CN106233996A - Early red pepper, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method - Google Patents

Early red pepper, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method Download PDF

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CN106233996A
CN106233996A CN201610673566.XA CN201610673566A CN106233996A CN 106233996 A CN106233996 A CN 106233996A CN 201610673566 A CN201610673566 A CN 201610673566A CN 106233996 A CN106233996 A CN 106233996A
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organic
early
rice
cultivation
corm eleocharitis
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CN106233996B (en
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肖光辉
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Hu-Nan's Agriculture Information And Graduate School Of Engineering
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting

Abstract

The invention discloses early red pepper, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, relate to rotation cropping technical field.Comprise the following steps: (1) sets up organic farming production base;(2) suitable kind is selected;(3) rotation cropping pattern is: cultivation successively in the 1st year: early red pepper late rice Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici), cultivation successively in the 2nd year: early rice Corm Eleocharitis, 1 period of crop-rotation is 2 years;(4) carry out organic hot pepper according to prescription and the production specifications of organic farm products, organic paddy rice (late rice and early rice) is cultivated with organic Corm Eleocharitis, and by straw-returning and retting fertilizer and green manuring fertilizing soil.This organic farming alternating method can cultivate organic hot pepper, Oryza sativa L. and Corm Eleocharitis in same organic farming production base, its science of technology are rationally, practicality is with workable, it is suitable for extensive organic farming, being a kind of efficient ecological circular agriculture cultural method, the popularizing application prospect in In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River is wide.

Description

Early red pepper, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method
Technical field
The invention belongs to rotation cropping technical field, be specifically related to early red pepper, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic farming side Method.
Background technology
First organic agriculture was proposed by European countries the twenties in 20th century, through practice and the development of decades, progressively Paid attention to by national governments.Organic agriculture is one of good approach solving food-safety problem, is described as " rising industry ", There is wide market prospect.Organic farm products is pure natural, pollution-free, the food of safe nutrition, also referred to as " ecological food Product ", it is to produce according to organic agriculture principle and the organic farm products mode of production and standard, and passes through Organic Food Attestation The agricultural product of agency qualification.So organic farming must be given birth to according to the prescription of organic farm products and production specifications Produce, to ensure that its product is pollution-free, feature rich in nutrition and high-quality.In recent years, organic agriculture is owing to having complied with improvement agriculture Industry ecological environment, the world trends of the production pollution-free Organic food of high-quality, so Organic Farming is rapid, organic farming is day by day Coming into one's own, and progressively develop into for a kind of emerging rising industry, Organic food has become the fashion of people's consumption.Development height The production of the agricultural product such as the organic hot pepper of quality, not only can improve the economic benefit of Producer, and can be that consumer's body and mind is good for Health provides safeguard.
Fructus Capsici (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to Solanaceae Capsicum 1 year or limited herbaceos perennial, in originating in South America torrid areas, in the most incoming China, generally cultivates all over China now, is that China is only second to Chinese cabbage Second largest vegetable crop, for the popular vegetable of people's eating, is also good flavoring agent.Fructus Capsici is nutritious, containing protein, The mineral such as vitamin, organic acid, pigment, capsaicin and the calcium of human body needs, phosphorus, ferrum, in Fructus Capsici, ascorbic content is vegetables Dish occupies first.Capsaicin energy appetite stimulator in Fructus Capsici, capsanthin have good antioxidation.Eat Fructus Capsici in right amount to have Stomach invigorating, aid digestion, prevent cholelithiasis, improve cardiac function, blood circulation promoting, blood sugar lowering, lowering blood-fat and reducing weight, warming the stomach are dispeled cold, anti- Flu, the dietary function such as also pain relieving heat radiation, skin beauty treatment, radioprotective, growth encourage longevity.China is to occupy the Fructus Capsici first of the whole world to produce With consumption big country, whole nation Fructus Capsici sown area more than more than 140 ten thousand hectares, account for more than the 1/10 of China's vegetable crop cultivated area, produce Measure 27,000,000 tons, the output value reach 27,000,000,000 yuan (Sun Guosheng, Ma Zhihu, Sun Chunqing, etc. Fructus Capsici continuous cropping in early spring no-tillage cultivation technology. in State's melon dish, 2015,28 (1): 55-56), so Fructus Capsici plays an important role in China's vegetable basket project construction.Fructus Capsici is Warm season vegetable, is weak to frost, and its growth promoter requires warm weather, stronger illumination and good ventilation condition, its growth Phase is long, and the supply