CN103636387B - Protected cultivation method for green asparagus in warm regions - Google Patents

Protected cultivation method for green asparagus in warm regions Download PDF

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CN103636387B
CN103636387B CN201310662367.5A CN201310662367A CN103636387B CN 103636387 B CN103636387 B CN 103636387B CN 201310662367 A CN201310662367 A CN 201310662367A CN 103636387 B CN103636387 B CN 103636387B
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asparagus
stem
green asparagus
green
soil
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CN103636387A (en
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杜宜新
石妞妞
陈福如
阮宏椿
甘林
杨秀娟
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Institute of Plant Protection of FAAS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
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Abstract

The invention discloses a protected cultivation method for green asparagus in warm regions. According to the characteristics of the biological characteristics of the asparagus, the characteristics of generation and development of diseases and insect pests of the green asparagus in the warm regions and the characteristics of protected cultivation in the warm regions, soil conditions, cultivation facilities, seedling growing, planting, field management and disease and insect pest comprehensive control are modeled, and the technical system of comprehensively controlling regulation cultivation and diseases and insect pests of the green asparagus in the warm regions is provided. According to the protected cultivation method, the spring green asparagus can be harvested in winter, the winter sleep period of the green asparagus can be shortened, the harvesting period of the green asparagus can be prolonged, the yield and the quality of the green asparagus can be effectively improved, generation and development of the diseases and the insect pests of the green asparagus in the warm regions can be effectively controlled, the pesticide use time number is remarkably decreased, the pesticide use amount is remarkably reduced, and the protected cultivation method is of great significance on improving the economic value of the green asparagus and protecting the environment.

Description

A kind of facility cultivation method of warm regional green asparagus
Technical field
The invention belongs to agricultural planting and control of agricultural pest field, be specifically related to a kind of facility cultivation method of warm regional green asparagus.
Background technology
Asparagus is a kind of famous and precious health-care vegetable, and its tender stem local flavor is delicious, delicate good to eat, has very high edible and medical value, is one of large famous dish in the world ten, has the title of " kings of vegetables ", the states such as fashionable Europe, America, Korea S, Japan.Asparagus is the herbaceous plant of perennial root, and the tender shoots that spring, autumn extract out is edible " asparagus ".Asparagus is a kind of famous and precious traditional Chinese medicine, and ancient times, Shennong's Herbal claimed it to be " on top grade ", and Compendium of Material Medica claims it " can separate the poison of all knurls ".Show according to scientific research, asparagus is rich in 17 seed amino acids of tissue protein and needed by human body, wherein particularly abundant with asparagus amino acid content, in addition, particularly abundant with vitamin A content in contained vitamin, various trace elements is comparatively outstanding with the content of selenium, and all these materials all have effect that inhibition cancer cell produces.
Asparagus cultivation originates from Europe, after import the countries such as America, Africa and Asia into.Due to asparagus cultivation, gathering and processing all belongs to labor-intensive production, and the production of asparagus is shifted to the developing country that human resources are abundant by developed countries such as America and Europes just gradually.The large-area planting asparagus of China starts from 1974, and development speed is constantly accelerated afterwards, and to 2002 Annual planting areas, oneself reaches 100,000 hectares, and output accounts for about 60% of Gross World Product, wherein the asparagus products export export trade of 95%.Along with the development of nutrition science and the change of Diet concept, asparagus consumption has occurred by " in vain " transformation to " green ", the European of the edible white asparagus of tradition, much oneself changes food green asparagus, and the consumption of America and Asia green asparagus accounts for more than 85% of its asparagus total quantity consumed.
Stem wilt is the first disease of planting asparagus, often causes crushing loss, has a strong impact on the seed output and quality of Chinese asparagus.This disease is by asparagus Phomopsis phomopsis asparagi(Sacc.) Bubak infects and causes.Stem wilt need warm climates condition, American-European asparagus main producing region is Cold and cool climate, therefore substantially stem wilt does not occur in American-European countries.And China's planting asparagus area Asparagus Stem Blight often has generation in various degree every year, the generation of south China Asparagus Stem Blight is more serious.The rainproof cultivation of facility is the most effective measures controlling Asparagus Stem Blight, can effectively reduce Pesticide use dosage and frequency of utilization, improve agricultural product quality and safety, increase green asparagus foreign exchange earning, environmental pollution, environmental destruction and bio-diversity is avoided to decline, facility cultivation can improve temperature on the other hand, extends and adopts the bamboo shoot phase, thus improves output.But facility cultivation green asparagus technology is still in the exploratory stage, many sport technique segment imperfections such as cultivating facility is unreasonable, summer high temperature, rich water quality management.
Meanwhile, along with the understanding of people to ecological environment problem deepens constantly and improves, the safety in production of vegetable food and consumption more and more receive the concern of producers and consumers.In Agricultural Products Trade, some developed countries and regions are served as reasons to pay attention to food security, carry out harsh quality standard, develop into non-tariff barrier to a certain extent, serve inhibition to China's green asparagus outlet.How to ensure green asparagus safety and preserve the ecological environment, reply trade barrier, having become current asparagus and produced upper urgent need to solve the problem.Therefore, the facility cultivation of green asparagus also will become the development trend of Asparagus Industry.Present system establish warm regional green asparagus establishment planting technology system, for green asparagus industry develop in a healthy way technical support is provided.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of facility cultivation method of warm regional green asparagus; the method production application is effective; the green asparagus spring bamboo winter can be made to adopt; shorten the hibernation period of green asparagus; extend the picking time of green asparagus, improve the yield and quality of green asparagus, by green asparagus Pest management in economic Damage threshold indication range; reduce Pesticide use number of times, lifting green asparagus economic worth and protection of the environment are significant.
