CN103125247B - Cultivation method of organic American ginseng - Google Patents

Cultivation method of organic American ginseng Download PDF

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CN103125247B
CN103125247B CN201310081458.XA CN201310081458A CN103125247B CN 103125247 B CN103125247 B CN 103125247B CN 201310081458 A CN201310081458 A CN 201310081458A CN 103125247 B CN103125247 B CN 103125247B
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american ginseng
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骆长林
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TONGHUA BAIQUAN GINSENG GROUP Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a cultivation method of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, and provides a cultivation method of organic American ginseng. The cultivation method comprises the following steps: (1) selecting a proper land and environment; (2) preparing soil and making a cultivation bed to reduce diseases; (3) further applying organic fertilizers to keep nutrition balanced; (4)selecting a disease-resistant variety; (5)increasing seed growing power for natural sprout; (6) planting and cultivating strong plants densely; (7) constructing a shed to reasonably adjust illumination; (8) adjusting and controlling water content to reduce the environment where diseases occur; (9) manually weeding and cleaning the surface of the cultivation bed to reduce the environment where diseases occur; (10) reasonably preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests; and (11) harvesting with a pollution controlling method. The cultivation method of the organic ginseng can achieve stable yield and high quality of the organic American ginseng, enables the organic American ginseng product to meet an organic American ginseng production standard, can solve the problems that pesticide residue content and heavy metal content exceed the standard in a traditional American ginseng cultivation process, and ensures quality of product of American ginseng original medicinal materials.

Description

A kind of cultivation method of organic American Ginseng
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of traditional Chinese medicine implantation methods, i.e. a kind of cultivation method of organic American Ginseng.
Background technology
American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolium Linn.) be again American ginseng, U.S.'s American Ginseng, the five fingers, haw, Guangdong American Ginseng etc., is that Araliaceae American Ginseng belongs to perennial root herbaceous plant.China's application American Ginseng history of existing 30 years, but introducing and planting started from for 20 century 70 intermediary and later stages, introduced a fine variety the beginning of the eighties and succeeded.Beijing, northeast each province, Shaanxi etc. have started commerial growing at present, have now developed into the 3rd Atlantic Ocean ginseng producing country after Canada, the U.S..In recent years, American Ginseng gained great popularity in tonic, and finished product is various.Along with the continuous increase of market demand; its medical value and economic worth constantly rise; thereby promoted artificial planting American Ginseng to industrialization, large-scale development, American Ginseng Pesticide Residue causes the attention of countries in the world gradually, more and more tighter to residue of pesticide restriction in the world.How, for market provides safety, high-quality, effective American Ginseng product, we have invented a kind of culture technique method that organic American Ginseng is produced.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is provides a kind of American Ginseng cultivation effect good for above-mentioned deficiency, and residue of pesticide are low, the production cultivation method of organic American Ginseng of stable yield and high quality.
Technical solution of the present invention is: a kind of cultivation method of organic American Ginseng, and its step is as follows:
(1) create control environment:
1. weather: broad leaved forest area, mountain region or the fertile vegetable garden of selecting height above sea level 800~1100m; Planting area is chosen in backwoods, Changbai Mountain, 117 °~137 ° of east longitudes, in the region of north latitude 40-48 °, annual rainfall is at 1000 millimeters, 13 DEG C of average annual temperature, vegetative period 18 DEG C-24 DEG C of temperature, air relative temperature 80%, frost-free season 110-150 days.
2. vegetation: taking toothed oak tree, lime tree as main broad leaved forest, needle mixed forest, raw branch, hazel bavin recklessly, the forest land of undershrub.
3. physical features: the ground, gentle slope, the Yinshan Mountains of gradient 5-15 degree; Half way up the mountain plantation, Dong Po, slope, the southeast, north slope, the Northeast Slope on selection mountain; Be conducive to draining.
4. soil property: choose sandy loam, loam, the content of organic matter is high, the soil of fertile soil, and the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, fertile, the to be rich in humus strong sand loam of forest umber, permeability, pH value 5.5-6.0; Prepare enough humus soil; The soil that ginseng furrow upper strata is 15 centimeters should be that humus soil is main formula soil layer.
5. environmental quality standards: meet national GAP and require the quality standards such as corresponding air, soil, irrigation water; More than production base ambient air quality reaches the secondary standard of GB3095-2012, soil environment quality reaches the secondary standard of GB15618-1995, and irrigation water reaches the standard of two classes in GB 5084-2005 " agricultural irrigation water quality standard ".
(2) what attenuating was fallen ill makees bed wholely
1. place cleaning: complete site clearing before plane is ploughed, reach no-sundries on the ground.
2. next year native dry field sterilization: 1-2 carries out whole ground in advance; Soil is ploughed rear and is used sunning sterilization 1 year, uses next year soil cultivation ginseng to sow; In sowing or plant whole ground the previous year of ginseng, in time out, repeatedly plane turns over, especially overturning 2~3 times in the time that how wet summer high temperature is.
3. increasing property of chesson: plantation ginseng is dug good head everywhere the previous year, plants ginseng and digs then two everywhere; The degree of depth of planing the ground 13-17cm, after the cold thing of withdrawing a garrison, furrow face is moistening should loosen the soil immediately, should first spray water after moistening and loosen the soil as arid, strengthens the permeability of soil.
