CN103975754A - Method for cultivating camellia oleifera seedling stock grafting seedlings - Google Patents

Method for cultivating camellia oleifera seedling stock grafting seedlings Download PDF

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CN103975754A
CN103975754A CN201410237062.4A CN201410237062A CN103975754A CN 103975754 A CN103975754 A CN 103975754A CN 201410237062 A CN201410237062 A CN 201410237062A CN 103975754 A CN103975754 A CN 103975754A
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grafting
stock
scion
oil
soil
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CN103975754B (en
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冯金玲
陈辉
杨志坚
郑灏
白玮玮
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Guangxi Southland Modern Construction Co., Ltd.
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Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cultivating camellia oleifera seedling stock grafting seedlings. The method includes the steps of (1) stock cultivating, (2) scion collecting, (3) nursery land preparing, (4) grafting, (5) planting, and (6) managing after planting. Camellia oleifera seedlings are cultivated and propagated through the method, practices show that the graft survival rate of the camellia oleifera seedlings can reach 90-95%, the outplanting rate ranges from 80% to 85%, and the problem of incompatibility of grafting of different cultivars is solved. By means of the method, the high survival rate and the high outplanting rate of the camellia oleifera seedling stock grafting seedlings are achieved, high quality of the cultivated camellia oleifera nursery stocks is achieved, and the method has important application value.

Description

A kind of breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling
Technical field
The invention belongs to the cultivation field of oil tea nursery stock, be specifically related to a kind of breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling.
Background technology
Oil tea (Camellia oleifera) is the evergreen dungarunga of Theaceae Camellia, is the important woody edible oil material seeds of China, with oil palm, olive, coconut and be called the large woody edible oil seeds in the world four.Tea oil is green health edible oil, enjoys the good reputation of " east olive oil ".The content of the unsaturated fatty acid in tea oil accounts for 90% of total fatty acid content, and wherein oleic acid content, up to 83.3% left and right, contributes to maintain human brain cell structure, reduces the decline of memory, and can prevent cardiovascular disease.In tea oil, also contain abundant Ve, Vd, Vk, carotin and squalene, wherein squalene is a kind of active component of Polyphenols, has very strong oxygen enrichment ability, has the function of anti-anoxic, antifatigue, raising body immunity and enhancement gastrointestinal absorption.At home and abroad day by day come into one's own in recent years, international food and agricultural organization has been classified as the health type edible oil that emphasis is promoted.
It is day by day required that oil tea cultivation not only meets people's life, to transforming agricultural production, developing rural economy, the structural meaning of building a harmonious society be great.China's oil tea plantation is with a long history, and improved seeds, clone, family and the farm variety of oil tea are various, all adopts vegetative method expansion numerous to wherein having identified the strain of merit.Along with the expansion of oil tea cultivated area, on market, the demand of oil tea excellent strain nursery stock is increased day by day.
At present, sprout stock graft technology has been applied to camellia seedling, but survival rate only has 70% left and right, more serious to the waste of good scion.The oil tea scion of grafting different cultivars on sprout stock, chimeric survival rate also difference is obvious, and low only reaches 25%.After grafting, in 0 d to 6 d, the lethality of grafting colony approaches 0 %; The time that occurs mortality plant is the 8th d after grafting, and lethality is 1.57 %; Thereafter lethality sharply rises, and after grafting, the 16th d peaks, and is 5.07 %; Drop sharply to again 1.52 % to the 20th d after grafting; To the lethality of the 35th d grafting after grafting between 1 %-1.8 %; Lethality falls back to 0 % afterwards.
The key period of oil-tea sprout anvil grafting survival is in month after grafting, particularly front 16 d after grafting.When the oil tea grafting of different cultivars, the performance of the affinity of anvil fringe there are differences, and is also one of technical bottleneck of oil tea improved seeds nursery stock production.The chimeric healing success or not of oil-tea sprout anvil is the key factor that affects graft survival rate, though grafting survives in oil-tea sprout anvil graft cultivating process, but external environment is as unreasonable in the condition regulation and control such as light, temperature, water, fertilizer and damage by disease and insect, cause out nursery stock outplanting rate low, present stage, the outplanting rate of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling was only 50% left and right, was mainly that following reason causes:
(1) when stock is cultivated, the standard of the clear and definite temperature and humidity control of neither one;
(2) nursery lot earth is not nursed one's health the physical and chemical character of soil for oil-tea sprout anvil root growth feature, and as ventilative in need, happiness acid, happiness is fertile, be afraid of the wet drought etc. of being afraid of again;
(3) sprout stock grafting does not have the feature for oil tea scion and stock;
(4) before transplanting, do not execute root-inducing powder, improve going out root rate and going out root amount of stock;
(5) when grafting field management, the feature of not growing for grafting mouth.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to in oil-tea sprout anvil graft seedling growth process, the technical barrier of the low and incompatibility of survival rate, a kind of breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling is provided, use the method can effectively solve in oil-tea sprout anvil graft seedling growth process, the low problem with incompatibility of graft survival rate.
