CN108990675B - Method for cuttage breeding of tung tree - Google Patents

Method for cuttage breeding of tung tree Download PDF

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CN108990675B
CN108990675B CN201811090207.7A CN201811090207A CN108990675B CN 108990675 B CN108990675 B CN 108990675B CN 201811090207 A CN201811090207 A CN 201811090207A CN 108990675 B CN108990675 B CN 108990675B
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cutting
matrix
tung tree
big
bag
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CN108990675A (en
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吴志华
陈粤超
李超
方良
尚秀华
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CHINA EUCALYPT RESEARCH CENTER
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/10Vegetative propagation by means of cuttings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cuttage breeding of tung tree, comprising the following steps: using semi-lignified branches of tung trees as cuttings, soaking the cuttings in a plant growth regulator root solar water solution, wherein the cutting medium is a cutting medium formed by mixing sea mud, fine sand and the like; filling a non-woven fabric container bag with a cutting medium, covering a film and a shading net with shading rate of more than 90% at the initial rooting stage, and rooting and sprouting after cuttage. After rooting; after the nursery stock survives for 1-2 months, the big bag is replaced, seawater is adopted for pouring and spraying off-shore cultivation, or a big seedling is cultivated in a seawater water culture mode and hardened for 40 days, and then the nursery stock can be taken out for planting. The survival rate of the cutting seedlings is more than 85%, and the nursery rate of the seedlings is more than 90%.

Description

Method for cuttage breeding of tung tree
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of mangrove plant conservation and rapid and efficient propagation, in particular to a method for cuttage propagation of tung tree.
Background
Mangrove is a woody plant community growing in tropical and subtropical areas, coastal intertidal zones where land and sea are bordered, or at the mouth of a river where sea tides can reach. The mangrove forest has several important functions of preventing wind, eliminating wave, protecting bank, promoting silt, purifying environment, etc. and is important habitat for water and fowl and also for fish, shrimp, crab and shellfish to grow and propagate. Mangrove is the most important ring of coastal protection forest. Under the background of rapid development of global economy, the mangrove forest habitat is destroyed in many coastal economic areas due to economic development without exception. Generally, the total forest stand condition of mangrove forest in China is poor, and a few communities which operate well are in existence, so that the ecological function of mangrove forest is degraded, the biodiversity of coast is reduced, and the national ecological safety of coastal areas is seriously threatened.
The Aegiceras corniculata (Aegiceras corniculata) mostly grows on a flat beach in a river inlet bay, belongs to the genus Myrsinaceae (Myrsineae) Turcica (Aegiceras) and is one of wide varieties in mangrove forest tree species in tropical subtropical coast, is widely distributed on tropical coast from Asia to oceanic coast, and is distributed in China's Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, hongkong and Macau. The bark of the tung tree is smooth and reddish brown to gray black; leaves are intergrown, leaf lines are clear, and petioles are reddish; salt secretion phenomenon exists; the flowering period is between 1 month and 4 months, and the plants are important honey source plants; the fruit period is between 5 months and 9 months; umbelliform inflorescence, white; the fruit is slender and half-moon shaped, and changes from green to reddish brown when ripe. Cryptofetal life. The cable-shaped roots of the tung tree extend in a horizontal line under the surface layer of the soil to stabilize the tree body; there are knee root and pillar root.
