CN101836571A - Method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil - Google Patents

Method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil Download PDF

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CN101836571A
CN101836571A CN 201010135356 CN201010135356A CN101836571A CN 101836571 A CN101836571 A CN 101836571A CN 201010135356 CN201010135356 CN 201010135356 CN 201010135356 A CN201010135356 A CN 201010135356A CN 101836571 A CN101836571 A CN 101836571A
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planting
matrimony vine
soil
medlar
saline
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晋小军
黄高宝
柴强
席旭东
王晓
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Gansu Agricultural University
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Gansu Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil, which comprises the steps of: (1) selecting a place with the altitude of 2000-2800m for field planting; (2) planning a medlar garden; (3) determining the planting specification; (4) preparing soil and applying fertilizer; (5) selecting seedlings; (6) selecting field-planting time; (7) determining a field-planting method; (8) covering the medlar garden; (9) combining rods of medlar sapling; (10) managing the medlar garden; (11) pruning medlar and preventing and treating diseases, pets and birds; and (12) picking the fruits of the medlar and drying for storage. By adopting methods of covering, preparing soil into shallow groove-shaped planting belts, applying rotten organic fertilizer heavily and controlling the degree of irrigation, the invention solves the production difficulties of increasing soil temperature and preventing salt return of soil and achieves the purpose of planting the medlar in the high-altitude saline-alkali soil.

Description

Method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of medlar cultivation method, relate in particular to method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil.
Background technology
The saline land distributes very wide all over the world, spread all over 30 countries in six continents, about 9.56 hundred million hectares of the gross area.There are 2,600 ten thousand hectares in all kinds of saline lands in China, mainly is distributed in the North China Plain, Northeast plain, hinterland, northwest and coastal region.The research focus of China is not only on development and use saline land ground, also is global research focus, is the difficult problem of maximum wherein to the development and use in high height above sea level saline land, it is effectively administered extremely urgent.
The fruit of Chinese wolfberry sweet property of distinguishing the flavor of is flat, returns liver, kidney channel, have nourishing liver and kidney, beneficial intensive culture blood, the screen that disappears that makes eye bright, the effect that moistens the lung and relieve the cough.Through the analysis of effective component in the medlar extract liquid is measured, find to contain abundant following material: polysaccharide, monose, betain, fatty acid, protein and polypeptide, Cobastab 1, Cobastab 2, vitamin C, 18 seed amino acids (containing 8 kinds of essential amino acids), trace element (calcium, zinc, magnesium, iron, manganese, phosphorus etc.).In addition, according to China's composition table of foods record of up-to-date publication, carotene carotene content is significantly higher than fruit and vegetable in the matrimony vine, also contains compositions such as vitamin E, vitamin D, phosphatide and selenium; Pharmaceutical research confirms that the fruit of Chinese wolfberry can be regulated body's immunity, can effectively suppress tumor growth and cell mutation, have delay senility, the effect of aspects such as anti-fatty liver, adjusting blood fat and blood sugar.Therefore, the fruit of Chinese wolfberry all has certain therapeutic action to diabetes, dyslipidemia disease, dysfunction of liver, gastritis etc.The matrimony vine whole body all is precious, and FRUCTUS LYCII energy qi-restoratives production of sperm is used for being used as medicine or makes tea, steeps in wine, stews, and if can often drink, and just can improve the health.The leaf of matrimony vine, flower, root also are first-class cuisines tonics.According to " new Essentials of Materia Medica " record, the seedling leaf of matrimony vine is " day smart grass ", and flower is " houseleek ", and fruit cries " celestial ground fruit ", and root all has the nourishing and fit keeping function effect " root bark of Chinese wolf-berry ".
Along with China's rapid economy development and people's living standard improve constantly, demand to health-related medicinal material is increasing, health-related traditional Chinese medicine plantation is outstanding day by day with the contradiction that proportion of crop planting is striven ground, therefore, plant health-related traditional Chinese medicine in the saline land, both can solve the contradiction of striving ground with crops, also realize the progressively improvement in saline land, have great economy, ecology and social benefit; Solution to problems such as saline land recycling, soil, maintenance area safety, grain security and ecological safeties simultaneously provides effective way.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention provides a kind of method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil simple and easy to do, with low cost.