4. orientation is done the smooth and easy draining of bed: keep soil moisture content 35%~45%; High 30~the 35cm of ginseng bed, bedside 1.2~1.5m, the wide 70~80cm in operation road between bed, stays drain ditch.
(3) applying organic manure ensures balanced in nutrition: do applying the farmyard manure fully becoming thoroughly decomposed after bed and make base fertilizer; Or by turning over green manure and straw-returning measure improves; Manure use, fertilizing amount is for mu is executed humus soil, the farmyard manure that sieves that becomes thoroughly decomposed, with 7.5-10Kg/m 2be advisable, plough under in soil, bed surface clay fertilizer is fully mixed and raked;
(4) disease-resistant variety is selected: select high-quality, how anti-long neck kind.
(5) improve germination naturally of seed growth power: take the vernalization of nature fried mouth method, dig germination groove, dig wide 140~150 centimetres, dark 20~25 centimetres at Shun Po, length is according to grain weight and fixed groove; By seeds of American ginseng winnow, cleaning treatment, put into seed: water=1:1.5 container, then by seeds of American ginseng and water, stir, soak more than 12 hours; Mix in the ratio of seed: fine sand=1:2, pack in woven bag; Put and plant groove: will enter a bag seed and lie in ditch, and lie in successively in the fine sand bed of having completed, thickness is 10~15cm, and 7~10 centimetres of blindings are slightly higher than ground, upper cover fallen leaves and grass; With the husky bed of plastic foil covering, fell to plant 1 time every 10~15 days.
(6) high-density planting is cultivated strong strain: taking autumn sowing as main, or sow in spring or lie prostrate and broadcast; Take artificial seeding, before annual early October is extremely freeze-up, sowing breach rate reaches more than 80% seeds of American ginseng; Cultivate biennial seedling, adopt 3 × 3cm program request, every square metre is sown into 800-1200 grain seed; Finish after seed, cover bed surface, overlying soil thickness 1.5cm with fine earth.
(7) the reasonable regulating illumination of puing up a shed: in 4 months, start shelving the last ten-days period; Adopt arch printing opacity canopy, arch printing opacity canopy vault is apart from the high 110-120cm of bed surface; The side arm canopy of emerging annual mid-April; The seedling light transmittance of life in 1~2 year is that 18%~20%, 3~4 years raw light transmittances are 25%~30%.
(8) moisture content regulation and control, reduce the environment that disease occurs: spring drought, dry season will or be drenched light rain in spray in time, watering sooner or later, or be added a cover broken careless 1~2 centimetre at furrow face.
(9) artificial weeding, clean bed surface, reduces the environment that disease occurs: ginseng garden uprooting weed is carried out 2~3 times every year; In the time that American Ginseng brood cell is sprouted, weed out the rank grass in conjunction with loosening the soil when.
(10) the reasonable prevention and control of damage by disease and insect:
1. after American Ginseng is emerged, spring and autumn should thoroughly be removed field deadwood weeds.
2. after withering autumn, can not cut in early days American Ginseng plant on the ground, in order to avoid rotten ginseng.
3. to large area damage by disease and insect, take botanical pesticide, biologic product and pulverized limestone pest control measure to process.
4. keep ginseng furrow to ventilate, draining is good, and the water drainage of taking precautions against drought is removed grass and shone bed, improves ground temperature, avoids soil moisture excessive.
5. hang black light lamp or barn lantern trapping adult in field, under lamp, place the container that fills kerosene and water.
(11) control the receiving method that rises polluting: American Ginseng reaches postpartum, gathers, and carries out in mid or late September, the processing of results limit, limit on time, prevent that fresh ginseng from overstocking, running pulp, affect crudy; Remove ginseng canopy, dig the side that turns down the bed, clean from the head of a bed starts dark plane, prevent from hindering the disconnected palpus of root; Shrug off earth, pack Turnover Box into, be transported to processing factory.
Compared with prior art, major advantage of the present invention is:
(1) the invention discloses a kind of culture technique method of organic American Ginseng, can realize stable yields and high-quality, make American Ginseng product meet organic American Ginseng production standard.
(2) the invention discloses the environment of selecting wild free of contamination environmental condition, one of creation to be conducive to organic American Ginseng growth, on ecotope, change and upset disease worm generation microclimate rule, reduce the occurrence and harm of damage by disease and insect.
(3) the invention discloses and ensured that in soil, nutrient is fully held the ginseng ground system of selection that weighing apparatus release is supplied with, violate and hold weighing apparatus by soil, cultivate the healthy tree that disease-resistant row is strong, avoided soil nutrient imbalance, the poor problem of American Ginseng growth disease resistance.
(4) the invention discloses by enriching base fertilizer fertilizer, the measure such as green manure and straw-returning that turns over improves, realize applying organic manure and ensure that organic ginseng balanced in nutrition produces.
(5) the invention discloses American Ginseng high-density planting, set up advantage group, containment weed growth, according to survival of the fittest rule naturally, realizes nature and keeps a full stand of seedings, and controls weed growth and breeds and do not use weed killer herbicide.
(6) the invention discloses a kind of culture technique method of organic American Ginseng, overcome the impact of the too much human factor existing in existing garden ginsent culture technique, American ginseng medicine has lost original wild characters, reduces the deficiency of its medicinal quality.
(7) the invention discloses artificial weeding, clean bed surface control farmland running to weeds, sets up the penetrating growth of seedling, reduces the environment that disease occurs.