At present, the main propagation mode of the tung tree is sexual propagation, the traditional seedling raising mode is to pick mature hypocotyls from mother trees and directly dibble to put in bags, the seedling rate is extremely low, and the filial generation adopted by the traditional seed picking and seedling raising has the following problems: the existence of genetic variation is not favorable for maintaining excellent characters. In addition, the seedling raising period of mangrove is long, the seedling raising environment is mostly a beach nursery, the seedling raising quality is greatly influenced by environmental factors, the seedling quality is unstable, the conventional seedling raising substrate in production is sea mud, the single plant weight of mangrove seedlings is large, and the transportation and the operation cost reduction of the seedlings are not utilized; in addition, excessive exploitation of the sea mud will cause the problems of beach environment destruction and greenhouse effect aggravation.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the existing tung tree breeding technology, the invention aims to provide a tung tree cutting breeding method, which not only improves the utilization of good varieties of the tung trees and the seedling raising efficiency, but also can obtain light matrix seedlings with low cost and high seedling quality, and provides seedling guarantee for the conservation and recovery of mangrove forests.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a method for cuttage breeding of tung tree is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting stock plants of the cutting slips of the tung tree, and selecting excellent stock plants which are mature for more than 3 years, strong in growth and free of diseases and insect pests;
(2) and (3) pruning the cutting slips of the tung tree, wherein the cutting slips are from the top end of the middle upper part of the crown of the mother plant, and the branches are cut in the morning of 4-6 months. After picking, putting the branches in clear water for moisturizing in time, and quickly moving the branches to a shade place for pruning the cuttings, wherein the whole process avoids sunshine irradiation and wind blowing, each cutting is cut into 10-20 cm in the pruning process, 2-3 buds are reserved, the leaves are removed, and the cutting sockets at the lower parts of the branches are cut into inclined planes and are smoothly and directly cut;
(3) preparing a cutting medium, wherein the cutting medium is sea mud: fine sand is mixed according to the volume ratio of 1: 1, uniformly mixing; filling a non-woven fabric container bag with a matrix, uniformly spraying the matrix with 0.5% potassium permanganate solution, disinfecting and cleaning for later use, and thoroughly spraying the cutting matrix bag with clear water before cutting;
(4) performing hormone treatment on cutting slips, soaking the cutting slips in a plant growth regulator root solar water solution with the concentration of 500ppm for 2-3 minutes, and then cutting;
(5) cutting requirements: the cuttage is carried out in the morning and evening, the processed cutting slips are inserted into the center of the bag with the depth of 2-4 cm, and the cutting slips are ensured to be in close contact with the cutting slip matrix;
(6) managing during rooting: watering thoroughly immediately after cutting, and covering a layer of water with a shading net; keeping the humidity of the cutting seedbed above 95% and the temperature below 30 ℃;
(7) transplanting the big seedlings: after rooting, gradually increasing the sunshine duration after 2 leaves grow out, alternately spraying a bactericide once a week, after the nursery stock survives for 1-2 months, replacing the nursery stock with a big bag cultivation, and carrying out seawater pouring and spraying off-shore cultivation in an off-shore cultivation big seedling transplanting matrix or carrying out seawater water cultivation in a seawater water cultivation big seedling transplanting matrix to cultivate the big seedling;
(8) and (4) outplanting: hardening the seedlings for more than 40 days, and taking out the seedlings after the forest age reaches more than 0.5 year.
Further, the diameter of the non-woven fabric container bag is 6-8 cm, and the height of the non-woven fabric container bag is 15 cm.
Further, the bactericide comprises chlorothalonil and carbendazim.
Further, in the step 7, the water culture height in the seawater water culture mode is 1/2-4/5 of the height of the non-woven fabric container bag.
Further, the daily time in step 7 is 2 hours per day of the first week, and then increased by 2 hours per day of the week to full sun.
Further, the cutting substrate is sea mud: fine sand is mixed according to the volume ratio of 1: 1 a matrix formed by uniformly mixing.
Further, the offshore cultured big seedling transplanting substrate is prepared from sea mud and yellow soil according to the volume ratio of 1: 1, the matrix is formed by mixing, and the seawater water culture large seedling transplanting matrix is rice husk: perlite is mixed according to a volume ratio of 0.866: 0.134 of a mixed matrix.
The invention adopts the container to cultivate the seedlings, and the seedlings can be forested under various conditions due to the container protection and complete root systems, and has the advantages of high survival rate of the forested seedlings, long forestation seasons and the like. The seedling culture medium is one of key factors influencing the seedling culture effect of the container, the light organic medium is adopted for cuttage and breeding of the paulownia seedlings, the used medium has the advantages of stable performance, strong buffering capacity, simple production equipment, easy mastering of technology, reproducible production and use materials, no environmental pollution and the like, and the high-quality paulownia seedlings with stable genetic characteristics can be bred efficiently and massively in a short time. The special organic matrix has the effects of asepsis, high water permeability and promotion of root growth, and can effectively improve the survival rate.