For realizing the object of the invention, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A breeding method for oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling, comprise collection, the ground, garden of cultivation, the scion of stock preparation, grafting, plant, plant rear management.
The breeding method of described oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling, concrete steps are:
(1) cultivation of stock: the 2-3 month before grafting, after Seed of Camellia oleifera is soaked with the liquor potassic permanganate of 0.3-0.8wt%, clean with clear water rinsing, be seeded in the husky bed of 15-25 cm, pave compression, then cover one deck sand, water permeable, the surface upper cover thing temperature and humidity control that shelters from heat or light, sprouts Seed of Camellia oleifera and makes plumule grow to 3~5 cm, preparation grafting;
(2) collection of scion: before cloudy day or fine day at 11 o'clock in morning, adopt scion after at 5 o'clock in afternoon, fringe bar selects area without shade, bud is full, without damage by disease and insect, well-grown semi-lignified branch;
(3) preparation on ground, garden: 5-10 days before grafting, selection damage by disease and insect is few, irrigation and drainage are convenient, the sandy loam of fertile soil is ploughed deeply whole ground, the husk of ground, garden soil, woods ground surface soil and pulverizing is mixed in the ratio of 1:1:1, then carry out soil disinfection, cover the stifling 3-8 d of mulch film, then make bed, then cover the thin yellow soil of one deck 1~2cm;
(4) grafting: carry out between mid-May to late June, stock is dug out from husky bed, wash silt off, cover wet cloth; Stock and scion are processed to rear grafting, and when grafting, scion is alignd with the formation layer of sprout stock, and the bevel of the scion 0.5-1.5mm that shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, ties up interface with aluminium foil, and the root of graft is at 100mgL -1aBT3 rooting powder solution in soak 5-10s;
(5) plant: the seeding row spacing of grafting is 5 cm × 20 cm, when transplanting, stock seed is exposed on furrow face, irrigates normal root water after cultivation, the added shed of furrow face, and lid film, is conducive to water conservation insulation, nursery lot frame cool canopy, the high 1-3m of canopy, keeps light transmittance 20-30%;
(6) plant after management: after transplanting, control in canopy temperature 28-32 DEG C and more than humidity 90-98%, 20-30 d after transplanting, uses 0.5 mgL -1gibberellin (GA 3) solution squirts grafting, accelerate grafting mouth vascular bundle and form layer and form; At 20-30 d, the rudiment of stock is removed and sprouted, only leave the scion bud of having sprouted, then fertilising, soil disinfection, transplanting.
The described temperature and humidity control of step (1) is: controlling temperature and be 10-15 DEG C, humidity is 60-80%;
Soil disinfection described in step (3) is: fully irrigate and carry out soil disinfection with 1000 times of liquid of 50wt% carbendazim, or fully irrigate sterilization with 800 times of liquid of formalin;
The described stock of step (4) is treated to: straight stock penis and testes crosscut is stayed to 2-4cm, and root is held back 3-7cm; Described scion is treated to: scion bevel is whittled into thin wedge shape, and long incision limit 1-2 cm, minor face 0.5-1.5 cm, retains 1 bud 1 leaf in scion, and bud is full, stalwartness, the scion cutting is in indolebutyric acid (IBA) 1mgL -1+ 6-benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) 0.2 mgL -1solution in soak after grafting;
The described fertilising of step (6) is: take out while growing to 3-5cm when the bud of scion, spray urea, spray composite fertilizer later every 12-18d; Lift after film, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate and urea 2-3 time every month;
The described soil disinfection of step (6) is: 1000 times of liquid of every 8-12 d 1 50wt% carbendazim of spray, or the fenaminosulf soil disinfection of 1wt%;
50-70 d after transplanting in step (6), takes off film ventilation at night, progressively adds thereafter forced ventilation, suitably increases illumination, and 90-110d after transplanting, takes film off, can move bed and expand garden after 1 year.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
(1) the present invention, in the time of the cultivation of stock, controls temperature 12 DEG C of left and right, and humidity is controlled at 70% left and right, and bud anvil phase and scion phase are coincide;
(2) the present invention according to oil-tea sprout anvil root growth feature (as ventilative in need, happiness acid, happiness fertile, be afraid of the wet drought etc. of being afraid of again) nurse one's health the physical and chemical character of soil, improved outplanting rate;
(3) the present invention soaks race by the root of graft before transplanting in rooting powder solution, has improved going out root rate and going out root amount of stock;
(4) feature that the present invention is directed to the growth of grafting mouth is planted rear management, and after transplanting, 25d left and right, uses 0.5 mgL -1gA solution squirts grafting, accelerates grafting mouth vascular bundle and forms, and has directly caused survival rate and outplanting rate to promote, and is the innovative point of maximum of the present invention;
(5) by above-mentioned improved step ectogenesis oil tea seedling, empirical tests: the graft survival rate of oil tea seedling reaches 90-95%, outplanting rate 80-85%, has solved the problem of different cultivars grafting people compatibility.Realize oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling high-servival rate, high outplanting rate, and cultivated oil of high quality tea shoot wood, there is important actual application value.
