15cm, height is between 3cm to 8cm.Push plate 5 is in a center of circle weldering even metal pushrod 502 Disk 501, metal pushrod 502 right through the central circular hole bottom basin body 4, push plate 5 can closely sealed with basin body 4 well. The 1/2 of a diameter of outer circumference diameter of push plate disk 201, push rod 502 is long 8cm, the metal bar of diameter 2mm.Basin model in a word Size is unsuitable excessive, is beneficial to root system and quickly grows, rationally can determine with reference to above-mentioned according to factors such as plant heights.

Claims (4)

1. a method for submerged plant planting, the steps include:
1) selection of pasture and water: selecting well developed root system or easily take root, plant is adaptable, grows rapid submerged plant pasture and water Kind;
2) pasture and water early stage processes: it is healthy and strong to clean out growth, the plant of well developed root system, cleans root earth, plucks Lao Ye, Huang Yeji Residual branch, puts in order, stand-by;
3) preparation of agar solution is clogged: the ratio adding 3g-4g agar powder according to every 100ml water makes agar powder suspension turbid liquid, Be heated to 85 DEG C-100 DEG C make agar powder be cooled to after being completely dissolved 40 DEG C-45 DEG C standby;
4) pasture and water are clogged in basin model: be placed in tank by basin model outer wall, addition in push plate in basin body Grain blinding of uniform size, it is (1.8-3.5) that blinding adds quality with plant fresh weight ratio: 1, and blinding consumption does not surpasses Crossing the 1/3 of basin body volume, blinding becomes tower-like stacking, plant body inserts basin body central authorities, makes root system NATURAL DISTRIBUTION, righting Plant, the agar solution that quickly will be cooled to 40 DEG C is poured in basin body, promotes propulsion arm by plant-agar base top after five minutes Go out, put into and water is waited plant;
5) pasture and water throw and plant: according to 20-200 strain/m2Planting density, plant-agar base is thrown kind to specifying position;
6) final-period management: observe weekly the growing state of pasture and water, records plant root long artificial situation from agar base;
Described easily take root or the submerged plant of well developed root system includes Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, Herba potamogetonis distincti, black algae, water caltrop.
The method of a kind of submerged plant planting the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described step 3) middle filling Can be according to treating that planting area nourishment and plant strain growth situation add auxin, mineral nutrition salt in agar solution.
The method of a kind of submerged plant planting the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described step 4) in broken Stone granule is the quartz of a diameter of 5mm-15mm or marble or cobblestone.
The method of a kind of submerged plant planting the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step 4) in plant insert deep Degree is in root above 2cm tissue embedment agar base.
CN201410470650.2A 2014-09-16 2014-09-16 A kind of method of submerged plant planting and basin model equipment CN104206161B (en)

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