The invention provides a cuttage breeding method of a tung tree, which can not only maintain the excellent properties of the tung tree of an important mangrove tree species, but also is not influenced by afforestation seasons, can efficiently and massively breed high-quality tung tree seedlings with stable genetic characteristics, can meet the demand of coastal protection forest construction on mangrove tree species, and has good application prospect. The cuttage survival rate of the tung tree is more than 85%, and the nursery stock rate is more than 90%.
Detailed Description
In order to make the technical means, the creation characteristics, the achievement purposes and the effects of the invention easy to understand, the invention is further described with the specific embodiments.
Example 1
A method for cuttage breeding of tung tree is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting stock plants of the cutting slips of the tung tree, and selecting excellent stock plants which are mature for more than 3 years, strong in growth and free of diseases and insect pests;
(2) and (3) pruning the cutting slips of the tung tree, wherein the cutting slips are from the top end of the middle upper part of the crown of the mother plant, and the branches are cut in the morning of 4-6 months. After picking, putting the branches in clear water for moisturizing in time, and quickly moving the branches to a shade place for pruning the cuttings, wherein the whole process avoids sunshine irradiation and wind blowing, each cutting is cut into 15 cm in the pruning process, 2-3 buds are reserved, the leaves are removed, and the cutting sockets at the lower parts of the branches are cut into inclined planes and are smoothly and directly cut;
(3) preparing a cutting substrate, wherein the cutting substrate is prepared from sea mud: fine sand is mixed according to the volume ratio of 1: 1 in proportion; filling a non-woven fabric container bag with a matrix, uniformly spraying the matrix with 0.5% potassium permanganate solution, disinfecting and cleaning for later use, and thoroughly spraying the cutting matrix bag with clear water before cutting; the diameter of the non-woven fabric container bag is 7 cm, and the height of the non-woven fabric container bag is 15 cm;
(4) performing hormone treatment on cutting slips, soaking the cutting slips in a plant growth regulator root solar water solution with the concentration of 500ppm for 2.5 minutes, and then cutting;
(5) cutting requirements: the cuttage is carried out in the morning and evening, the processed cutting slips are inserted into the center of the bag with the depth of 3 cm, and the cutting slips are ensured to be tightly contacted with the substrate;
(6) managing during rooting: watering thoroughly immediately after cutting, and covering a layer of water with a shading net; keeping the humidity of the cutting seedbed above 95% and the temperature below 30 ℃;
(7) transplanting the big seedlings: after rooting, gradually increasing the sunshine duration after 2 leaves grow out, alternately spraying chlorothalonil bactericide once a week, changing into big bag cultivation after the nursery stock survives for 1-2 months, and adopting sea mud and yellow soil according to the volume ratio of 1: 1 the offshore cultured big seedling transplanting substrate formed by mixing is used for seawater pouring and offshore culturing. The daily exposure time in step 7 is 2 hours per day of the first week, and then increased by 2 hours per day of the week to full exposure.
(8) And (4) outplanting: hardening the seedlings for more than 40 days, and taking out the seedlings after the forest age reaches more than 0.5 year.