(8) the invention discloses live and pass through without the field management such as agricultural chemicals, chemical fertilizer, utilizing botanical pesticide, biologic product and the insect pest of pulverized limestone control American Ginseng; Can solve that agriculture in traditional American Ginseng planting process is residual, content of beary metal exceeds standard problem, ensure American Ginseng crude drug product quality.
(9) the invention discloses by moisture content, reduce the environment that disease occurs.According to the law of needing the water of American Ginseng, make full use of movable rain-proof shelter He Can garden drainage system, adjust field moisture, avoid forming local accumulated water and cause wet injury and cause the popular of disease because of wet injury.
(10) the invention discloses using and promoting and improve adaptability and the resistance of American Ginseng of disease-resistant variety, reduce the use of agricultural chemicals, have increased access to the probability of organic American Ginseng product.
(11) the invention discloses and keep Agro-ecology balance, environment is not contaminated, reaches the organic production of American Ginseng and the anti-control techniques of the agricultural synthesis of prevention and control.
Below in conjunction with embodiment, embodiments of the present invention are described in further detail.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
A kind of cultivation method of organic American Ginseng:
One, create control environment
1, weather
At China's low latitudes, should select broad leaved forest area, mountain region or the fertile vegetable garden of height above sea level 800~1100m.Weather is nice and cool and moistening.The environment that has the higher forests will cover of tall and big arbor, shrub, because transpiration and the protective effect vacant lot of forest are large, has formed natural greenhouse, and Air Flow is relatively steady, and temperature, humidity change relatively stable.Standing forest temperature difference per day is little, is 1.8~2.5 DEG C.Planting area is chosen in backwoods, Changbai Mountain, 117 °~137 ° of east longitudes, and in the region of north latitude 40-48 °, annual rainfall is in 1000 millimeter, and 13 DEG C of left and right of average annual temperature, have a moderate climate, the environment that rainfall is abundant.Happiness is shady wet, avoids high light and high temperature, vegetative period 18 DEG C-24 DEG C of optimum temperatures, air relative temperature 80% left and right.Frost-free season 110-150 days.
2, the selection of land of vegetation American Ginseng cultivation is substantially similar to American Ginseng.It is main Broad-leaved Mixed Forest or theropencedrymion that the cultivation of new woods soil will be selected toothed oak tree, lime tree; General taking toothed oak tree, lime tree as main broad leaved forest, needle mixed forest, the forest land of the undershrubs such as raw branch, hazel bavin recklessly.
3, to the west of physical features forest fieid soil temperature, He Nan slope, slope is higher, and north slope and Dong Po are lower; Soil moisture is contrary, and Nan Po, Xi Po are lower, and north slope, Dong Po are higher.So suitable broad-leaved forest land, mountain region of being born in 1000 meters of left and right of height above sea level of American Ginseng, the ground, gentle slope, the Yinshan Mountains of gradient 5-15 degree.Half way up the mountain on mountain is planted, and on hummock or at the foot of the hill, all should not develop.
Select Dong Po, slope, the southeast, north slope, Northeast Slope, preferably select the north slope in ditch, river or half cloudy half light or the Schattenseite of Dong Po, taking Northeast Slope as best; It is high, preferably mild that flatness is made every effort in selection, and be easy to the condition of draining, avoids ponding, and the gradient easily causes too greatly the difficult choosing of water and soil loss.Hillock, air port ground, the ground that grittiness is large, chaor should not be selected.
4, soil property is chosen sandy loam, loam, and the content of organic matter is high, the soil of fertile soil, and the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, fertile, the to be rich in humus strong sand loam of forest umber, permeability, pH value 5.5-6.0.Humus soil is the best soil matrix of American Ginseng growth.American Ginseng originates from sylvan life, adapts to survive under humus soil condition.Therefore cultivation American Ginseng need be prepared enough humus soil.The soil of ginseng 15 centimeters of left and right, furrow upper strata should be that humus soil is main formula soil layer.
5, isolation strip is set up with farmland around in surrounding enviroment production base, the attentional selection base will be away from residential block.The random processing of house refuse, as the pollutions such as can producing a large amount of chromium, zinc, nickel of throwing out without care of refuse battery., prevent that base is based upon in some mines or industrial area.Apart from arterial highway or railway more than 50 meters.The mist of adjacent crop spraying pesticide, easily because of float of mist droplet to adjacent American Ginseng crop on cause poisoning.Selection of land selects to want the ground of uptake, the self-protection while carrying out forest land spray medicine.
6, environmental quality standards meet national GAP and require the quality standards such as corresponding air, soil, irrigation water.More than requirement production base ambient air quality reaches the secondary standard of GB3095-2012, soil environment quality reaches the secondary standard of GB15618-1995, and irrigation water reaches the standard of two classes in GB 5084-2005 " agricultural irrigation water quality standard ".
What two, attenuating was fallen ill makees bed wholely
1, place cleaning
(5 the end of month) front the completing of ploughing at plane cut down trees, cut ground, burns ground, determine a job such as stool, reaches ground no-sundries.