Embodiment
The present invention further illustrates the present invention with the following example, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the following example.
embodiment 1
(1) cultivation of common oil tea stock: the 2-3 month before grafting, after Seed of Camellia oleifera is soaked with the liquor potassic permanganate of 0.37wt%, clean with clear water rinsing, be seeded in the husky bed of 17 cm, pave compression, then cover one deck sand, water permeable, shelter from heat or light thing to make temperature be that 12 DEG C, humidity are 70% of surface upper cover, sprouts Seed of Camellia oleifera and makes plumule grow to 3.3 cm, preparation grafting;
(2) collection of safflower oil tea scion: before cloudy day or fine day at 11 o'clock in morning, adopt scion after at 5 o'clock in afternoon, fringe bar selects area without shade, bud is full, without damage by disease and insect, well-grown semi-lignified branch;
(3) preparation on garden ground: in grafting first 7 days, selection damage by disease and insect is few, irrigation and drainage are convenient, the sandy loam of fertile soil is ploughed deeply whole ground, the husk of ground, garden soil, woods ground surface soil and pulverizing is mixed in the ratio of 1:1:1, fully irrigate and carry out soil disinfection with 1000 times of liquid of 50wt% carbendazim, cover stifling 4 d of mulch film, then make bed, then cover the thin yellow soil of one deck 1.8cm;
(4) grafting: carry out between mid-May to late June, anvil seedling is dug out from husky bed, wash silt off, cover wet cloth, 3.7cm is stayed in the straight crosscut of stock penis and testes, and root is held back 3.9cm, and scion bevel is whittled into thin wedge shape, long incision limit 1.8 cm, minor face 1.3 cm, retain 1 bud 1 leaf in scion, bud is full, stalwartness, the scion cutting is in IBA 1mgL -1+ BA0.2 mgL -1solution in soak after grafting, when grafting, scion is alignd with the formation layer of sprout stock, the bevel of the scion 0.8mm that shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, ties up interface with aluminium foil, the root of graft is at 100mgL -1aBT3 rooting powder solution in soak 9S;
(5) plant: the seeding row spacing of grafting is 5 cm × 20 cm, when transplanting, stock seed is exposed on furrow face, irrigates normal root water after cultivation, the added shed of furrow face, and lid film, is conducive to water conservation insulation, nursery lot frame cool canopy, the high 1.8m of canopy, keeps light transmittance 22%;
(6) management after cultivation: temperature 28-32 DEG C and humidity 90-98% after transplanting in control canopy, 25 d after transplanting, use 0.5 mgL -1gA solution squirts grafting, accelerates grafting mouth vascular bundle and forms layer formation; At 25 d to the rudiment of stock except sprouting, only leave the scion bud of having sprouted, take out while growing to 4.4cm when the bud of scion, spray urea, spray composite fertilizer every 12d later; Lift after film, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate and urea 2 times every month, 1000 times of 1 50% carbendazim of every 8d spray, 50d after transplanting, takes off film ventilation at night, progressively adds thereafter forced ventilation, suitably increases illumination, and 90d after transplanting, takes film off, can move bed and expand garden after 1 year;
By said method ectogenesis oil tea seedling, empirical tests: the graft survival rate of oil tea seedling reaches 90.8%, outplanting rate 84.3%, has solved the problem of different cultivars incompatibility.