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of facility cultivation method of warm regional green asparagus, it is characterized in that: for the soil condition of warm regional green asparagus plantation, cultivating facility, nursery, field planting, field management, integrated pest prevention and control six part establishment model, propose the technical system of warm regional green asparagus facility controlling and cultivating and damage by disease and insect Comprehensive Control.
Described soil condition is: select smooth, the loosing soil of physical features, be rich in organic matter, heat absorption capacity is strong, good water permeability, subterranean water level are low, draining is fetched water easily sandy soil or loam plot as the plot building Green Asparagus Cultivaton facility; The heavy clay of poor air permeability, plow layer is shallow, and subsoil is hard, and root system is difficult to the soil stretched, the soil of highly acid or alkalescence, the plot that subterranean water level is high, the neighbour plot on paddy rice ground, and the soil that chad is many is all not suitable for being used as asparagus cultivation.
Described cultivating facility is: adopt arch-shaped copper pipe structure plastic tunnel (the zinc-plated copper pipe booth of assembled), canopy height 2.8m, shoulder height 1.7m, in canopy, surrounding configuration fly net is to shoulder, arch spacing 0.5m, arch bar caliber Ф 22 × 1.2mm, width 6m, length 50m, adopt the dust-proof Anti-fogging Film of polyethylene to cover, canopy inner top configures two row sleeve pipe spraying systems, and shower nozzle is spaced apart 1m.
Described nursery concrete steps are as follows:
1), seed selection: asparagus is perennial plant, and once plantation can be gathered more than 15 years, and therefore Fruit variety is particularly important, the hybrid plant generation kind that strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, strain should be selected excellent, plant feature shows as: grow vigorous, and tender stem is loose, and profile is good, head scale is compact, not loose head, deformity is few, young stem pure color, quality is delicate, and smell deliciousness is strong;
2), Seeds preprocess: seedling raise period was selected in April, with 450 grams per liter Prochloraz suspending agents, 3000 times of immersion kind 12h, then used 25-30 DEG C of emerge in worm water 48h, seed is leached, wraps with wet gauze, be placed in 25-30 DEG C of environment, vernalization 48h, sows when there being more than 20% seed to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
3), sow: adopt the nursery of grow seedlings of vegetable dish, the specification of 50 hole seedling-cultivating trays is 54 × 28cm, hole depth 50mm, bore open 50 × 50mm, 22 × 22mm bottom hole, with the Pin Shi Top peat growing medium of 0-10mm, hole is filled to apart from aperture 1cm, compacting, by asparagus seeds sowing in matrix, 1 seed is sowed in every hole, after planting be covered to hole by thin matrix full, slightly compacting; The temperature of seedling-cultivating tray controls between 20-30 DEG C, and carry out field planting after 50 days, field planting is advisable at spring and autumn.
Described field planting is: first flattened by ploughing soil, the booth of erection 6m, and after 30cm interval is respectively stayed on booth both sides, single file plantation is carried out on the ridge of each the 60cm in both sides, and duplicate rows plantation is carried out on middle ridge of playing two 120cm, and operation aisle is 60cm; On ridge, 20cm place, distance aisle opens wide 30cm, and the field planting ditch of dark 40cm, applies fertilizer to the subsoil in ditch; Fertilising is by decomposed manure 5000kg/ mu, composite fertilizer 150kg/ mu, calcium phosphate 50kg/ mu, potassium sulfate 15kg/ mu, mixes rear fertilising in field planting ditch; Transplant by spacing in the rows 30cm, transplant plantation 2000 strain, ridge arranges drip irrigation for every mu, water after field planting at once.