2, next year native dry field sterilization
After plot is chosen, shift to an earlier date 1-2 and carry out whole ground, can increase granular structure and the preserve moisture and fertility power of soil, the germ of kill harmful and worm's ovum.Soil is ploughed rear and is used sunning sterilization 1 year, uses next year soil cultivation ginseng to sow.On whole ground the previous year of sowing or cultivation ginseng, in time out, repeatedly plane turns over.Especially overturning 2~3 times in the time that summer high temperature is how wet, to improve soil physical and chemical property, increases the content of organic matter, increases soil fertility, and can kill germ and the insect in soil simultaneously.
3, increasing property of chesson
Plant ginseng and dig good head everywhere the previous year, cultivation is joined (before September) then and is dug two everywhere.The end of planing the ground, will put down, degree of depth 13-17cm, and not Liu Shengge, hurdle dam does not dig.Withdrawing a garrison after cold thing, furrow face is moistening should loosen the soil immediately, should first spray water after moistening and loosen the soil as arid, strengthens the permeability of soil, is beneficial to emerge, and loosening the soil should be shallow, avoids hindering its root.
4, orientation is done the smooth and easy draining of bed
Plan drain ditch, the position of check dam.Adopt along mountain or the oblique mountain of fine piece of writing and make bed according to physical features, the rib that plane turns over must be with bed to consistent.
Before sowing or transplanting, bedside sowing is done on limit.Determine the good ginseng bed trend that ensures draining and light modulation, ginseng bed specification is: the height of bed 30~35cm, and bedside 1.2~1.5m, the wide 70~80cm in operation road between bed, stays drain ditch.
Three, applying organic manure ensures balanced in nutrition
If soil nutrient can not apply the farmyard manure fully becoming thoroughly decomposed after bed and do base fertilizer fertilizer doing completely.Can also improve by turning over the measure such as green manure and straw-returning.
According to nutritional characteristic and the fertile ability of need, adhere to manure use, keep balance and the continuous renewal of the soil organic matter.Fertilizing amount is for mu is executed humus soil, the farmyard manure that sieves that becomes thoroughly decomposed, with 7.5-10Kg/m 2be advisable, plough under in soil, bed surface clay fertilizer is fully mixed and raked.
Four, disease-resistant variety is selected
Long neck kind is the kind that reed that people select gradually from garden ginsent grows, and has bodily form perfection, feature that growth rate is suitable, and disease-resistant variety, and this kind seed is less, every kilogram of 2.0 ten thousand left and right of water seed.In equal growth year after planting, reed neck obviously extends.Therefore, select high-quality, how anti-long neck kind, utilize resistance control technology wide in variety, control the generation of American Ginseng disease and popular, effectively solved disease in American Ginseng production process, worm, careless problem.
Five, improve naturally germinateing of seed growth power
The anosis seeds of American ginseng of selecting and remain, takes the process of nature fried mouth method vernalization to be, first digs germination groove, the higher and slightly acclive place in physical features on the sunny side, and along digging wide 140~150 centimetres, dark 20~25 centimetres in slope, length is according to grain weight and fixed groove.
By seeds of American ginseng winnow, cleaning treatment, the flat kind of removal, put into seed: water=1:1.5 container, then by seeds of American ginseng and water, stir, soak more than 12 hours; Mix in the ratio of seed: fine sand=1:2, pack in woven bag.
Put and plant groove: will enter a bag seed and lie in ditch, and lie in successively in the fine sand bed of having completed, thickness is 10~15cm, after smooth completing, 7~10 centimetres of blindings, slightly higher than ground, upper cover fallen leaves and grass, make seed in soil, naturally accept temperature and moisture.With the husky bed of plastic foil covering, to fall to plant 1 time every 10~15 days, adjusting temperature, humidity, by seed treatment, make the after-ripening of seeds of American ginseng completion morphology and physiology after-ripening, reaches breach standard.
Six, high-density planting is cultivated strong strain
Taking autumn sowing as main, also can consider to sow in spring or lie prostrate and broadcast.Take artificial seeding, before annual early October is extremely freeze-up, sowing breach rate reaches more than 80% seeds of American ginseng.Every square metre of seeding quantity of thickness of sowing; Adopt planter sowing or with pressing a device artificial seeding, one, every cave.Cultivate biennial seedling, adopt 3 × 3cm program request, every square metre is sown into 800-1200 grain seed.Finish after seed, cover bed surface with fine earth, overlying soil thickness 1.5cm left and right.
Seven, the reasonable regulating illumination of puing up a shed
In 4 months, start shelving the last ten-days period; Adopt arch printing opacity canopy, arch printing opacity canopy vault is apart from the high 110-120cm of bed surface.Adopt blue or yellow film, before thawing, put up frame.The side arm canopy of emerging annual 4 middle of the month, falls after seedling the bamboo curtain splint on frame is taken off to use again in next year September, and general spring is more nice and cool, and light transmittance can be larger, and firing heat penetration luminosity summer can be less; The seedling light transmittance of life in 1~2 year is 18%~20% comparatively suitable, and within 3~4 years, raw light transmittance is 25%~30%, but must grasp flexibly along with the variation of Seasons and ages, goes up curtain, flower arrangement in time.
Eight, moisture content regulation and control, reduce the environment that disease occurs
According to the law of needing the water of American Ginseng, make full use of movable rain-proof shelter He Can garden drainage system, timely rainproof draining in the time of cloudy weather for several days running, heavy rain, should roll up film in time if soil moisture is excessive after rain, removes weather screen and ventilates loose wet.Spring drought, dry season will or drench light rain in spray in time, watering sooner or later, also can add a cover broken careless 1~2 centimetre at furrow face, and soil moisture conservation is taked precautions against drought etc.Meanwhile, also should check in time repairing rain-proof shelter, prevent the rainwater ginseng furrow that bleed, form local accumulated water and cause wet injury and cause the popular of disease because of wet injury.