For addressing the above problem, a kind of method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil of the present invention may further comprise the steps:
(1) field planting environmental selection: the field planting height above sea level is 2000~2800m; Soil is saliferous desert anthropogenic-alluvial soil, and its pH value is 6.5~8.5, and saline and alkaline is below 0.9%, and subterranean water level is below 1.5m;
(2) matrimony vine garden planning: select to have a good transport service, in the soil fertility on, row irrigation is the plot easily; And determine to plant the row to for thing capable to;
(3) determine the specification of planting: select dense planting dwarf-type specification, its line-spacing is 2~2.5m, and spacing in the rows is 1~1.5m;
(4) site preparation and fertilization: with the plot of described step (2) when 7~August deep ploughing once, tilling depth is 30cm, and in preceding 15~30 days arrangement soils of planting, it is become along the flute profile planting belt of the behavior minimum point of planting, the field planting point is lower than the face of land 10~20cm; Transplant then and irritated water in preceding 7 days, after 3~5 days, dig diameter 60~70cm, the cylindrical hole of the degree of depth 80~70cm, organic fertilizer material in the hole;
(5) seedling is selected: selecting height is that 60~80cm, base footpath are matrimony vine epicormic branch cuttage seedling or the matrimony vine cuttage seedling of 0.7~1.5cm;
(6) the field planting time: the matrimony vine seedling is fallen leaves fully in the fall, enters resting stage, plants before soil is freeze-up;
(7) field planting method: the seedling of described step (5) is put in the field planting hole of digging in the described step (4), and root system is put directly suitable, buries soil then, waits soil and hole at ordinary times, upwards carries seedling; Steady and sure then, make the depth of fill in field planting hole consistent with ground level;
(8) the matrimony vine garden covers: any one in employing sandstone, mulch film, the stalk covers;
(9) matrimony vine treelet and bar: planting back 1 year peak of growing season in summer, the selection diameter is that 1.5~2.0cm, length are bamboo bar or the tree limb of 1.5~2.0m, is inserted in matrimony vine trunk limit and carries out also bar;
(10) matrimony vine garden management: the matrimony vine growing period, to the weeding of matrimony vine garden, pour water and topdress;
(11) control of matrimony vine pruning and disease, worm, bird pest;
(12) Chinese wolfberry fruit harvesting, dry storage.
Organic manure in the described step (4) is sheep excrement and phosphorus two ammoniums that become thoroughly decomposed; Wherein by every 667m 2Soil sheep excrement is executed 1000~1500kg, phosphorus two ammoniums are executed 20~25kg.
Sandstone in the described step (8) is meant that selecting particle diameter for use is the mixing sand grains of 1~4cm.
Pouring water in the described step (10) was meant in matrimony vine budding period in spring, initial bloom stage, achievement phase and period of freezing winter in winter respectively irritates water one time, and irrigating fixes is each 80~90m 3/ 667m 2
Topdressing in the described step (10) is meant behind the fall foliage in every year He before the rudiment in spring carries out every 667m 2Execute fertilizer, 20~30kg urea that 2000~2500kg fully becomes thoroughly decomposed, excavate 20cm annular groove dark, that 30cm is wide along the tree crown projection and imbed.
Matrimony vine in the described step (11) time of pruning carries out before early spring, young shoot was sprouted.
The present invention compared with prior art has the following advantages:
1, because the present invention adopts covering, the whole ground methods such as fertilizer, control irrigation quantity of becoming thoroughly decomposed for shallow slot shape growth belt, heavy dressing, therefore, solved at high height above sea level saline land increase soil temperature, prevented the production difficult problem of the soil accumulation of salt in the surface soil, thereby realized purpose high height above sea level saline land plantation matrimony vine.
2, adopt the matrimony vine of the inventive method plantation, can produce dried fruit of lycium barbarum 50~60kg/ mu then, by 30 yuan/kg of existing market price, the per mu yield value is 1500~1800 yuan; 1 year per mu yield dried fruit of lycium barbarum 100~130kg, the per mu yield value is 3000~3900 yuan; The 3rd year per mu yield dried fruit of lycium barbarum 150~200kg, the per mu yield value is 4500~6000 yuan; Entered the full bearing period on the 4th year, more than the per mu yield dried fruit of lycium barbarum 250kg, the per mu yield value reaches more than 7500 yuan.
3, the present invention is simple and easy to do, with low cost, can be widely used in fields such as saline land agricultural production, traditional Chinese medicine cultivation and the saline land comprehensive regulation.