The concrete steps of described field management are as follows:
1) management, after Seeding planting: look into seedling after Seeding planting in time, fill the gaps with seedlings, within after field planting 1 month, combining waters imposes Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium by 5kg/ mu, topdresses every other month once later; After green asparagus nature yellow in November, wipe out acrial part branches and leaves, clear garden, open 10cm shallow ridges sealing fertilizer 1000kg/ mu at distance green asparagus root Pan20cmChu, survive the winter after earthing 5cm;
2), the management of Adult plant retain the stubble: one the term bamboo shoot, first retain the stubble, the female stem of 3-5 strain is stayed in every strain, and the bamboo shoot later gone out all are gathered; The bamboo shoot of more than 2 years, adopt bamboo shoot after about 50 days, retain the stubble, and every strain stays 4-6 to prop up female stem, when female stem grows to 1.3m height, carry out pinching process, the side shoot of pumping controls at overhead 30 ~ 40cm, and plants timber, interval 2.5m between timber, with the female stem branches and leaves of rope yarn enclosing green asparagus, lodging-prevention; Late July prepares second time and leaves and takes female stem, and wipe out one's old mother's stem until new extraction out when female stem grows to 80cm, retain the stubble 5-8 props up, and adopt bamboo shoot to late November after the female stem of secondary grows up to, female stem is cut off in natural yellow, clear garden;
3), the management of Adult plant rich water: the fertilization principle that whole breeding time adopts " heavy fertile under clear garden; to mend in good time and topdress ", the spring bamboo phase does not apply fertilizer, topdress mid-May a compoiste fertilizer 30kg/ mu, once every fertilising in 15 days later, apply fertilizer after cutting off to the female stem yellow of secondary, drip irrigation can be coordinated to pour water at regular time and quantity; During adopting bamboo shoot, soil moisture controls at 60%-70%, and during retain the stubble, soil moisture controls at 50%-60%; Utilize the spraying on booth to spray after cutting off the female stem of secondary, leaching gets rid of the salinity of accumulation, intertillage, and fertilizer and the edible mushroom of becoming thoroughly decomposed are cultivated after waste material mixes and apply fertilizer, and is incubated and survives the winter after ridging 5cm;
4), temperature treatment: in summer canopy, daytime there will be the high temperature more than 35 DEG C, should open booth two ends, be started by skirt film to canopy shoulder, aeration-cooling; Every day 9 to afternoon, 3 ceilings covered the sunshade net that shading rate is 35%-55% black; In winter canopy, nighttime temperature there will be lower than 15 DEG C, takes to close canopy insulation;
5), cultivation and banking: intertill and clean tillage is earthed up, and is advisable with artificial weeding, and ridging standard is that Root of Asparagus officinalis dish is apart from the thick 10-15cm of ground surface soil.
Described integrated pest prevention and control is for damage by disease and insect asparagus splash disease main in green asparagus facility cultivation, stem wilt, prodenia litura, Bemisia tabaci, adopts the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control ", sets up Synthetical control system;
1), the integrated control of asparagus splash disease and stem wilt
The prophylactico-therapeutic measuress such as application " disease-resistant variety, seed treatment, rational close planting (retain the stubble), facility control water, clear garden and chemical control in good time ", structure horticultural facility, agricultural measures are main chemical control is auxiliary Control Technology system;
Disease-resistant variety and seed disinfection: the requirement meeting " nursery ";
Rational close planting (retain the stubble) He Qingyuan: meet " management of Adult plant retain the stubble " retain the stubble requirement;
Facility control water: meet " management of Adult plant rich water " requirement;
Chemical control:, stem wilt their early stage sick in asparagus splash is that 75 wt% take to oppose steady WG15 gram/acre rotation or be used alternatingly and prevent and treat Asparagus Stem Blight, brown spot with the triumphant profit EC1000 times of liquid of 25 wt% or generation height WG1000 times of liquid of 10 wt% or 325 grams per liter Ah rice wonderful receipts SC50 milliliter/mu or mass fraction, every spray in 7 days 1 time, connect spray 2-3 time;
2), the integrated control of prodenia litura and Bemisia tabaci
The prophylactico-therapeutic measuress such as application " facility insect protected, prediction, gyplure trapping, blue yellow haftplatte, biological control, clear garden and in good time chemical control ", build with facility, agricultural management, biological control for main chemical control be auxiliary Control Technology system;
Facility insect protected: insect protected facility meets " cultivating facility " requirement, the fly net of booth surrounding configuration is one barrier, effectively controls worm source;
Prediction: according to the pests occurrence rule of prodenia litura and Bemisia tabaci, in conjunction with local weather conditions, the prediction carrying out this worm;
Gyplure is trapped and killed: with prodenia litura gyplure and light trap, lure integrated worm, can reduce this worm and lay eggs and cause harm, effectively reduce population number, reduces the consumption of chemical pesticide;
Blue yellow haftplatte: move into the initial stage in tobacco powder mite source, utilize Yellow sticky trap and blue insect-sticking plate to carry out continuing trapping to Bemisia tabaci adults, reduce insect population radix, every mu is hung the yellow plate 30 of 25 × 30 cm, require that champac plate lower end is higher than green asparagus crop plant top 30cm, within every 15 days, change once;
Biological control: discharge amblyseius cucumeris oudeman 3 times in the green asparagus season of growth, about 60/m at every turn 2, control Bemisia tabaci;
Clear garden: after the yellow of secondary female stem nature (late November), cut off female stem in time, clear garden, reduce worm source of surviving the winter;
Chemical control: in conjunction with prediction situation, mid-May, mid-July, mid-August, mid-September with 40 wt% chlopyrifos EC75 milliliter/mus or 22 wt% metaflumizone SC80 milliliter/mus or 5 wt% Rynaxypyr SC55 milliliter/mus or 6 wt% Avermectin Rynaxypyr SC50 milliliters/mu control prodenia litura; Mid-August to late October with 20 milliliters/mu, 10 wt% Nitenpyram aqua or 22.4 wt% spiral shell worm ethyl ester SC30 milliliter/mus or 50 wt% pymetrozines WG16 gram/acre or 25 wt% wettable powder with buprofezin 25 grams/acre or 50 wt% clothianidins WG8 gram/acre or 22 wt% fluorine pyridine worm amine cyanogen SC20 milliliter/mu rotations or be used alternatingly and prevent and treat Bemisia tabaci.