embodiment 2
(1) cultivation of common oil tea stock: the 2-3 month before grafting, after Seed of Camellia oleifera is soaked with the liquor potassic permanganate of 0.71wt%, clean with clear water rinsing, be seeded in the husky bed of 24 cm, pave compression, then cover one deck sand, water permeable, shelter from heat or light thing to make temperature be that 14 DEG C, humidity are 78% of surface upper cover, sprouts Seed of Camellia oleifera and makes plumule grow to 4.6cm, preparation grafting;
(2) collection of common oil tea scion: before cloudy day or fine day at 11 o'clock in morning, adopt scion after at 5 o'clock in afternoon, fringe bar selects area without shade, bud is full, without damage by disease and insect, well-grown semi-lignified branch;
(3) preparation on garden ground: in grafting first 9 days, selection damage by disease and insect is few, irrigation and drainage are convenient, the sandy loam of fertile soil is ploughed deeply whole ground, the husk of garden ground soil, woods ground surface soil and pulverizing is mixed by the ratio of 1:1:1, irrigate soil with 800 times of liquid of formalin, cover mulch film and fumigate 7d, then make bed, then cover the thin yellow soil of one deck 1.1cm;
(4) grafting: carry out between mid-May to late June, anvil seedling is dug out from husky bed, wash silt off, cover wet cloth, 2.1cm is stayed in the straight crosscut of stock penis and testes, and root is held back 6.2cm, and scion bevel is whittled into thin wedge shape, long incision limit 1.1 cm, minor face 0.8 cm, retains 1 bud 1 leaf in scion, bud is full, stalwartness, the scion cutting is in IBA 1mgL -1+ BA0.2 mgL -1solution in soak after grafting, when grafting, scion is alignd with the formation layer of sprout stock, the bevel of the scion 1.3mm that shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, ties up interface with aluminium foil, the root of graft is at 100mgL -1bT3 rooting powder solution in soak 6S;
(5) plant: the seeding row spacing of grafting is 5 cm × 20 cm, when transplanting, stock seed is exposed on furrow face, irrigates normal root water after cultivation, the added shed of furrow face, and lid film, is conducive to water conservation insulation, nursery lot frame cool canopy, the high 2.6m of canopy, keeps light transmittance 27%;
(6) management after cultivation: temperature 28-32 DEG C and humidity 90-98% after transplanting in control canopy, 28 d after transplanting, use 0.5 mgL -1gA solution squirts grafting, accelerates grafting mouth vascular bundle and forms layer formation; At 23 d to the rudiment of stock except sprouting, only leave the scion bud of having sprouted, take out while growing to 3.2cm when the bud of scion, spray urea, spray composite fertilizer every 18d later; Lift after film, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate and urea 3 times every month, the fenaminosulf soil disinfection that every 12 d spray is 1 time 1%; 70 d after transplanting, take off film ventilation at night, progressively add thereafter forced ventilation, suitably increase illumination, and 110d after transplanting, takes film off, can move bed and expand garden after 1 year;
By said method ectogenesis oil tea seedling, empirical tests: the graft survival rate of oil tea seedling reaches 94%, outplanting rate 81.6%, has solved the problem of different cultivars incompatibility.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, all equalizations of doing according to the present patent application the scope of the claims change and modify, and all should belong to covering scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a breeding method for oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling, is characterized in that: comprise collection, the ground, garden of cultivation, the scion of stock preparation, grafting, plant, plant rear management.
2. the breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling according to claim 1, is characterized in that: concrete steps are:
(1) cultivation of stock: the 2-3 month before grafting, after Seed of Camellia oleifera is soaked with liquor potassic permanganate, clean with clear water rinsing, be seeded in husky bed, pave compression, then cover one deck sand, water permeable, the surface upper cover thing temperature and humidity control that shelters from heat or light, sprouts Seed of Camellia oleifera and makes plumule grow to 3~5 cm, preparation grafting;
(2) collection of scion: before cloudy day or fine day at 11 o'clock in morning, adopt scion after at 5 o'clock in afternoon, fringe bar selects area without shade, bud is full, without damage by disease and insect, well-grown semi-lignified branch;
(3) preparation on ground, garden: 5-10 days before grafting, selection damage by disease and insect is few, irrigation and drainage are convenient, the sandy loam of fertile soil is ploughed deeply whole ground, the husk of ground, garden soil, woods ground surface soil and pulverizing is mixed, then carry out soil disinfection, cover the stifling 3-8 d of mulch film, then make bed, then cover the thin yellow soil of one deck 1~2cm;
(4) grafting: carry out between mid-May to late June, stock is dug out from husky bed, wash silt off, cover wet cloth; Stock and scion are processed to rear grafting, and when grafting, scion is alignd with the formation layer of sprout stock, and the bevel of the scion 0.5-1.5mm that shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, ties up interface with aluminium foil, and the root of graft is at 100mgL -1aBT3 rooting powder solution in soak 5-10s;
(5) plant: when transplanting, stock seed is exposed on furrow face, irrigates normal root water after cultivation, the added shed of furrow face, lid film, is conducive to water conservation insulation, nursery lot frame cool canopy, the high 1-3m of canopy, keeps light transmittance 20-30%;
(6) management after cultivation: temperature 28-32 DEG C and humidity 90-98% after transplanting in control canopy, 20-30 d after transplanting, uses 0.5 mgL -1gibberellin (GA 3) solution squirts grafting, accelerate grafting mouth vascular bundle and form layer and form; At 20-30 d, the rudiment of stock is removed and sprouted, only leave the scion bud of having sprouted, then fertilising, soil disinfection, transplanting.