Example 2
A method for cuttage breeding of tung tree is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting stock plants of the cutting slips of the tung tree, and selecting excellent stock plants which are mature for more than 3 years, strong in growth and free of diseases and insect pests;
(2) and (3) pruning the cutting slips of the tung tree, wherein the cutting slips are from the top end of the middle upper part of the crown of the mother plant, and the branches are cut in the morning of 4-6 months. After picking, putting the branches in clear water for moisturizing in time, and quickly moving the branches to a shade place for pruning the cuttings, wherein the whole process avoids sunshine irradiation and wind blowing, each cutting is cut into 20 cm in the pruning process, 2-3 buds are reserved, the leaves are removed, and the cutting sockets at the lower parts of the branches are cut into inclined planes and are smoothly and directly cut;
(3) preparing a cutting substrate, wherein the cutting substrate is prepared from sea mud: fine sand is mixed according to the volume ratio of 1: 1, mixing the raw materials in a ratio; filling a non-woven fabric container bag with a matrix, uniformly spraying the matrix with 0.5% potassium permanganate solution, disinfecting and cleaning for later use, and thoroughly spraying the cutting matrix bag with clear water before cutting; the diameter of the non-woven fabric container bag is 6 cm, and the height of the non-woven fabric container bag is 15 cm;
(4) performing hormone treatment on cutting slips, soaking the cutting slips in a plant growth regulator root solar water solution with the concentration of 500ppm for 3 minutes, and then cutting the cutting slips;
(5) cutting requirements: the cuttage is carried out in the morning and evening, the processed cutting slips are inserted into the center of the bag with the depth of 2 cm, and the cutting slips are ensured to be tightly contacted with the substrate;
(6) managing during rooting: watering thoroughly immediately after cutting, and covering a layer of water with a shading net; keeping the humidity of the cutting seedbed above 95% and the temperature below 30 ℃;
(7) transplanting the big seedlings: after rooting, gradually increasing the sunshine duration after 2 leaves grow out, alternately spraying carbendazim bactericide once a week, and after the nursery stock survives for 1-2 months, replacing the cultivation in big bags by adopting rice husks: perlite is mixed according to a volume ratio of 0.866: 0.134 of the mixed seawater water culture big seedling transplanting medium is subjected to seawater water culture to culture big seedlings; the water culture height in the seawater water culture mode in the step 7 is 1/2 of the height of the non-woven fabric container bag. The daily exposure time in step 7 is 2 hours per day of the first week, and then increased by 2 hours per day of the week to full exposure.
(8) And (4) outplanting: hardening the seedlings for more than 40 days, and taking out the seedlings after the forest age reaches more than 0.5 year.
Example 3
A method for cuttage breeding of tung tree is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting stock plants of the cutting slips of the tung tree, and selecting excellent stock plants which are mature for more than 3 years, strong in growth and free of diseases and insect pests;
(2) and (3) pruning the cutting slips of the tung tree, wherein the cutting slips are from the top end of the middle upper part of the crown of the mother plant, and the branches are cut in the morning of 4-6 months. After picking, putting the branches in clear water for moisturizing in time, and quickly moving the branches to a shade place for pruning the cuttings, wherein the whole process avoids sunshine irradiation and wind blowing, each cutting is cut into 10 cm in the pruning process, 2-3 buds are reserved, the leaves are removed, and the cutting sockets at the lower parts of the branches are cut into inclined planes and are smoothly and directly cut;
(3) preparing a cutting substrate, wherein the cutting substrate is sea mud: fine sand is mixed according to the volume ratio of 1: 1, uniformly mixing; filling a non-woven fabric container bag with a matrix, uniformly spraying the matrix with 0.5% potassium permanganate solution, disinfecting and cleaning for later use, and thoroughly spraying the cutting matrix bag with clear water before cutting; the diameter of the non-woven fabric container bag is 8 cm, and the height of the non-woven fabric container bag is 15 cm;
(4) performing hormone treatment on cutting slips, soaking the cutting slips in a plant growth regulator root solar water solution with the concentration of 500ppm for 2 minutes, and then cutting the cutting slips;
(5) cutting requirements: the cuttage is carried out in the morning and evening, the processed cutting slips are inserted into the center of the bag with the depth of 4 cm, and the cutting slips are ensured to be tightly contacted with the substrate;
(6) managing during rooting: watering thoroughly immediately after cutting, and covering a layer of water with a shading net; keeping the humidity of the cutting seedbed above 95% and the temperature below 30 ℃;
(7) transplanting the big seedlings: after rooting, gradually increasing sunshine duration after 2 leaves grow out, alternately spraying chlorothalonil and carbendazim bactericide once a week, and after the nursery stock survives for 1-2 months, replacing the cultivation in a big bag, and adopting rice husks: perlite is mixed according to a volume ratio of 0.866: 0.134 of the mixed seawater water culture big seedling transplanting medium is subjected to seawater water culture to culture big seedlings; the water culture height in the seawater water culture mode in the step 7 is 4/5 of the height of the non-woven fabric container bag. The daily exposure time in step 7 is 2 hours per day of the first week, and then increased by 2 hours per day of the week to full exposure.