Synthetical prevention method of the present invention is according to as follows:
1, the biological property of asparagus
Asparagus can reach more than 15 years vegetative period, about 10 years picking time.Plant height 1-1.5m, multi-branched, aciculiform that branch clusters intends leaf, and true leaf deteriorates to leg-of-mutton film quality scale, and raw on stem, the elongation with stem comes off.Photosynthesis is by being rich in chlorophyllous stem branch to carry out.
Asparagus under ground portion is made up of fleshy root, seminal root and fibrous root.Seminal root derives from fleshy root, and seminal root and fleshy root are the important component parts of asparagus.Fleshy root is storage carbohydrate not only, and can promote the development of fibrous root; Fibrous root can only be survived 3-6 month, and major function absorbs moisture in soil and nutrition.
The stem of asparagus is divided into primary shoot, terrestrial stem and subterranean stem three kinds.First the stem growing ground during Germination of Asparagus Seed is called primary shoot.The junction of primary shoot and root produces projection, forms bulb, is also subterranean stem.Rhizomatous top meristematic tissue forms the bud wrapped up by scale, and multiple bulbil is trooped and formed bulbil group.Rhizomatous part bulbil group is sprouted and is extracted ground formation terrestrial stem out.After branch is intensive, newborn branch upwards grows, and makes root dish increase.The thick succulence of the terrestrial stem of just having extracted out, when children's age, timely collecting is exactly usually edible asparagus.After terrestrial stem growth 13-20cm, grow branch and leaf, can photosynthesis be carried out.Photosynthetic product is transported to fleshy root and stores, for asparagus growth next spring.
Asparagus is responsive to thermotonus, and the temperature of seed sprouting is 25-30 DEG C, and the temperature of suitable growth is 20-30 DEG C.Lower than poor growth when 15 DEG C, tender stem reduces.When soil temperature is below 10 DEG C, seminal root and fleshy root start dormancy, can preserve carbohydrate for next season asparagus growth between resting stage.Temperature higher than 30 DEG C, micro-basal part of stem and the easy fibrillatable of crust, low quality.Asparagus well developed root system is the crop of intolerant to waterlogging resistance to morning, be applicable to being planted in that irrigation and drainage are good, soil layer is deep, loose fertile, preserve moisture and fertility power strong, be rich on organic sandy loam.
2, southern Protected Production of Vegetables feature
Temperature in 2.1 southern plastic tunnels and ground temperature feature
Temperature in plastic tunnel, directly changes by ambient temperature.In south China area, be the time that temperature of shed is minimum from late November to late January, booth mean temperature is the temperature rebound significantly in 5-15 DEG C, 2-3 month booth, reaches more than 15 DEG C.In April canopy, temperature can reach 15-38 DEG C, and now booth should notice that noon is aeration-cooling.5-9 month outside air temperature is high, and booth is as airtight stuffy, and temperature up to 40-50 DEG C, therefore can should be opened film and add forced ventilation, can film change into sunshade net or directly on film covered with sunshade net to reduce temperature of shed.After October, greenhouse temperature declines gradually.Ground temperature is also the essential condition of vegetable growth, ground temperature in plastic tunnel is also fairly obvious with seasonal variation, and from April in November to next year, in canopy, ground temperature is significantly higher than the external world, " tropical island effect " of Here it is booth, this " tropical island effect " ensure that the Winter Cultivation of booth vegetable just.Ground temperature in 4-6 month booth slowly rises, more and more less with extraneous ground temperature gap, and in 7-8 month canopy, ground temperature and extraneous ground temperature maintain an equal level.
Relative moisture feature in 2.2 southern plastic tunnels
Plastic tunnel is under air-tight state, and in canopy, relative air humidity is often in 80%-90%, and in night canopy, relative moisture more reaches capacity state (100%).The Changing Pattern of the air humidity in booth is: the relative humidity variations in canopy is contrary with variations in temperature, and temperature of shed raises, and relative moisture reduces, and canopy temperature often raises 1 DEG C, relative moisture decline 5%-6%, and canopy temperature drop is low, then relative moisture raises.If do not ventilate, in canopy, relative air humidity is often in saturated or near saturation state, can suppress the transpiration of vegetables, causes the generation of disease and spreads.
Soil moisture feature in 2.3 southern plastic tunnels
In plastic tunnel, the humidity of soil is mainly derived from manual priming, and soil moisture consumption mainly contains two approach: one is evaporation from land surface, and two is transpirations of vegetable crop root absorption and crop.Summer, canopy temperature was high, and ventilation is large, added the effect reducing ground temperature, should try one's best and pour water more; Winter, plastic tunnel seldom leaked informaton, and soil moisture consumption is few, and for preventing reducing ground temperature, should pour water less, but should note the effect due to capillary simultaneously, soil surface is often in moistening, adds that booth face is dripped many, causes the illusion of not lack of water.
Soil characteristic in 2.4 southern plastic tunnels
Facility Plastic canopy culture, different with outdoor cropping, soil does not drench erosion by rainwater, environmental temperature is higher, soil is drier, along with bottom moisture moves up along capillary, unnecessary manure salt branch gathers plough horizon top, and the salinity therefore accumulated in plastic shed soil is higher is an obvious feature.Greenhouse is longer for service life, and the salinity of accumulation is more, if soil salt is too high, can affect growing of crop.
2.5 warm regional green asparagus main diseases and insect pests
Warm regional green asparagus Major Diseases is asparagus splash disease and Asparagus Stem Blight, and Major Pests is prodenia litura and Bemisia tabaci.