Nine, artificial weeding, clean bed surface, reduces the environment that disease occurs
That ginseng garden weeds should be adhered to pulling out early, be pulled out is little, pulled out, and guarantees not to be subject to the harm of weeds, general annual carrying out 2~3 times.In the time that American Ginseng brood cell is sprouted, weed out the rank grass in conjunction with loosening the soil when, see at any time that grass uproots at any time or pull out later.Realize the artificial uprooting weed of not using weed killer herbicide.
Ten, the reasonable prevention and control of damage by disease and insect
(1) after American Ginseng is emerged, spring and autumn should thoroughly be removed field deadwood weeds, generally takes out diseased plant and is destroyed, and eliminates cause of disease, and no pesticide grown, exempts to join body and polluted, and reduces quality.
(2) note after withered, can not cutting in early days American Ginseng plant on the ground autumn, in order to avoid rotten ginseng simultaneously.
(3) produce if any special large area damage by disease and insect, take the pest control measures such as botanical pesticide, biologic product and pulverized limestone to process, can be determined by circumstances age according to ginseng.As prevent and treat American Ginseng spot disease blade and fall ill with biologic products such as polyoxins.
(4) keep ginseng furrow to ventilate, draining is good, the water drainage of taking precautions against drought.Note removing grass and shine bed, improve ground temperature, avoid soil moisture excessive.
(5) hang black light lamp or barn lantern trapping adult in field, under lamp, place the container that fills kerosene and water.
11, control the receiving method that rises polluting
American Ginseng reaches postpartum, gathers on time, generally carries out in mid or late September, the processing of results limit, limit, prevents that fresh ginseng from overstocking, running pulp, affects crudy.Remove ginseng canopy, dig the side that turns down the bed, clean from the head of a bed starts dark plane, prevent from hindering the disconnected palpus of root.Shrug off earth, pack Turnover Box into, be transported to processing factory, the instrument used of gathering is clean, health, pollution-free.
Embodiment 2
The cultivation method of organic American Ginseng, its step is as follows:
(1) create control environment:
1. weather: broad leaved forest area, mountain region or the fertile vegetable garden of selecting height above sea level 800~1100m; Planting area is chosen in backwoods, Changbai Mountain, 117 °~137 ° of east longitudes, in the region of north latitude 40-48 °, annual rainfall is at 1000 millimeters, 13 DEG C of average annual temperature, vegetative period 18 DEG C-24 DEG C of temperature, air relative temperature 80%, frost-free season 110-150 days;
2. vegetation: taking toothed oak tree, lime tree as main broad leaved forest, needle mixed forest, raw branch, hazel bavin recklessly, the forest land of undershrub;
3. physical features: the ground, gentle slope, the Yinshan Mountains of gradient 5-15 degree; Half way up the mountain plantation, Dong Po, slope, the southeast, north slope, the Northeast Slope on selection mountain; Be conducive to draining;
4. soil property: choose sandy loam, loam, the content of organic matter is high, the soil of fertile soil, and the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, fertile, the to be rich in humus strong sand loam of forest umber, permeability, pH value 5.5-6.0; Prepare enough humus soil; The soil that ginseng furrow upper strata is 15 centimeters should be that humus soil is main formula soil layer;
5. environmental quality standards: meet national GAP and require the quality standards such as corresponding air, soil, irrigation water; More than production base ambient air quality reaches the secondary standard of GB3095-2012, soil environment quality reaches the secondary standard of GB15618-1995, and irrigation water reaches the standard of two classes in GB 5084-2005 " agricultural irrigation water quality standard ";
(2) what attenuating was fallen ill makees bed wholely
1. place cleaning: complete site clearing before plane is ploughed, reach no-sundries on the ground;
2. next year native dry field sterilization: carry out whole ground in advance for 2 years; Soil is ploughed rear and is used sunning sterilization 1 year, uses next year soil cultivation ginseng to sow; In sowing or plant whole ground the previous year of ginseng, in time out, repeatedly plane turns over, especially overturning 2~3 times in the time that how wet summer high temperature is;
3. increasing property of chesson: plantation ginseng is dug good head everywhere the previous year, plants ginseng and digs then two everywhere; The degree of depth of planing the ground 15cm, after the cold thing of withdrawing a garrison, furrow face is moistening should loosen the soil immediately, should first spray water after moistening and loosen the soil as arid, strengthens the permeability of soil;
4. orientation is done the smooth and easy draining of bed: keep soil moisture content 35%~45%; The high 30cm of ginseng bed, bedside 1.2m, the wide 70cm in operation road between bed, stays drain ditch;