Embodiment
A kind of method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil may further comprise the steps:
(1) field planting environmental selection: the field planting height above sea level is 2000~2800m; The soil of suitable cultivation is saliferous desert anthropogenic-alluvial soil, and its pH value is 6.5~8.5, and saline and alkaline is below 0.9%, and subterranean water level is below 1.5m, and is low more good more.
(2) matrimony vine garden planning: select to have a good transport service, in the soil fertility on, row irrigation is the plot easily; For making children age or adult matrimony vine can make full use of the illumination resource, prevent to shade, determine to plant row to for thing capable to.
(3) determine the specification of planting: matrimony vine is the shrub fruit trees, selects dense planting dwarf-type specification, and its line-spacing is 2~2.5m, spacing in the rows is 1~1.5m, both guarantee the high yield in orchard in young age, taken into account the production in adult matrimony vine garden again, helped intertilling, hoe up weeds, apply fertilizer and plucking farm works such as fruit simultaneously.;
(4) site preparation and fertilization: deep ploughing is once when 7~August with the plot of step (2), tilling depth is 30cm, so that being routed up, soil lower floor gravel is advisable, and in preceding 15~30 days arrangement soils of planting, it is become along the flute profile planting belt of the behavior minimum point of planting, and the field planting point is lower than the face of land 10~20cm; Behind the meticulous whole ground, reach Horizon, thin, the moisture in the soil foot of soil, defincienct in the upper and excessive in the lower good soil layer.
Transplant and irritated water in preceding 7 days, after 3~5 days, dig diameter 60~70cm, the cylindrical hole of the degree of depth 80~70cm, organic fertilizer material in the hole; Wherein organic manure is sheep excrement and phosphorus two ammoniums that become thoroughly decomposed; Wherein by every 667m2 soil sheep excrement execute 1000~1500kg, phosphorus two ammoniums are executed 20~25kg.
(5) seedling is selected: selecting height is that 60~80cm, base footpath are matrimony vine epicormic branch cuttage seedling or the matrimony vine cuttage seedling of 0.7~1.5cm.
(6) the field planting time: reach fruiting rate then for significantly improving survival rate, the matrimony vine seedling is fallen leaves fully in the fall, enters resting stage, plants before soil is freeze-up.
(7) field planting method: the seedling of step (5) is put in the field planting hole of digging in the step (4), and root system is put directly suitable, buries soil then, waits soil and hole at ordinary times, upwards carry seedling, but the root of seedling can not basset; Steady and sure then, make the depth of fill in field planting hole consistent with ground level.
(8) the matrimony vine garden covers: any one in employing sandstone, mulch film, the stalk covers; Sandstone or stalk cladding thickness are 4~8cm, and mulch film is common commercially available mulch film, the wide 80cm of film, and thickness 0.006mm, along field planting row both sides overlay film, center-line joint and both sides are pressed tight.
Wherein sandstone is meant that selecting particle diameter for use is the mixing sand grains of 1~4cm.
(9) matrimony vine treelet and bar: the tender softness of matrimony vine treelet branch, be difficult to vertical growth, therefore began 1 year peak of growing season in summer, the selection diameter is that 1.5~2.0cm, length are bamboo bar or the tree limb of 1.5~2.0m, be inserted in matrimony vine trunk limit, sagging trunk branch is stretching and tie up at bamboo bar or tree limb with cloth, carry out and bar, well tree-like to cultivate, improve its wind resistance and lodging tolerance.
(10) matrimony vine garden management: the matrimony vine growing period, to the weeding of matrimony vine garden, pour water and topdress;
The weeding of matrimony vine garden: matrimony vine from tender shoots sprout to autumn die back be serious period of weeds harm always, weeds are that matrimony vine is grown bigger with influence output, for avoiding weeds and matrimony vine to strive fertilizer, striving water and win honour for, influence the growth and the high yield in matrimony vine garden, should hoe up weeds and intertill.
Matrimony vine is poured water: matrimony vine needs the moisture of capacity vegetative period, should keep ground moistening.If abundant water can respectively be irritated one time water in budding period in spring, initial bloom stage, achievement phase and period of freezing winter in winter, irrigating fixes is each 80~90m 3/ 667m 2Prevent ponding during irrigation, too much as ponding, often cause the generation of matrimony vine root rot and cause death and to die.