2.5.1 the sick pests occurrence rule of asparagus splash
Asparagus splash disease mainly occurs in top stem, branch and intends on leaf, begins to show brown point, after expand as oval or oval scab gradually.This disease is survived the winter on invalid body with conidium, April in next year, early and middle ten days borrowed air-flow, rainwater to propagate, and carried out First aggression, and the rear state of an illness is along with temperature and humidity change expansion, there are two onset peaks southern area in the 5-6 month and the 8-10 month usually, has become the Major Diseases of facility cultivation green asparagus.
2.5.2 Law of Occurrence Asparagus Stem Blight
Asparagus Stem Blight mainly occurs on stem branch, sometimes also occur in and intend on leaf, form the spot that fades of initial stage water stain shape fusiformis or linear slightly depression when temp. and humidity is suitable for, the later stage is extended to spindle or oblong scab, forms brown to tan small-sized scab time dry.Germ mainly survives the winter in invalid body with mycelia and conidium, becomes the primary source of infection in next year.Temperature is more than 10 DEG C, and under saturated humidity, pycnidium discharges conidium, and when more than 14 DEG C, conidium can be infected, and invades from the epidermis of tender tissue.The growth and decline of disease and the cyclically-varying of temp. and humidity closely related, temperature determines morning and evening and the expansion rate of morbidity, and humidity is then main relevant with the severity of disease, and in outdoor cropping, morbidity is heavy, and facility cultivation effectively can control the generation of this disease, seldom falls ill.
2.5.3 the life habit of prodenia litura
Prodenia litura, has another name called twill burglar moth, lotus Autographa spp etc., belongs to Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, asparagus branches and leaves of mainly causing harm, and eat up branches and leaves and gnaw cane epidermis, becoming silvery white polished rod, expose core, make whole bamboo shoot field be subject to serious infringement, is the primary pest of asparagus.The generation of prodenia litura is different because of weather, within 1 year, generally there is 5-6 generation in southern area, can be there is 8-9 generation in many persons, generation overlap, without phenomenon of obviously surviving the winter, and it is normal to cause harm in 6-10 month seriously, field adult is uprushed anticlimax phenomenon, generally in late May, and late July, each once peak under mid or late August normal temperature condition, July, September generating capacity maximum.Adult has hides by day and comes out at night, and power of circling in the air is strong, has phototaxis, chemotaxis, how to lay eggs at blade back vein infall.Female moth produces 3-5 pieces of an egg, and every block 100-200 grain, larva has seemingly-dead property, and mature larvae buries and pupates.Under temperature 20-27 DEG C condition, ovum phase 4-6 days, larval phase 13-27 days, pupa time 6-19 days, Life of Adult 4-6 days.Prodenia litura can be caused harm 99 section 290 various plants, and host is a lot.
2.5.4 the life habit of Bemisia tabaci
Bemisia tabaci belongs to Homoptera, Aleyrodidae, and host range is very extensive, and current record is at least more than 600 kinds, and soon, fertility is strong, and the degree that causes harm is high for diffusion and rate of propagation.Bemisia tabaci life cycle is divided into ovum, nymph (1-4 age), 3 stages of adult.Adult not only can both sexes but also can parthenogenesis under Different growing environment, and generation overlap is serious.Under 25 DEG C of conditions, on different host plants, from egg development to adult, do not need 18-30 days not etc., the life-span of adult is generally about 10-22 days, and every female worm about lays eggs 30-300 grain, has become one of asparagus facility cultivation Major Pests.
the present invention has the following advantages:
1, the present invention compared with prior art, and for the feature of warm regional green asparagus facility cultivation, the mode changed in mode systematically proposes warm regional green asparagus facility controlling and cultivating and damage by disease and insect Comprehensive Control Technology system, practical, easy to operate.
2, green asparagus seedling growing process provided by the invention, emergence rate is high, and asparagus seedling well developed root system, plant is sturdy, and after field planting, survival rate is high.
3, the present invention has carried out scientific setting to warm regional Green Asparagus Cultivaton facility, solves green asparagus and gets over the technical barrier of summer without bamboo shoot.
4, warm district facility cultivation green asparagus retain the stubble technology in the present invention, green asparagus is gathered cycle stretch-out, and Quality of asparagus is good.
5, propose in the present invention green asparagus wipe out the female stem of second time after fertilising heat preservation technology, make green asparagus go out bamboo shoot early, high efficiency.
Embodiment
Below will the invention will be further described by example, these descriptions are not be further limited content of the present invention.One skilled in the art will understand that the equivalent replacement that content of the present invention is done, or improve accordingly, still belong within protection scope of the present invention.
A kind of facility cultivation method of warm regional green asparagus, it is characterized in that: for the soil condition of warm regional green asparagus plantation, cultivating facility, nursery, field planting, field management, integrated pest prevention and control six part establishment model, propose the technical system of warm regional green asparagus facility controlling and cultivating and damage by disease and insect Comprehensive Control, its concrete operations are as follows:
(1) soil condition
Select that 10 mu of physical features are smooth at Fujian Province's Putian City Xianyou County, loosing soil, be rich in organic matter, heat absorption capacity is strong, good water permeability, subterranean water level are low, draining is fetched water easily sandy soil or loam plot as the plot building Green Asparagus Cultivaton facility.