(3) applying organic manure ensures balanced in nutrition: do applying the farmyard manure fully becoming thoroughly decomposed after bed and make base fertilizer; Or by turning over green manure and straw-returning measure improves; Manure use, fertilizing amount is for mu is executed humus soil, the farmyard manure that sieves that becomes thoroughly decomposed, with 8Kg/m 2be advisable, plough under in soil, bed surface clay fertilizer is fully mixed and raked;
(4) disease-resistant variety is selected: select high-quality, how anti-long neck kind;
(5) improve germination naturally of seed growth power: take the vernalization of nature fried mouth method, dig germination groove, dig wide 150 centimetres, dark 20 centimetres at Shun Po, length is according to grain weight and fixed groove; By seeds of American ginseng winnow, cleaning treatment, put into seed: water=1:1.5 container, then by seeds of American ginseng and water, stir, soak more than 12 hours; Mix in the ratio of seed: fine sand=1:2, pack in woven bag; Put and plant groove: will enter a bag seed and lie in ditch, and lie in successively in the fine sand bed of having completed, thickness is 10cm, and 10 centimetres of blindings are slightly higher than ground, upper cover fallen leaves and grass; With the husky bed of plastic foil covering, fell to plant 1 time every 15 days;
(6) high-density planting is cultivated strong strain: taking autumn sowing as main, or sow in spring or lie prostrate and broadcast; Take artificial seeding, before annual early October is extremely freeze-up, sowing breach rate reaches more than 80% seeds of American ginseng; Cultivate biennial seedling, adopt 3 × 3cm program request, every square metre is sown into 1000 seeds; Finish after seed, cover bed surface, overlying soil thickness 1.5cm with fine earth;
(7) the reasonable regulating illumination of puing up a shed: in 4 months, start shelving the last ten-days period; Adopt arch printing opacity canopy, arch printing opacity canopy vault is apart from the high 120cm of bed surface; The side arm canopy of emerging annual mid-April; The seedling light transmittance of life in 1~2 year is that 18%~20%, 3~4 years raw light transmittances are 25%~30%;
(8) moisture content regulation and control, reduce the environment that disease occurs: spring drought, dry season will or be drenched light rain in spray in time, watering sooner or later, or be added a cover broken careless 2 centimetres at furrow face;
(9) artificial weeding, clean bed surface, reduces the environment that disease occurs: ginseng garden uprooting weed is carried out 2~3 times every year; In the time that American Ginseng brood cell is sprouted, weed out the rank grass in conjunction with loosening the soil when;
(10) the reasonable prevention and control of damage by disease and insect:
1. after American Ginseng is emerged, spring and autumn should thoroughly be removed field deadwood weeds;
2. after withering autumn, can not cut in early days American Ginseng plant on the ground, in order to avoid rotten ginseng;
3. to large area damage by disease and insect, take botanical pesticide, biologic product and pulverized limestone pest control measure to process;
4. keep ginseng furrow to ventilate, draining is good, and the water drainage of taking precautions against drought is removed grass and shone bed, improves ground temperature, avoids soil moisture excessive;
5. hang black light lamp or barn lantern trapping adult in field, under lamp, place the container that fills kerosene and water;
(11) control the receiving method that rises polluting: American Ginseng reaches postpartum, gathers, and carries out in mid or late September, the processing of results limit, limit on time, prevent that fresh ginseng from overstocking, running pulp, affect crudy; Remove ginseng canopy, dig the side that turns down the bed, clean from the head of a bed starts dark plane, prevent from hindering the disconnected palpus of root; Shrug off earth, pack Turnover Box into, be transported to processing factory.

Claims (2)

1. a cultivation method for organic American Ginseng, is characterized in that step is as follows:
(1) create control environment:
1. weather: broad leaved forest area, mountain region or the fertile vegetable garden of selecting height above sea level 800~1100m; Planting area is chosen in backwoods, Changbai Mountain, 117 °~137 ° of east longitudes, in the region of north latitude 40-48 °, annual rainfall is at 1000 millimeters, 13 DEG C of average annual temperature, vegetative period 18 DEG C-24 DEG C of temperature, air relative temperature 80%, frost-free season 110-150 days;
2. vegetation: taking toothed oak tree, lime tree as main broad leaved forest, needle mixed forest, raw branch, hazel bavin recklessly, the forest land of undershrub;
3. physical features: the ground, gentle slope, the Yinshan Mountains of gradient 5-15 degree; Half way up the mountain plantation, Dong Po, slope, the southeast, north slope, the Northeast Slope on selection mountain; Be conducive to draining;
4. soil property: choose sandy loam, loam, pH value 5.5-6.0; Prepare enough humus soil; The soil that ginseng furrow upper strata is 15 centimeters should be that humus soil is main formula soil layer;
5. environmental quality standards: meet national GAP and require corresponding air, soil, irrigation water quality standard; More than production base ambient air quality reaches the secondary standard of GB3095-2012, soil environment quality reaches the secondary standard of GB15618-1995, and irrigation water reaches the standard of two classes in GB 5084-2005 " agricultural irrigation water quality standard ";