phase of gathering is long, and yield is high, profitable, in In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River by interval sowing, and the cultivation of mating protection ground, Annually cultivating supply can be carried out.But Fructus Capsici happiness temperature, happiness light, Xi Shui, happiness is fertile, be afraid of flood, the low temperature in In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River spring Rainy sparse sunlight weather easily causes fruit drop, and the best fruiting period, rich water was under-supply or also hold when meeting high temperature and drought, rainy wet weather Easily there is fruit drop, and pest and disease damage harm is serious under the conditions of unfavourable weather, generally uses chemical fertilizer, pesticide during cultivated peppers It is more and be unable to reach the requirement of organic farming, so the organic farming of Fructus Capsici is little at present.Warmhouse booth stubble in early spring is organic peppery Green pepper cultivation technique (Mu Tingjun. Agriculture in Xinjiang science and technology, 2011 (5): 69) and organic hot pepper cultivation technique (Fang Yubing. Anhui agronomy Circular, 201l, 17 (14): 171-172) contribution is, it is proposed that the organic farming of Fructus Capsici;Have a disadvantage in that, typically will Employing facility plastic greenhouse is cultivated, and is all not set up rational rotation system, and Fructus Capsici is weak to continuous cropping, must when carrying out organic farming Organic farming production base must be initially set up, if plant Fructus Capsici in same plot year after year, on the one hand pathogen can be caused to accumulate, Cause the soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt serious;On the other hand in close soil layer, identical nutrient substance is absorbed due to root system, Continuous cropping can cause soil lack some element and make soil physical and chemical property deteriorate, and is susceptible to continuous cropping obstacle.Owing to Fructus Capsici is general Require to carry out the crop rotation of more than 2~3 years or rice field-upland field rotation, above-mentioned Fructus Capsici organic cultivation method be difficult in actual production to apply or It is difficult to be truly realized organic farming.Therefore, carry out must formulating during Fructus Capsici organic farming the rotation plan fertilizing soil of science with Reduce the pest and disease damage radix in soil, effectively to prevent and treat the generation of the soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and soil continuous cropping obstacle.Bulbus Allii, Two kinds five of Fructus Capsici 1 year receives organic cultivation method (application number 201410465914.5, application publication number CN 104255243 A) Contribution is, it is proposed that Fructus Capsici and Bulbus Allii crop rotation carry out the technical scheme of organic farming;Have a disadvantage in that, annual in same piece of land Producing 1 batch of Fructus Capsici, every 1 batch of Fructus Capsici and 1 batch of Bulbus Allii crop rotation, owing to the crop rotation time is the shortest, the generation of pest and disease damage is still the tightest , in cultivation, there is bigger risk, and employ the chemical agents such as 10% tertiary sodium phosphate in weight, the most truly Organic farming.
Corm Eleocharitis (Eleocharis dulcis) has another name called Horse hoof, Shui Li, Di Li, a kind of wild plant, the subteranean stem of which is like water chestnut etc., belongs to Cyperaceae Eleocharis, is shallow Aqueous perennial root herbaceous plant, makees fruit or vegetable with underground bulb and eats, can eat raw or prepared food, also can process canning or Make to extract the raw material of starch.Corm Eleocharitis has a good effects of clearing away heat-fire, both can clearing away heat and promoting production of body fluid, can supplement the nutrients again, there is removing heat from blood Removing toxic substances, diuresis relieving constipation, Cleering damp and dissolving phlegm, help digestion the effects such as de-swelling, and persons many to diabetic urine have certain auxiliary therapeutic action, Corm Eleocharitis In " puchiin " have blood pressure lowering and the effect of anti-curing cancers.Corm Eleocharitis also has the function preventing acute infectious disease, in measles, popular Property meningitis more incident spring, Corm Eleocharitis is good diseases prevention food.Corm Eleocharitis is universal, with river in the cultivation of Yangtze river basin each province It is more that Soviet Union, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Guangxi, Anhui, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi etc. save cultivation.Corm Eleocharitis color of the leather purple is black, and meat is pure white, and matter is crisp Taste is sweet, and how tasty and refreshing juice is, nutritious, rich in various mineral elements and vitamin, the aminoacid of needed by human body, containing albumen Matter, fat, crude fibre, carotene, vitamin B, vitamin C, ferrum, calcium, phosphorus and carbohydrate etc., have underground pear from ancient times Good reputation, northerner regard as south of the River Radix Ginseng, therefore cultivate the better economic benefit of Corm Eleocharitis.Corm Eleocharitis is weak to continuous cropping, how in Oryza sativa L. Field crop rotation Corm Eleocharitis, but Corm Eleocharitis is relatively low with the economic benefit of Oryza sativa L. crop rotation, and Corm Eleocharitis and Fructus Capsici carry out rice field-upland field rotation, the most economical Benefit is preferable, and can also improve Soil structure, culture fertility, reduces the occurrence degree of disease pest and weed, reduces agriculture chemical use Amount, can improve product quality and yield, it is thus possible to significantly improve economic benefit.