(2) cultivating facility
Adopt arch-shaped copper pipe structure plastic tunnel (the zinc-plated copper pipe booth of assembled), canopy height 2.8m, shoulder height 1.7m, in canopy, surrounding configuration fly net is to shoulder, arch spacing 0.5m, arch bar caliber Ф 22 × 1.2mm, width 6m, length 50m, build together and establish 20 booths, all adopt the dust-proof Anti-fogging Film of polyethylene to cover, canopy inner top configures two row sleeve pipe spraying systems, and shower nozzle is spaced apart 1m.
(3) nursery
A, seed selection: the first-filial generation kind well ridge 701 that selection strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, strain are excellent and Glan moral, plant feature shows as: grow vigorous, and tender stem is loose, and profile is good, head scale is compact, not loose head, and deformity is few, children's stem pure color, quality is delicate, and smell deliciousness is strong;
B, Seeds preprocess: April, with 450 grams per liter Prochloraz suspending agents, 3000 times of immersion kind 12h, then use 25-30 DEG C of emerge in worm water 48h, seed is leached, wraps with wet gauze, be placed in 28 DEG C of constant incubators, vernalization 48h, sows when there being 20% seed to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally.
C, sowing: adopt the nursery of grow seedlings of vegetable dish, the specification of 50 hole seedling-cultivating trays is 54 × 28cm, hole depth 50mm, bore open 50 × 50mm, 22 × 22mm bottom hole, with the Pin Shi Top peat growing medium of 0-10mm, hole is filled to apart from aperture 1cm, compacting, by asparagus seeds sowing in matrix, 1 seed is sowed in every hole, after planting be covered to hole by thin matrix full, slightly compacting; Be positioned over by seedling-cultivating tray in temperature-controllable green house, design temperature 25 DEG C, carried out field planting after 50 days.
(4) field planting
First flattened by ploughing soil, the booth of erection 6m, after 30cm interval is respectively stayed on booth both sides, single file plantation is carried out on the ridge of each the 60cm in both sides, and duplicate rows plantation is carried out on middle ridge of playing two 120cm, and operation aisle is 60cm; On ridge, 20cm place, distance aisle opens wide 30cm, and the field planting ditch of dark 40cm, applies fertilizer to the subsoil in ditch; Fertilising is by decomposed manure 5000kg/ mu, composite fertilizer 150kg/ mu, calcium phosphate 50kg/ mu, potassium sulfate 15kg/ mu, mixes rear fertilising in field planting ditch; Transplant by spacing in the rows 30cm, transplant plantation 2000 strain, ridge arranges drip irrigation for every mu, water after field planting at once.
(5) field management
Management after A, Seeding planting: Seeding planting is looked into seedling, filled the gaps with seedlings after 10 days, combines to water and imposes Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium by 5kg/ mu for after field planting 1 month, topdresses every other month once later; After green asparagus nature yellow in November, wipe out acrial part branches and leaves, clear garden, open 10cm shallow ridges sealing fertilizer 1000kg/ mu at distance green asparagus root Pan20cmChu, survive the winter after earthing 5cm;
The management of B, Adult plant retain the stubble: one the term bamboo shoot, first retain the stubble, the female stem of 3-5 strain is stayed in every strain, and the bamboo shoot later gone out all are gathered; The bamboo shoot of more than 2 years, first adopt bamboo shoot after about 50 days, retain the stubble, and every strain stays 4-6 to prop up female stem, when female stem grows to 1.3m height, carry out pinching process, the side shoot of pumping controls at overhead 40cm, and plants timber, interval 2.5m between timber, with the female stem branches and leaves of rope yarn enclosing green asparagus, lodging-prevention; Late July, second time left and took female stem, and wipe out one's old mother's stem until new extraction out when female stem grows to 80cm, retain the stubble 5-8 props up, and adopt bamboo shoot to late November after the female stem of secondary grows up to, female stem is cut off in natural yellow, clear garden;
The management of C, Adult plant rich water: the fertilization principle that whole breeding time adopts " heavy fertile under clear garden; to mend in good time and topdress ", the spring bamboo phase does not apply fertilizer, topdress mid-May a compoiste fertilizer 30kg/ mu, once every fertilising in 15 days, apply fertilizer after cutting off to the female stem yellow of secondary, coordinate drip irrigation to pour water at regular time and quantity later, soil moisture 60%-70% during adopting bamboo shoot, soil moisture 50%-60% during retain the stubble; Utilize the spraying on booth to spray after cutting off the female stem of secondary, leaching gets rid of the salinity of accumulation, intertillage, and fertilizer and the edible mushroom of becoming thoroughly decomposed are cultivated after waste material mixes and apply fertilizer, and is incubated and survives the winter after ridging 5cm.
D, temperature treatment: warm regional green asparagus facility cultivation is in 7-9 month, in canopy, daytime there will be the high temperature more than 35 DEG C, opens booth two ends, is started by skirt film to canopy shoulder, aeration-cooling, every day 9 to afternoon, 3 ceilings covered the sunshade net that shading rate is 35%-55% black; In March in December to next year canopy, nighttime temperature there will be lower than 15 DEG C, closes canopy insulation.
E, cultivation and banking: intertill and clean tillage is earthed up, and is advisable with artificial weeding, ridging standard is that Root of Asparagus officinalis dish is apart from the thick 10-15cm of ground surface soil.