(2) what attenuating was fallen ill makees bed wholely
1. place cleaning: complete site clearing before plane is ploughed, reach no-sundries on the ground;
2. next year native dry field sterilization: 1-2 carries out whole ground in advance; Soil is ploughed rear and is used sunning sterilization 1 year, uses next year soil cultivation ginseng to sow; On whole ground the previous year of sowing or cultivation ginseng, in time out, repeatedly plane turns over, overturning 2~3 times in the time that how wet summer high temperature is;
3. increasing property of chesson: plantation ginseng is dug good head everywhere the previous year, plants ginseng and digs then two everywhere; The degree of depth of planing the ground 13-17cm, after the cold thing of withdrawing a garrison, furrow face is moistening should loosen the soil immediately, should first spray water after moistening and loosen the soil as arid, strengthens the permeability of soil;
4. orientation is done the smooth and easy draining of bed: keep soil moisture content 35%~45%; High 30~the 35cm of ginseng bed, bedside 1.2~1.5m, the wide 70~80cm in operation road between bed, stays drain ditch;
(3) applying organic manure ensures balanced in nutrition: do applying the farmyard manure fully becoming thoroughly decomposed after bed and make base fertilizer; Or by turning over green manure and straw-returning measure improves; Manure use, fertilizing amount is for mu is executed humus soil, the farmyard manure that sieves that becomes thoroughly decomposed, with 7.5-10Kg/m 2be advisable, plough under in soil, bed surface clay fertilizer is fully mixed and raked;
(4) disease-resistant variety is selected: select high-quality, how anti-long neck kind;
(5) improve germination naturally of seed growth power: take the vernalization of nature fried mouth method, dig germination groove, dig wide 140~150 centimetres, dark 20~25 centimetres at Shun Po, length is according to grain weight and fixed groove; By seeds of American ginseng winnow, cleaning treatment, put into seed: water=1:1.5 container, then by seeds of American ginseng and water, stir, soak more than 12 hours; Mix in the ratio of seed: fine sand=1:2, pack in woven bag; Put and plant groove: will enter a bag seed and lie in ditch, and lie in successively in the fine sand bed of having completed, thickness is 10~15cm, and 7~10 centimetres of blindings are slightly higher than ground, upper cover fallen leaves and grass; With the husky bed of plastic foil covering, fell to plant 1 time every 10~15 days;
(6) high-density planting is cultivated strong strain: taking autumn sowing as main, or sow in spring or lie prostrate and broadcast; Take artificial seeding, before annual early October is extremely freeze-up, sowing breach rate reaches more than 80% seeds of American ginseng; Cultivate biennial seedling, adopt 3 × 3cm program request, every square metre is sown into 800-1200 grain seed; Finish after seed, cover bed surface, overlying soil thickness 1.5cm with fine earth;
(7) the reasonable regulating illumination of puing up a shed: in 4 months, start shelving the last ten-days period; Adopt arch printing opacity canopy, arch printing opacity canopy vault is apart from the high 110-120cm of bed surface; The side arm canopy of emerging annual mid-April; The seedling light transmittance of life in 1~2 year is that 18%~20%, 3~4 years raw light transmittances are 25%~30%;
(8) moisture content regulation and control, reduce the environment that disease occurs: spring drought, dry season will or be drenched light rain in spray in time, watering sooner or later, or be added a cover broken careless 1~2 centimetre at furrow face;
(9) artificial weeding, clean bed surface, reduces the environment that disease occurs: ginseng garden uprooting weed is carried out 2~3 times every year; In the time that American Ginseng brood cell is sprouted, weed out the rank grass in conjunction with loosening the soil when;
(10) the reasonable prevention and control of damage by disease and insect:
1. after American Ginseng is emerged, spring and autumn should thoroughly be removed field deadwood weeds;
2. after withering autumn, can not cut in early days American Ginseng plant on the ground, in order to avoid rotten ginseng;
3. to large area damage by disease and insect, take botanical pesticide, biologic product and pulverized limestone pest control measure to process;
4. keep ginseng furrow to ventilate, draining is good, and the water drainage of taking precautions against drought is removed grass and shone bed, improves ground temperature, avoids soil moisture excessive;
5. hang black light lamp or barn lantern trapping adult in field, under lamp, place the container that fills kerosene and water;
(11) control the receiving method that rises polluting: American Ginseng reaches postpartum, gathers, and carries out in mid or late September, the processing of results limit, limit on time, prevent that fresh ginseng from overstocking, running pulp, affect crudy; Remove ginseng canopy, dig the side that turns down the bed, clean from the head of a bed starts dark plane, prevent from hindering the disconnected palpus of root; Shrug off earth, pack Turnover Box into, be transported to processing factory.