Oryza sativa L. (Oryza sativa) is the most important cereal crops in the Yangtze river basin, is also to carry out floods and droughts with vegetables such as Fructus Capsicis Crop rotation and carry out the chief crop of rotation cropping with aquatic vegetables such as Corm Eleocharitiss.Although the production method of organic rice has multiple at present (see: Xia Lili etc. area, Baoying County organic paddy rice cultivation technique. modern agriculture science and technology, 2013 (23): 58,63;A kind of high yield has The production method of machine rice, CN 103733929 B;The production technology of a kind of organic fragrant rice, CN 103250606 B), but mostly because of Do not use scientific and reasonable crop rotation and fertility cultivation, existence fertilizer the most in various degree is not enough and long potential difference, yield poorly, The problem of Pest organism harm weight.Although Oryza sativa L. is the crop of resistance to continuous cropping, but owing to the production of organic rice can not use chemical agent Preventing and treating, long-term continuous cropping also results in the accumulation of field pathogen and the increase of insect density, passes through rice field despite the use of The methods such as duck culturing, Trionyx sinensis Wiegmann, shrimp and fish control the generation of field insect pest, have employed Chinese herbal medicine fluid seed soaking, plant insecticide prevention The multiple method such as spray and carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage, but occur also to there will be pest and disease damage than the more serious time at pest and disease damage cannot The problem controlled, thus cause Severe Reduction, even occur cultivating unsuccessfully.Therefore, Oryza sativa L. organic farming is also necessary implementation section Learn rational crop rotation, particularly carry out rice field-upland field rotation.Fructus Capsici carries out rice field-upland field rotation with Oryza sativa L., not only contributes to improve the soil in rice field Earth physicochemical character, increases fertility of land and fertilizer efficiency, and can effectively suppress the diseases such as pepper ralstonia solanacearum, anthrax, epidemic disease, reduces disease pest Crop smothering occurs, moreover it is possible to improves rice yield and significantly improves economic benefit, having significant economic benefit and ecological benefits.
Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) (Astragalus sinicus) has another name called Semen astragali sinici, for leguminous plant, is important green manure crop.Purple cloud The nitrogen fixing capacity of English is strong, and nitrogen utilization efficiency is higher, and during plant decomposition, the booster dose to soil nitrogen is very big, thus is waiting nitrogen quantity Under the conditions of stronger than the green manure crop such as Vicia dasycarpa, Semen Viciae fabae to the effect of increasing production of rear work.Green manure be remarkably improved soil organic matter content and Improve soil nitrogenous amount, and have very great help to improving soil physical property, so green manuring Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) is at south China Farmland ecosystem maintains farmland nitrogen cycle and has great significance in organic agriculture.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide early red pepper, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, by early red pepper with Field crop Oryza sativa L. and efficiently aquatic crops Corm Eleocharitis carry out scientific and reasonable rice field-upland field rotation, it is possible to reduce Weed infestation, destroy Disease pest source grow environment with reduce pest and disease damage occurrence degree, improve soil fertility structure, promote soil environment reparation, early Ripe Fructus Capsici and Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation can also significantly improve economic benefit;Simultaneously by Oryza sativa L. interplanting green manure crop Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) with every After stubble crop harvesting, heap after straw collecting is made fertilizer or goes back the measures such as field fertilizing soil on the spot, having of organic matter can be realized Effect reclaims, and increases soil fertility, can form the benign cycle of crop cultivation, to maintain balance and the biology of farmland ecosystem Multiformity, thus reach Fructus Capsici, Oryza sativa L. and the purpose of Corm Eleocharitis organic farming.This organic farming alternating method is in strict accordance with country's ring " Organic food technical specification " (HJ/T80-2001) that border protection general bureau promulgates cultivates, and produces base in same organic farming Ground can realize organic hot pepper, organic paddy rice and the cultivation of organic Corm Eleocharitis.