(6) integrated pest prevention and control
For damage by disease and insect asparagus splash disease main in green asparagus facility cultivation, stem wilt, prodenia litura, Bemisia tabaci, adopt the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control ", set up Synthetical control system;
The integrated control of A, asparagus splash disease and stem wilt
The Synthetical prevention method of asparagus splash disease and stem wilt, the prophylactico-therapeutic measuress such as application " disease-resistant variety, seed treatment, rational close planting (retain the stubble), facility control water, clear garden and chemical control in good time ", structure inspection and quarantine, agricultural measures are main chemical control is auxiliary Control Technology system;
One term and two the term bamboo shoot all occur without brown spot and stem wilt, triennial bamboo shoot are in the asparagus splash sick initial stage with 25 wt% triumphant profit EC1000 times of liquid and each dispenser of 10 wt% generation height WG1000 times of liquid 1 time, and preventive effect reaches more than 85%.
The integrated control of B, prodenia litura and Bemisia tabaci
The Synthetical prevention method of prodenia litura and Bemisia tabaci, the prophylactico-therapeutic measuress such as application " facility insect protected, prediction, gyplure trapping, blue yellow haftplatte, biological control, clear garden and in good time chemical control ", build with facility, agricultural management, biological control for main chemical control be auxiliary Control Technology system;
Gyplure trapping and indigo plant Huang haftplatte is adopted effectively to control causing harm of prodenia litura and Bemisia tabaci, wherein gyplure: with prodenia litura gyplure and light trap, lure integrated worm, decrease prodenia litura and lay eggs and cause harm, effectively reduce population number, reduce the consumption of chemical pesticide; Blue yellow haftplatte: move into the initial stage in tobacco powder mite source, utilize Yellow sticky trap and blue insect-sticking plate to carry out continuing trapping to Bemisia tabaci adults, reduce insect population radix, every mu is hung the yellow plate 30 of 25 × 30 cm, champac plate lower end, higher than green asparagus crop plant top 30cm, is changed once for every 15 days;
Chemical control: in conjunction with prediction situation, mid-May, mid-July, mid-August, mid-September with 5 wt% Rynaxypyr SC55 milliliter/mus and each dispenser of 6 wt% Avermectin Rynaxypyr SC50 milliliter/mu 2 times, effectively control causing harm of prodenia litura, preventive effect is more than 90%; Respectively prevent and treat 1 Bemisia tabaci mid-August to late October with 22.4 wt% spiral shell worm ethyl ester SC30 milliliter/mus and 22 wt% fluorine pyridine worm amine cyanogen SC20 milliliter/mus, effectively control Bemisia tabaci and cause harm.

Claims (1)

1. the facility cultivation method of a warm regional green asparagus, it is characterized in that: for the soil condition of warm regional green asparagus plantation, cultivating facility, nursery, field planting, field management, integrated pest prevention and control six part establishment model, propose the technical system of warm regional green asparagus facility controlling and cultivating and damage by disease and insect Comprehensive Control;
Described soil condition is: select smooth, the loosing soil of physical features, be rich in organic matter, heat absorption capacity is strong, good water permeability, subterranean water level are low, draining is fetched water easily sandy soil or loam plot as the plot building Green Asparagus Cultivaton facility;
Described cultivating facility is: adopt arch-shaped assembled TC tubular construction plastic tunnel, canopy height 2.8m, shoulder height 1.7m, in canopy, surrounding configuration fly net is to shoulder, arch spacing 0.5m, arch bar caliber Ф 22 × 1.2mm, width 6m, length 50m, adopt the dust-proof Anti-fogging Film of polyethylene to cover, canopy inner top configures two row sleeve pipe spraying systems, and shower nozzle is spaced apart 1m;
Described nursery concrete steps are as follows:
1), choose seeds: selection strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, the hybrid plant generation kind that strain is excellent, plant feature shows as: grow vigorous, and tender stem is loose, and profile is good, head scale is compact, not loose head, and deformity is few, children's stem pure color, quality is delicate, and smell deliciousness is strong;
2), Seeds preprocess: seedling raise period was selected in April, with 450 grams per liter Prochloraz suspending agents, 3000 times of immersion kind 12h, then used 25-30 DEG C of emerge in worm water 48h, seed is leached, wraps with wet gauze, be placed in 25-30 DEG C of environment, vernalization 48h, sows when there being more than 20% seed to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
3), sow: adopt the nursery of grow seedlings of vegetable dish, the specification of 50 hole seedling-cultivating trays is 54 × 28cm, hole depth 50mm, bore open 50 × 50mm, 22 × 22mm bottom hole, with the Pin Shi Top peat growing medium of 0-10mm, hole is filled to apart from aperture 1cm, compacting, by asparagus seeds sowing in matrix, 1 seed is sowed in every hole, after planting be covered to hole by thin matrix full, slightly compacting; The temperature of seedling-cultivating tray controls, between 20-30 DEG C, to carry out field planting after 50 days;