3. the breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling according to claim 2, is characterized in that: the described temperature and humidity control of step (1) is: controlling temperature and be 10-15 DEG C, humidity is 60-80%.
4. the breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the soil disinfection described in step (3) is: fully irrigate and carry out soil disinfection with 1000 times of liquid of 50wt% carbendazim, or fully irrigate sterilization with 800 times of liquid of formalin.
5. the breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling according to claim 2, is characterized in that: being treated to stock in step (4): straight stock penis and testes crosscut is stayed to 2-4cm, and root is held back 3-7cm; To being treated to of scion: scion bevel is whittled into thin wedge shape, long incision limit 1-2 cm, minor face 0.5-1.5 cm, retains 1 bud 1 leaf in scion, and bud is full, stalwartness, the scion cutting is in indolebutyric acid (IBA) 1mgL -1+ 6-benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) 0.2 mgL -1solution in soak after grafting.
6. the breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling according to claim 2, is characterized in that: the described fertilising of step (6) is: take out while growing to 3-5cm when the bud of scion, spray urea, spray composite fertilizer later every 12-18d; Lift after film, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate and urea 2-3 time every month.
7. the breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling according to claim 2, is characterized in that: the described soil disinfection of step (6) is: 1000 times of liquid of every 8-12 d 1 50wt% carbendazim of spray, or the fenaminosulf soil disinfection of 1wt%.
8. the breeding method of oil-tea sprout stock grafting seedling according to claim 2, is characterized in that: 50-70 d after transplanting in step (6), takes off film ventilation at night, progressively add forced ventilation, suitably increase illumination, 90-110d after transplanting thereafter, take film off, after 1 year, can move bed and expand garden.
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CN105210680A (en) * 2015-09-25 2016-01-06 潜山县经汇农业综合发展有限公司 A kind of oil-tea sprout stock grafting method
CN105594540A (en) * 2015-12-24 2016-05-25 广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所 Camellia pubipetala grafting and seedling cultivating method
CN106258519A (en) * 2016-08-27 2017-01-04 广西御汇堂生物科技有限公司 A kind of oil tea seedling engrafting method
CN106358921A (en) * 2016-08-27 2017-02-01 广西御汇堂生物科技有限公司 Cultivation method for grafting seedlings of oil tea bud stock
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CN105210609A (en) * 2015-09-14 2016-01-06 湖南绿博农林开发有限公司 A kind of oil tea seedling centralized management breeding method
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CN106358921A (en) * 2016-08-27 2017-02-01 广西御汇堂生物科技有限公司 Cultivation method for grafting seedlings of oil tea bud stock
CN106258519A (en) * 2016-08-27 2017-01-04 广西御汇堂生物科技有限公司 A kind of oil tea seedling engrafting method
CN106508437A (en) * 2016-10-28 2017-03-22 福建百卉花艺有限公司 Grafting method
CN107047189A (en) * 2017-04-19 2017-08-18 泾县汀溪兰香茶业开发有限公司 A kind of cuttage and seedling culture method of tea tree
CN107439313A (en) * 2017-08-29 2017-12-08 贵州省苗岭经济林技术开发有限公司 A kind of oil tea grafting seedlings-growing method
CN108040733A (en) * 2018-01-04 2018-05-18 湖北瑞晟生物有限责任公司 A kind of technology for the grafting success rate for improving Camellia nitidissima
CN110558129A (en) * 2019-09-11 2019-12-13 安徽西山湖农业发展有限公司 Method for breeding camellia oleifera seedlings in seedling raising greenhouse

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