Early red pepper, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, comprise the following steps:
(1) organic farming production base is set up;
(2) suitable kind is selected: capsicum variety selects that tolerance to cold is prominent, moisture-proof, disease-resistant, wide adaptability, bear fruit in early days Ability is strong, yield is concentrated, yielding ability is with commodity is good, quality is excellent, suitable local cultivation and the extremely early mature of the market demand or precocity Kind, including: Hunan grind No. 1, Hunan grind No. 11, Hunan grind No. 4, Hunan grind No. 9, Xiangyan No.19, Hunan grind No. 2;Rice varieties selects disease-resistant Worm property is strong, resistant to lodging, wide adaptability, yielding ability are good, meter Zhi Hao, suitable local environment, quality reach country and plant substandard Excellent Early-mid ripening late rice or early-paddy brown rice, prioritizing selection is through the organic paddy rice seed of Organic certification agency qualification;Corm Eleocharitis kind Selecting disease-resistant, strong stress resistance, bulb is big, skin is thin, taste is sweet, matter fine slag is few, is suitable for the high yield of locality cultivation, high-quality Corm Eleocharitis kind, Including: Hubei Province shepherd's purse 1, osmanthus hoof 2, Xiaogan Corm Eleocharitis, 91-33 Corm Eleocharitis, Guilin Horse hoof, Shayang County Corm Eleocharitis, Tuanfeng County Corm Eleocharitis, Huichang County Corm Eleocharitis, Yuhang Radix Campylotropis Hirtella (Herba Myrsines Africanae), Suzhou Corm Eleocharitis;
(3) rotation cropping pattern is: cultivation successively in the 1st year: early red pepper late rice Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici), cultivation successively in the 2nd year: Early rice Corm Eleocharitis, 1 period of crop-rotation is 2 years;
(4) prescription and production specifications according to organic farm products carry out organic hot pepper, organic paddy rice with organic Corm Eleocharitis is cultivated, and by straw-returning and retting fertilizer and green manuring fertilizing soil.
Organic farming production base described in step (1) is that traffic convenience, irrigation and drainage are convenient, away from city and industrial and mining area, life State condition is good, heavy metal free and pesticide residual contamination, away from soot and other polluter and traffic backbone, and have can The agricultural producing areas of continuous production ability, soil environment quality requires to be not less than " standard of soil environment quality " (GB15618- 1995) secondary standard in, irrigation water water quality meets the regulation of " agricultural irrigation water quality standard " (GB 5084-2005), and environment is empty Makings amount is not less than the secondary standard in " ambient air quality " (GB 3095-2012);Each organic farming production base Cultivated area not less than 10 hectares, production base is linked to be sheet, has integrity, and organic production base is handed over the conventional plot that produces Obvious isolation strip or buffer strip is had at boundary.
Kind described in step (2) all selects the seed processed without banned substance, prohibits the use of transgenic seed.
Described organic farming includes following measures:
In whole cultivation, prohibit the use of including pesticide, chemical fertilizer, herbicide, hormone or growth regulator Artificial chemistry synthetic, does not use technique for gene engineering and products thereof, many with the balance and biology maintaining farmland ecosystem Sample;
Only allowing application of organic fertilizers, green manuring and straw-returning fertilizing soil in whole cultivation, fertilizer makes By one or more in the fertilizer fully become thoroughly decomposed, efficient organic fertilizer and bio-bacterial manure, macerate except using animal wastes and plant Outside composting, green manure, plant ash, cake fertilizer, biogas manure, moreover it is possible to use potassium breeze, ground phosphate rock, calcium chloride, could be used that and recognize through organic The organic fertilizer of card agency qualification and microbial manure;
The plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control " is implemented in the preventing and treating of disease pest and weed, from whole farmland production environment Ecosystem sets out, the various prophylactico-therapeutic measures of integrated use, creates and is unfavorable for that disease pest and weed grows, is conducive to the procreation of all kinds of natural enemies Environmental condition, reduces the loss that disease pest and weed causes, and based on integrated pest control in agriculture, uses biological and physical method preventing and treating, The pesticide not using synthetic carries out chemical prevention, when there being pest and disease damage to occur, may utilize the mineral allowing to use or plants Thing medicament carrys out prevention and elimination of disease and pests, also can use rotenone, the Pyrethrum of plant origin, prosparol and diatom with limitation Soil, and microorganism and preparation thereof such as bacillus thuringensis, Bt preparation etc. carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage, it is possible to use sulfur with limitation The prevention and elimination of disease and pests such as sulphur, Calx, lime sulfur, Bordeaux mixture;
Stablizing of farmland ecosystem to be maintained, it is impossible to cause environmental pollution and ecological disruption, often Plant residue will be cleared up in time after stubble crop harvesting, heap after straw collecting is made fertilizer or goes back field fertilizing soil on the spot, Making the agricultural Organic substances such as straw all be integrated into utilizing, the garbage that agricultural film etc. can not be degraded all to reclaim and to be used.
Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) described in step (3) be and late rice Later growth interplanting green manure crop, Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) the neat fringe of late rice, Before arriving harvesting after eave tile, in sowing at the beginning of mid or late September to 10 month, Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) is ploughed under in soil by next year mid or late March~early April Fertilizing soil.
Organic hot pepper cultivation described in step (4) is: previous crops Corm Eleocharitis is turned over after gathering early, cultivates 1 batch of precocity after shining soil Fructus Capsici, including: select adapted varieties, cultivate anosis big strong sprout ahead of time, field planting the most ahead of time, field management and gather.
Described anosis big strong sprout of cultivating ahead of time is: ahead of time to early and middle ten days seeding and seedling raising in first October in year, use seedbed nursery, Heel on the seedbed in booth when seedling grows 3~4 true leaves or in the seedling culture hole plate of hole, nutritive cube/50, if not carrying out vacation Plant, then notice that thickness of sowing is the dilutest, when seedling grows 3~4 true leaves by seedling between Miao Yumiao at a distance of 5~10cm, Or use the seedling culture hole plate nursery of hole, nutritive cube/50;Being gradually reduced along with temperature during nursery, carries out the insulation of booth buckle film anti- Cold, make seedling grow up to big strong sprout before arriving severe winter, add a cover Small plastic shed cold season on seedbed and add a cover straw screen or mat insulation evening, making Hot Pepper Seedling safe overwintering;During field planting, the standard in big strong sprout is: short between seedling stem slubbing, and blade is plump, well developed root system, plant height 18~ 20cm, has 8~9 true leaves, and more than 70% buddings.
Described organic hot pepper cultivation is: uses zanjon height bedding cultivation, selects anosis big strong sprout ahead of time to mid or late March~4 Covering with ground sheeting field planting at the beginning of the month, every mu of field planting 3500~4800 strain, May, early and middle ten days started to gather, knot of gathering before mid or late July Bundle.
The fertilization principle of described organic hot pepper cultivation, based on base manure, is rationally topdressed, by the 70% of total fertilization amount~ 80% be used as base manure, every mu execute decomposed dung 2000~3000kg, cake fertilizer 150~200kg or become thoroughly decomposed person poultry muck 2500~ 3000kg, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg, potassium breeze 20~30kg, apply furrow face after ploughing deeply before whole ground;Light rear weight before topdressing, with full The foot nutritional need persistently yielded positive results of Fructus Capsici, field planting water after 1 week execute 10%~20% become thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 200~ 300kg is as carrying seed manure, and the fruit growth after bearing fruit imposes 20%~30% collection period and becomes thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 2~3 times, often Secondary 300~500kg, or the cake fertilizer 50~100kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed of spreading manuer in holes, water the most in right amount.
The water management of described organic hot pepper cultivation is: to water field planting water after field planting immediately, moisture is unsuitable excessive, slow Seedling After then should suitably control to water, to improve ground temperature, hestening rooting;Phase of bearing fruit abundance to be supplied water;Rainy season must carry out trench digging Drainage works, prevents flood stain to hinder root.
Organic paddy rice (late rice and early rice) cultivation described in step (4) is: previous crops Fructus Capsici is gathered after terminating and cleans rural area, fills Water cultivates 1 batch of late rice after turning over and using sufficient base manure;The kind of the late rice suitable local environment of selection is sowed in mid or late June and is educated Seedling, mid or late July rice transplanting, after the neat fringe of late rice, eave tile to harvesting before, at the beginning of mid or late September to 10 month in rice field live green Fertile Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici);Green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) is ploughed under fertilizing soil in soil by next year mid or late March~early April, cultivates 1 after using sufficient base manure again Stubble early rice;Early rice selects the kind of suitable local environment to insert in late March~early April seeding and seedling raising, mid or late April Seedling, ploughs under Caulis et Folium Oryzae Tanaka immediately after early rice harvesting and takes advantage of high temperature and macerate rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae fertilizing soil.