2. according to the cultivation method of organic American Ginseng claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that step is as follows:
(1) create control environment:
1. weather: broad leaved forest area, mountain region or the fertile vegetable garden of selecting height above sea level 800~1100m; Planting area is chosen in backwoods, Changbai Mountain, 117 °~137 ° of east longitudes, in the region of north latitude 40-48 °, annual rainfall is at 1000 millimeters, 13 DEG C of average annual temperature, vegetative period 18 DEG C-24 DEG C of temperature, air relative temperature 80%, frost-free season 110-150 days;
2. vegetation: taking toothed oak tree, lime tree as main broad leaved forest, needle mixed forest, raw branch, hazel bavin recklessly, the forest land of undershrub;
3. physical features: the ground, gentle slope, the Yinshan Mountains of gradient 5-15 degree; Half way up the mountain plantation, Dong Po, slope, the southeast, north slope, the Northeast Slope on selection mountain; Be conducive to draining;
4. soil property: choose sandy loam, loam, pH value 5.5-6.0; Prepare enough humus soil; The soil that ginseng furrow upper strata is 15 centimeters should be that humus soil is main formula soil layer;
5. environmental quality standards: meet national GAP and require corresponding air, soil, irrigation water quality standard; More than production base ambient air quality reaches the secondary standard of GB3095-2012, soil environment quality reaches the secondary standard of GB15618-1995, and irrigation water reaches the standard of two classes in GB 5084-2005 " agricultural irrigation water quality standard ";
(2) what attenuating was fallen ill makees bed wholely
1. place cleaning: complete site clearing before plane is ploughed, reach no-sundries on the ground;
2. next year native dry field sterilization: carry out whole ground in advance for 2 years; Soil is ploughed rear and is used sunning sterilization 1 year, uses next year soil cultivation ginseng to sow; On whole ground the previous year of sowing or cultivation ginseng, in time out, repeatedly plane turns over, overturning 2~3 times in the time that how wet summer high temperature is;
3. increasing property of chesson: plantation ginseng is dug good head everywhere the previous year, plants ginseng and digs then two everywhere; The degree of depth of planing the ground 15cm, after the cold thing of withdrawing a garrison, furrow face is moistening should loosen the soil immediately, should first spray water after moistening and loosen the soil as arid, strengthens the permeability of soil;
4. orientation is done the smooth and easy draining of bed: keep soil moisture content 35%~45%; The high 30cm of ginseng bed, bedside 1.2m, the wide 70cm in operation road between bed, stays drain ditch;
(3) applying organic manure ensures balanced in nutrition: do applying the farmyard manure fully becoming thoroughly decomposed after bed and make base fertilizer; Or by turning over green manure and straw-returning measure improves; Manure use, fertilizing amount is for mu is executed humus soil, the farmyard manure that sieves that becomes thoroughly decomposed, with 8Kg/m 2be advisable, plough under in soil, bed surface clay fertilizer is fully mixed and raked;
(4) disease-resistant variety is selected: select high-quality, how anti-long neck kind;
(5) improve germination naturally of seed growth power: take the vernalization of nature fried mouth method, dig germination groove, dig wide 150 centimetres, dark 20 centimetres at Shun Po, length is according to grain weight and fixed groove; By seeds of American ginseng winnow, cleaning treatment, put into seed: water=1:1.5 container, then by seeds of American ginseng and water, stir, soak more than 12 hours; Mix in the ratio of seed: fine sand=1:2, pack in woven bag; Put and plant groove: will enter a bag seed and lie in ditch, and lie in successively in the fine sand bed of having completed, thickness is 10cm, and 7 centimetres of blindings are slightly higher than ground, upper cover fallen leaves and grass; With the husky bed of plastic foil covering, fell to plant 1 time every 15 days;
(6) high-density planting is cultivated strong strain: taking autumn sowing as main, or sow in spring or lie prostrate and broadcast; Take artificial seeding, before annual early October is extremely freeze-up, sowing breach rate reaches more than 80% seeds of American ginseng; Cultivate biennial seedling, adopt 3 × 3cm program request, every square metre is sown into 1000 seeds; Finish after seed, cover bed surface, overlying soil thickness 1.5cm with fine earth;
(7) the reasonable regulating illumination of puing up a shed: in 4 months, start shelving the last ten-days period; Adopt arch printing opacity canopy, arch printing opacity canopy vault is apart from the high 120cm of bed surface; The side arm canopy of emerging annual mid-April; The seedling light transmittance of life in 1~2 year is that 18%~20%, 3~4 years raw light transmittances are 25%~30%;
(8) moisture content regulation and control, reduce the environment that disease occurs: spring drought, dry season will or be drenched light rain in spray in time, watering sooner or later, or be added a cover broken careless 2 centimetres at furrow face;
(9) artificial weeding, clean bed surface, reduces the environment that disease occurs: ginseng garden uprooting weed is carried out 2~3 times every year; In the time that American Ginseng brood cell is sprouted, weed out the rank grass in conjunction with loosening the soil when;
(10) the reasonable prevention and control of damage by disease and insect:
1. after American Ginseng is emerged, spring and autumn should thoroughly be removed field deadwood weeds;
2. after withering autumn, can not cut in early days American Ginseng plant on the ground, in order to avoid rotten ginseng;
3. to large area damage by disease and insect, take botanical pesticide, biologic product and pulverized limestone pest control measure to process;
4. keep ginseng furrow to ventilate, draining is good, and the water drainage of taking precautions against drought is removed grass and shone bed, improves ground temperature, avoids soil moisture excessive;
5. hang black light lamp or barn lantern trapping adult in field, under lamp, place the container that fills kerosene and water;
(11) control the receiving method that rises polluting: American Ginseng reaches postpartum, gathers, and carries out in mid or late September, the processing of results limit, limit on time, prevent that fresh ginseng from overstocking, running pulp, affect crudy; Remove ginseng canopy, dig the side that turns down the bed, clean from the head of a bed starts dark plane, prevent from hindering the disconnected palpus of root; Shrug off earth, pack Turnover Box into, be transported to processing factory.
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CN107926514B (en) * 2017-12-12 2021-01-05 重庆市中药研究院 Under-forest cultivation technology of traditional Chinese medicinal material panax japonicus
CN113179910B (en) * 2021-04-30 2022-12-27 威海市东旭西洋参有限公司 Substrate for soilless culture of American ginseng and method for soilless culture of American ginseng
CN113615517A (en) * 2021-07-15 2021-11-09 成都中医药大学 Technology for planting American ginseng in mountainous areas with elevation of 200 plus one year and height of 1000 meters in Sichuan basin
CN113973672B (en) * 2021-11-23 2022-12-02 济南大学 Ecological planting method of American ginseng
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