Matrimony vine is topdressed: carry out every 667m behind the fall foliage in every year He before the rudiment in spring 2Execute fertilizer, 20~30kg urea that 2000~2500kg fully becomes thoroughly decomposed, excavate 20cm annular groove dark, that 30cm is wide along the tree crown projection and imbed,, promote the matrimony vine growth to improve fertilizer efficiency.
(11) matrimony vine is pruned: the matrimony vine time of pruning carries out before early spring, young shoot was sprouted, and all can prune in summer, autumn in case of necessity.The principle of pruning is: cultivate trunk, outside staying in going, go tender staying firmly, go to hang down and stay very.
The control of the disease of matrimony vine, worm, bird pest: matrimony vine disease in vegetative period is more, and main disease has matrimony vine anthracnose, matrimony vine gummosis, matrimony vine root rot etc.; Insect pest has matrimony vine aphid, matrimony vine goitre mite, matrimony vine rust mite, matrimony vine tortoise plastron, the matrimony vine of harm matrimony vine blade to roll up moth and matrimony vine hair flea beetle slightly, the matrimony vine trypetid of harm fruit, matrimony vine scotellaris etc.In addition, Chinese wolfberry fruit belongs to berry, and sugar content is higher, tends to suffer the harm of sparrow in the maturing stage.When harm takes place disease, look the extent of injury and can use lime sulfur, higher effective and lower toxic pesticide control; When insect pest takes place, use insecticide control, send out the initial stage worm alternately spray 2~3 times comprehensively, insect pest is effectively controlled with 1000 times of liquid of dichlorvos, 800 times of liquid of flolimat.
Traditional Chinese medicine is given birth to the instructions for use strictness of quality control procedure (GAP) to agricultural chemicals, for guaranteeing quality, should advocate green control to damage by disease and insect, promptly adopts the yellow plate of sticking aphid, frequency ventilating type black light lamp, saccharic acid liquid and biopesticide control etc. when damage by disease and insect takes place.Situation at sparrow harm matrimony vine garden adopts and builds the control of canopy net, avoids using agricultural chemicals.The specification that the canopy net is built is decided on the plot.
(12) Chinese wolfberry fruit harvesting, dry storage:
With the medlar fresh fruit of maturation adopt carry out after planting cold shine dry, be dewatered to 13% water content following after, be immediately with the fresh-keeping plastic bag pack storage that can seal.

Claims (6)

1. method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil may further comprise the steps:
(1) field planting environmental selection: the field planting height above sea level is 2000~2800m; Soil is saliferous desert anthropogenic-alluvial soil, and its pH value is 6.5~8.5, and saline and alkaline is below 0.9%, and subterranean water level is below 1.5m;
(2) matrimony vine garden planning: select to have a good transport service, in the soil fertility on, row irrigation is the plot easily; And determine to plant the row to for thing capable to;
(3) determine the specification of planting: select dense planting dwarf-type specification, its line-spacing is 2~2.5m, and spacing in the rows is 1~1.5m;
(4) site preparation and fertilization: with the plot of described step (2) when 7~August deep ploughing once, tilling depth is 30cm, and in preceding 15~30 days arrangement soils of planting, it is become along the flute profile planting belt of the behavior minimum point of planting, the field planting point is lower than the face of land 10~20cm; Transplant then and irritated water in preceding 7 days, after 3~5 days, dig diameter 60~70cm, the cylindrical hole of the degree of depth 80~70cm, organic fertilizer material in the hole;
(5) seedling is selected: selecting height is that 60~80cm, base footpath are matrimony vine epicormic branch cuttage seedling or the matrimony vine cuttage seedling of 0.7~1.5cm;
(6) the field planting time: the matrimony vine seedling is fallen leaves fully in the fall, enters resting stage, plants before soil is freeze-up;
(7) field planting method: the seedling of described step (5) is put in the field planting hole of digging in the described step (4), and root system is put directly suitable, buries soil then, waits soil and hole at ordinary times, upwards carries seedling; Steady and sure then, make the depth of fill in field planting hole consistent with ground level;
(8) the matrimony vine garden covers: any one in employing sandstone, mulch film, the stalk covers;
(9) matrimony vine treelet and bar: planting back 1 year peak of growing season in summer, the selection diameter is that 1.5~2.0cm, length are bamboo bar or the tree limb of 1.5~2.0m, is inserted in matrimony vine trunk limit and carries out also bar;
(10) matrimony vine garden management: the matrimony vine growing period, to the weeding of matrimony vine garden, pour water and topdress;
(11) control of matrimony vine pruning and disease, worm, bird pest;
(12) Chinese wolfberry fruit harvesting, dry storage.