The cultivation of above-mentioned organic paddy rice uses water-raised seedling method to concentrate seedling, and rice seedling bed combines prior to seeding and turns over every mu for 3~5 days Execute the high-quality fertilizer 1000~2000kg that fully becomes thoroughly decomposed, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg or cake fertilizer 150kg makees base manure;The late rice length of time rice seedlings grow controls Within 28 days, the early rice length of time rice seedlings grow controlled within 30 days.
The cultivation of above-mentioned organic paddy rice carries out the rational application of fertilizer, in conjunction with ploughing soil according to front rush, middle control, the most steady fertilization principle The farm organic fertilizers 1000~2000kg such as every mu of barnyard manure executing fully to become thoroughly decomposed or cake fertilizer 100~200kg, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg do Base manure, after transplanting 4~5 days every mu impose and become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 100~150kg or organic commercial fertilizer 50~100kg makees tillering fertilizer, shine After the rehydration of field, horse back every mu executes the cake fertilizer 50~100kg or organic commercial fertilizer about 50kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed as ear manuer.
Organic Corm Eleocharitis cultivation described in step (4) is: after the harvesting of previous crops early rice, Caulis et Folium Oryzae ploughs under Tanaka immediately and takes advantage of high temperature and macerate Rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae fertilizing soil, cultivates 1 batch of Corm Eleocharitis after using sufficient base manure in conjunction with arable land;Corm Eleocharitis selects to be suitable for the kind of locality cultivation, April Early and middle ten days begins with two-phase method and cultivates anosis strong sprout, mid or late July field planting, and early Febuary in mid or late November to next year gathers.
The cultivation of above-mentioned two-phase method is anosis strong sprout: formerly year Corm Eleocharitis Later growth, growth selection neat and consistent, tiller divide Strain field strong, without lodging, without disease pest harm makees seed field, select full, epidermis is smooth and color and luster consistent, individual big the most uniform, Terminal bud and lateral bud are complete, healthy and strong, without wound, rot, have the bulb of this varietal characteristic, use stage nursery (drought Seedling) and two Stage nursery (rice seedling bed Seedling) two-phase method nursery;First stage nursery (upland nursery) is: April early and middle ten days select wind sheltering to Sun, loosing soil, fertile nonirrigated farmland or vegetable garden soil, hoe pine table soil about 10cm, it is made into furrow wide 100~the seedbed of 150cm, plants shepherd's purse and use Clean clear water soaks 18~24 hours, takes out in neatly coming seedbed after draining open fire and carries out upland nursery, holding of periodically watering Ground moistening is to lifting, and early stage takes Small plastic shed and lid plastic sheeting carries out accelerating germination, transplants extremely when kind of top dome bud length 20~25cm Rice seedling bed carries out second stage nursery;Second stage nursery (rice seedling bed nursery) is: select irrigation and drainage abundant paddy field convenient, organic, After using sufficient base manure, water is ploughed and is made into seedling field, in mid or late May carrying out in the seedling replanting in cultivating seedlings in dry land seedbed to rice seedling bed Rice seedling bed nursery, when height of seedling reaches 35~more than 40cm, field planting during cladode thick more than 0.5cm.
The principle of " front control steady, middle, then attack " is grasped in the fertilising of above-mentioned organic Corm Eleocharitis cultivation, and base manure to be used sufficient, in conjunction with turning over The farm organic fertilizer such as farmyard manure or decomposed dung 2000~3000kg or person poultry muck 1000~2000kg of becoming thoroughly decomposed are executed in every mu of soil Or the rapeseed cake 150~200kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, separately adding ground phosphate rock 40kg, potassium breeze 20kg makees base manure, acid heavier soil is when ploughing Quick lime 50~100kg/ mu to be executed;Early stage of topdressing based on nitrogenous fertilizer, the later stage based on potash fertilizer, topdress after field planting 7 for the 1st time ~10 days, transplanting combines the 1st intertillage every mu and executes the night soil 400~500kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed after turning green, to promote early tiller plant division, and the 2nd Secondary topdress every 10~15 days, execute in conjunction with weeding every mu and become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 70~80kg or plant ash 100~200kg promotes envelope row, the 3rd Secondary topdress at JIUYUE early and middle ten days, execute the cake fertilizer 100kg or methane liquid 750kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu, separately add potassium breeze 20kg, to promote knot shepherd's purse.
Organic farming alternating method of the present invention is particularly well-suited to In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River.