Described field planting is: first flattened by ploughing soil, the booth of erection 6m, and after 30cm interval is respectively stayed on booth both sides, single file plantation is carried out on the ridge of each the 60cm in both sides, and duplicate rows plantation is carried out on middle ridge of playing two 120cm, and operation aisle is 60cm; On ridge, 20cm place, distance aisle opens wide 30cm, and the field planting ditch of dark 40cm, applies fertilizer to the subsoil in ditch; Fertilising is by decomposed manure 5000kg/ mu, composite fertilizer 150kg/ mu, calcium phosphate 50kg/ mu, potassium sulfate 15kg/ mu, mixes rear fertilising in field planting ditch; Transplant by spacing in the rows 30cm, transplant plantation 2000 strain, ridge arranges drip irrigation for every mu, water after field planting at once;
The concrete steps of described field management are as follows:
1) management, after Seeding planting: look into seedling after Seeding planting in time, fill the gaps with seedlings, within after field planting 1 month, combining waters imposes Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium by 5kg/ mu, topdresses every other month once later; After the yellow of green asparagus nature, wipe out acrial part branches and leaves, clear garden, distance green asparagus root Pan20cmChu opens 10cm shallow ridges sealing fertilizer 1000kg/ mu, survives the winter after earthing 5cm;
2), the management of Adult plant retain the stubble: one the term bamboo shoot, first retain the stubble, the female stem of 3-5 strain is stayed in every strain, and the bamboo shoot later gone out all are gathered; The bamboo shoot of more than 2 years, adopt bamboo shoot after 50 days, retain the stubble, and every strain stays 4-6 to prop up female stem, when female stem grows to 1.3m height, carry out pinching process, the side shoot of pumping controls at overhead 30 ~ 40cm, and plants timber, interval 2.5m between timber, with the female stem branches and leaves of rope yarn enclosing green asparagus, lodging-prevention; Late July prepares second time and leaves and takes female stem, and wipe out one's old mother's stem until new extraction out when female stem grows to 80cm, retain the stubble 5-8 props up, and adopt bamboo shoot to late November after the female stem of secondary grows up to, female stem is cut off in natural yellow, clear garden;
3), the management of Adult plant rich water: the spring bamboo phase does not apply fertilizer, and topdress mid-May a compoiste fertilizer 30kg/ mu, once every fertilising in 15 days later, applies fertilizer after cutting off to the female stem yellow of secondary, coordinates drip irrigation to pour water at regular time and quantity; During adopting bamboo shoot, soil moisture controls at 60%-70%, and during retain the stubble, soil moisture controls at 50%-60%; Utilize the spraying on booth to spray after cutting off the female stem of secondary, leaching gets rid of the salinity of accumulation, intertillage, and fertilizer and the edible mushroom of becoming thoroughly decomposed are cultivated after waste material mixes and apply fertilizer, and is incubated and survives the winter after ridging 5cm;
4), temperature treatment: in summer canopy during the high temperature of daytime more than 35 DEG C, open booth two ends, skirt film started to canopy shoulder, aeration-cooling; Every day 9 to afternoon, 3 ceilings covered the sunshade net that shading rate is 35%-55% black; When in winter canopy, nighttime temperature is lower than 15 DEG C, take to close canopy insulation;
5), cultivation and banking: intertill and clean tillage is earthed up, and adopts artificial weeding, and ridging standard is that Root of Asparagus officinalis dish is apart from the thick 10-15cm of ground surface soil;
Described integrated pest prevention and control sets up Synthetical control system for damage by disease and insect asparagus splash disease main in green asparagus facility cultivation, stem wilt, prodenia litura, Bemisia tabaci;
1), the integrated control of asparagus splash disease and stem wilt
, stem wilt their early stage sick in asparagus splash 25 wt% triumphant profit EC1000 times of liquid or 10 wt% generation height WG1000 times of liquid or 325 grams per liter Ah rice wonderful receipts SC50 milliliter/mu or 75 wt% prevent and treat Asparagus Stem Blight, brown spot by opposing steady WG15 gram/acre rotation or being used alternatingly, every spray in 7 days 1 time, connect spray 2-3 time;
2), the integrated control of prodenia litura and Bemisia tabaci
Blue yellow haftplatte: move into the initial stage in tobacco powder mite source, utilize Yellow sticky trap and blue insect-sticking plate to carry out continuing trapping to Bemisia tabaci adults, reduce insect population radix, every mu is hung the yellow plate 30 of 25 × 30 cm, require that champac plate lower end is higher than green asparagus crop plant top 30cm, within every 15 days, change once;
Biological control: discharge amblyseius cucumeris oudeman 3 times in the green asparagus season of growth, about 60/m at every turn 2, control Bemisia tabaci;
Chemical control: mid-May, mid-July, mid-August, mid-September with 40 wt% chlopyrifos EC75 milliliter/mus or 22 wt% metaflumizone SC80 milliliter/mus or 5 wt% Rynaxypyr SC55 milliliter/mus or 6 wt% Avermectin Rynaxypyr SC50 milliliters/mu control prodenia litura; Mid-August to late October with 20 milliliters/mu, 10 wt% Nitenpyram aqua or 22.4 wt% spiral shell worm ethyl ester SC30 milliliter/mus or 50 wt% pymetrozines WG16 gram/acre or 25 wt% wettable powder with buprofezin 25 grams/acre or 50 wt% clothianidins WG8 gram/acre or 22 wt% fluorine pyridine worm amine cyanogen SC20 milliliter/mu rotations or be used alternatingly and prevent and treat Bemisia tabaci.
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