(8) And (4) outplanting: hardening the seedlings for more than 40 days, and taking out the seedlings after the forest age reaches more than 0.5 year.
Comparative example 1
Same as example 2 except that the cutting substrate is sea mud.
Comparative example 2
Same as example 2 except that the hydroponic seedling transplantation medium was rice hulls: perlite proportion 1: 1.
comparative example 3
Same as example 2 except that the sunshine duration is natural sunshine.
And (4) counting the cuttage survival rate of the tung tree and the nursery stock outplanting rate, wherein the counting result is as follows.
Survival rate of cuttage% The seedling rate is%
Example 1 87.3 93.2
Example 2 92.6 96.3
Example 3 86.4 92.2
Comparative example 1 76.2 84.7
Comparative example 2 79.8 88.6
Comparative example 3 83.3 88.5
The foregoing shows and describes the general principles and broad features of the present invention and advantages thereof. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, which are described in the specification and illustrated only to illustrate the principle of the present invention, but that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, which fall within the scope of the invention as claimed. The scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.

Claims (4)

1. A method for cuttage breeding of tung tree is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting stock plants of the cutting slips of the tung tree, and selecting excellent stock plants which are mature for more than 3 years, strong in growth and free of diseases and insect pests;
(2) cutting the cutting slips of the tung tree, wherein the cutting slips are from the top end of the middle upper part of the crown of the mother plant, and the branches are cut in the morning of 4-6 months; after picking, putting the branches in clear water for moisturizing in time, and quickly moving the branches to a shade place for pruning the cuttings, wherein the whole process avoids sunshine irradiation and wind blowing, each cutting is cut into 10-20 cm in the pruning process, 2-3 buds are reserved, the leaves are removed, and the cutting sockets at the lower parts of the branches are cut into inclined planes and are smoothly and directly cut;
(3) preparing a cutting medium, wherein the cutting medium is sea mud: fine sand is mixed according to the volume ratio of 1: 1, uniformly mixing; filling a non-woven fabric container bag with a matrix, uniformly spraying the matrix with 0.5% potassium permanganate solution, disinfecting and cleaning for later use, and thoroughly spraying the cutting matrix bag with clear water before cutting;
(4) performing hormone treatment on cutting slips, soaking the cutting slips in a plant growth regulator root solar water solution with the concentration of 500ppm for 2-3 minutes, and then cutting;
(5) cutting requirements: selecting morning and evening for cuttage, inserting the processed cutting slips into the center of the bag at a depth of 2-4 cm, and ensuring the cutting slips to be tightly contacted with the cutting slip matrix;
(6) managing during rooting: watering thoroughly immediately after cutting, and covering a layer of water with a shading net; keeping the humidity of the cutting seedbed above 95% and the temperature below 30 ℃;
(7) transplanting the big seedlings: after rooting, gradually increasing the sunshine time after 2 leaves grow out, wherein the sunshine time is 2 hours per day in the first week, then increasing 2 hours per day per week till the sunshine is full, alternately spraying a bactericide once per week, after the nursery stock survives for 1-2 months, replacing the cultivation with big bags, and adopting an offshore cultivation big seedling transplanting matrix to carry out seawater pouring and off-shore cultivation or adopting a seawater water cultivation big seedling transplanting matrix to carry out seawater water cultivation to cultivate the big seedling; the offshore cultured big seedling transplanting substrate is prepared from sea mud and yellow soil according to the volume ratio of 1: 1, the matrix is formed by mixing, and the seawater water culture large seedling transplanting matrix is rice husk: perlite is mixed according to a volume ratio of 0.866: 0.134 of a matrix of the blend;
(8) and (4) outplanting, namely hardening the seedlings for more than 40 days, and outplanting when the forest age reaches more than 0.5 year.
2. The method for cuttage propagation of tung tree as claimed in claim 1, wherein the diameter of the non-woven fabric container bag is 6-8 cm, and the height is 15 cm.
3. The method for cuttage propagation of the tung tree as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bactericide comprises chlorothalonil and carbendazim.
4. The cutting propagation method of the tung tree as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that in the step (7), the water culture height in the seawater water culture mode is 1/2-4/5 of the bag height of the non-woven fabric container.
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