The present invention has following good effect: Fructus Capsici is a kind of solanaceous vegetables avoiding continuous cropping, and the requirement to rich water is higher, And pest species is many, harm weight, due to the reason such as accumulation of pathogen, the generation of the soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt during continuous cropping Ratio is more serious, is susceptible to soil continuous cropping obstacle, along with the increase of Cultivation time during Fructus Capsici continuous cropping, and chemical fertilizer, the usage amount of pesticide Increasing year by year and to can be only achieved expected yield, even if using chemical fertilizer, pesticide the most in a large number, also there will be showing of the underproduction year by year As, so Fructus Capsici common cultivation is extremely difficult to the requirement of organic farming, if Fructus Capsici organic farming to be carried out must initially set up Scientific and reasonable rotation system.Although Oryza sativa L. is the crop of resistance to continuous cropping, but long-term continuous cropping also results in the accumulation of field pathogen Increase with insect density.Corm Eleocharitis is also weak to continuous cropping, and Corm Eleocharitis and Oryza sativa L., Fructus Capsici carry out rice field-upland field rotation not only better economic benefit, And Soil structure, culture fertility can also be improved, reduce the occurrence degree of pest and disease damage.The present invention uses early red pepper to make with land for growing field crops Thing Oryza sativa L. and efficiently aquatic crops Corm Eleocharitis etc. carry out scientific and reasonable crop rotation, form distinct floods and droughts by rice field-upland field rotation Ecological environment, is possible not only to reduce Weed infestation, destroys the environment that grows in disease pest source, reduces the occurrence degree of pest and disease damage, and Soil fertility structure can also be improved, form the change of the mutual supplement with each other's advantages such as soil physical and chemical property, promote the reparation of soil environment;Peppery Green pepper can also be increased economic efficiency with Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation.Meanwhile, by late rice Later growth interplanting green manure crop Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) Fertilizing soil, makes heap after straw collecting fertilizer or goes back field fertilizing soil on the spot, preferably realizing after every batch of crop harvesting Organic recovery, improves soil fertility, can form the benign cycle of crop cultivation, to maintain farmland ecosystem Balance and bio-diversity, thus reach the purpose of organic farming.The present invention in strict accordance with organic farm products prescription and Production specifications is cultivated, and does not use the synthetic materials such as pesticide, chemical fertilizer, herbicide, hormone in whole production process Matter is cultivated, by select the place being suitable for set up organic farming production base, select suitable kind, cultivate anosis strong Seedling, timely field planting, use various feasible field management comprehensive technical measure, make full use of the resources such as light, heat, water, gas, fertilizer, Create and be conducive to Fructus Capsici, and rotation crop Oryza sativa L. and Corm Eleocharitis growth promoter and be unfavorable for the environmental condition that disease pest and weed occurs, The cultivation of organic hot pepper, Oryza sativa L. and Corm Eleocharitis can be carried out in same organic farming production base.Within 1 period of crop-rotation, 1 batch has The yield of machine early red pepper is 2000~3500kg/ mus, and the yield of 1 batch of organic late rice is 550~650kg/ mus, 1 batch of organic morning The yield of rice is 480~560kg/ mus, and the yield of 1 batch of organic Corm Eleocharitis is 1500~2500kg/ mus.The Fructus Capsici produced makees with crop rotation Thing Oryza sativa L. and Corm Eleocharitis not only quality is excellent, meets the prescription of organic farm products, and yield is high, do not have with the yield of conventional cultivation There is notable difference.The science of technology of this organic farming alternating method are reasonable, and practicality, with workable, is suitable for the most organic Cultivation, has good society, economy and ecological benefits, is a kind of efficient ecological circular agriculture cultivation mode, in the Changjiang river under Trip area has wide popularizing application prospect.
Detailed description of the invention
Below embodiment is had can the essence of the present invention to be described in detail, without limiting the present invention.