2. method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: the organic manure in the described step (4) is sheep excrement and phosphorus two ammoniums that become thoroughly decomposed; Wherein by every 667m2 soil sheep excrement execute 1000~1500kg, phosphorus two ammoniums are executed 20~25kg.
3. method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: the sandstone in the described step (8) is meant that selecting particle diameter for use is the mixing sand grains of 1~4cm.
4. method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: pouring water in the described step (10) was meant in matrimony vine budding period in spring, initial bloom stage, achievement phase and period of freezing winter in winter respectively irritates water one time, and irrigating fixes is each 80~90m 3/ 667m 2
5. method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: topdressing in the described step (10) is meant behind the fall foliage in every year He before the rudiment in spring carries out every 667m 2Execute fertilizer, 20~30kg urea that 2000~2500kg fully becomes thoroughly decomposed, excavate 20cm annular groove dark, that 30cm is wide along the tree crown projection and imbed.
6. method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: the time of pruning of the matrimony vine in the described step (11) carries out before early spring, young shoot was sprouted.
CN 201010135356 2010-03-25 2010-03-25 Method for planting medlar in high-altitude saline-alkali soil Pending CN101836571A (en)

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CN102405721A (en) * 2011-09-30 2012-04-11 甘肃农业大学 Fertilization method for medlar aged no more than 4 years
CN102511258A (en) * 2011-11-18 2012-06-27 高万功 Container seedling-raising method for greenhouse of Chinese wolfberry
CN102599033A (en) * 2012-03-30 2012-07-25 宁夏农林科学院 Water-saving salinity-controlled mulching cultivation method for Chinese wolfberry in saline and alkaline land
CN102972252A (en) * 2012-12-18 2013-03-20 镇江高冠食品有限公司 Cultivation method for increasing picking quantity of matrimony vine
CN103597925A (en) * 2013-11-06 2014-02-26 上海市环境科学研究院 Method for using agricultural wastes as modifier to repair salinity soil
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CN107114179A (en) * 2017-04-18 2017-09-01 酒泉市祁连花青有机生态农产品开发有限公司 A kind of golden matrimony vine planting technology in salt-soda soil
CN107125080A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-05 陈星瑞 The cultural method of black fruit fructus lycii
CN107182472A (en) * 2017-04-16 2017-09-22 陈星瑞 The method that black fruit fructus lycii is cultivated in salt-soda soil
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CN107926420A (en) * 2017-11-15 2018-04-20 潍坊友容实业有限公司 The method that matrimony vine is planted on salt-soda soil
CN110583342A (en) * 2019-10-17 2019-12-20 宁夏农林科学院枸杞工程技术研究所 Wolfberry orchard grass growing planting method
CN110583341A (en) * 2019-10-17 2019-12-20 宁夏农林科学院枸杞工程技术研究所 Planting method for Chinese wolfberry in severe saline-alkali soil

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CN102405721A (en) * 2011-09-30 2012-04-11 甘肃农业大学 Fertilization method for medlar aged no more than 4 years
CN102511258A (en) * 2011-11-18 2012-06-27 高万功 Container seedling-raising method for greenhouse of Chinese wolfberry
CN102599033A (en) * 2012-03-30 2012-07-25 宁夏农林科学院 Water-saving salinity-controlled mulching cultivation method for Chinese wolfberry in saline and alkaline land
CN102599033B (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-05-22 宁夏农林科学院 Water-saving salinity-controlled mulching cultivation method for Chinese wolfberry in saline and alkaline land
CN102972252A (en) * 2012-12-18 2013-03-20 镇江高冠食品有限公司 Cultivation method for increasing picking quantity of matrimony vine
CN103597925A (en) * 2013-11-06 2014-02-26 上海市环境科学研究院 Method for using agricultural wastes as modifier to repair salinity soil
CN103597925B (en) * 2013-11-06 2015-09-02 上海市环境科学研究院 A kind of agricultural wastes that utilize repair the method for salinization soil as modifying agent
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CN106171416A (en) * 2016-07-13 2016-12-07 宁夏大学 A kind of Fructus Lycii and implantation methods thereof
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