Embodiment 1
1. select the place being suitable for set up organic farming production base
The relevant environmental condition of production base has to comply with country's organic agriculture place of production standard, traffic convenience to be selected, row Fill convenient, good away from city and industrial and mining area (general require at a distance of more than 10 kilometers), ecological condition, heavy metal free and pesticide is residual Stay pollution, away from the polluter such as soot (pollution-free source within least 5 kilometers of periphery) and traffic backbone, and have sustainable Organic farming production base is set up in the agricultural producing areas of production capacity.Production base soil environment quality requires to be not less than " soil Earth environmental quality standards " secondary standard in (GB 15618-1995), and require physical features physicochemical property invigorating, soil good, Water conservation fertilizer-preserving ability is strong, deep fertile, the effective soil layer of soil layer reaches more than 60cm, drainage of soil venting capability is good, biological activity By force, the content of organic matter is more than 15g/kg.Irrigation water water quality meets the regulation of " agricultural irrigation water quality standard " (GB 5084-2005), Requirement have abundant water resources cleaning, water quality is excellent, canal system is supporting.Ambient air quality is not less than " ambient air quality " (GB Secondary standard in 3095-2012), it is desirable to air cleaner.Organic production base should be of certain scale, and general cultivated area is not Less than 10 hectares.Production base should be linked to be sheet, have integrity, can not be mingled with the plot carrying out conventional production therebetween, but allow There is organic conversion plot.Production base requires opposed flattened, the good supporting ditch system of excavation, reaches that the outer irrigation canals and ditches in field in field are unimpeded, filling Defecation profit.Must there be obvious isolation strip in organic production base, such as river, irrigation canals and ditches etc. with the conventional plot intersection that produces.If Plot, edge is likely polluted by neighbouring conventional plot and is affected, then must arrange 10m between organic and conventional plot left Right buffer strip or physical barrier, the most contaminated to ensure organic plot.Phase can be remained in the environment in view of Cucumber When long a period of time, conventional production systems typically require the transition period of 2 years, the Fructus Capsici cultivated thereafter to organic production conversion Could be as organic products after gathering in the crops in agricultural product, Fructus Capsici and other agricultural product of cultivation in i.e. the 3rd year are only organic farm products.
2. prescription and production specifications according to organic farm products produce
Produce principle according to organic agriculture, to follow the course of nature and based on ecological principle, use breeding to combine, follow The agricultural technology of a series of sustainable developments such as ring regeneration, the balance maintaining farmland ecosystem and bio-diversity produces, In whole cultivation, prohibit the use of the artificial synthetics matter such as pesticide, chemical fertilizer, herbicide, hormone or growth regulator, Do not use technique for gene engineering and products thereof.
(1) improvement of soil fertility and proper use of fertilizer
In order to ensure the sustainable production capacity in organic production base, fostering and apply fertilizer of soil is extremely important.Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) is important Green manure plant, there is nitrogen fixation, green manuring Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) can obtain more rich sources of nitrogen, and it is organic to improve soil Matter content, so using green manuring Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) to carry out culture fertility, supplementing nutrient for soil, improveing Soil structure, for organic peppery The production of the agricultural product such as green pepper is taken a firm foundation.Only allow application of organic fertilizers and green manuring and straw-returning fertilizing soil, Use fertilizer, efficient organic fertilizer and the bio-bacterial manure fully become thoroughly decomposed.The fertilizer such as chicken manure, pig manure need to enter before administration for 2 months Row harmless treatment, mixes wet rear heap fermentation so that it is fully become thoroughly decomposed by fertilizer.For the release of fertilizer early stage available nutrient slowly Shortcoming, it is possible to use allow use to have fixed nitrogen, phosphorus decomposing, the root nodule bacteria of potassium decomposing effect, bacillus cereus, photosynthetic bacteria and molten The microorganism fertilizers such as phosphorus bacterium, the activity through probiotics is accelerated nutrients release, is promoted the crop effective utilization to nutrient.Allow to make Fertilizer type in addition to animal wastes and plant retting fertilizer, green manure, plant ash, cake fertilizer, biogas manure, it be also possible to use potassium breeze, The material such as ground phosphate rock, calcium chloride, it is possible to use through organic fertilizer and the microbial manure of Organic certification agency qualification.
(2) disease pest and weed integrated control
Implement the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control ", from the ecosystem of whole farmland production environment, combine Close and use various prophylactico-therapeutic measuress, create the environmental condition being unfavorable for that disease pest and weed grows, is conducive to the procreation of all kinds of natural enemies, reduce disease The loss that Cordyceps evil causes, based on integrated pest control in agriculture, uses biological and physical method preventing and treating, does not use synthetic Pesticide carries out chemical prevention.Cultural control mainly by select resistance kind, carry out efficent rotation, cultivate of the right age anosis Strong sprout, use various possible cultivation technique measure to carry out the cultivation management of science, create be conducive to crop growth and not It is beneficial to the environmental condition that disease pest and weed occurs, to strengthen the resistant to diseases and insects of plant.It is raw that biological and physical control is to try to protection Producing the ecological environment in base, maintain the ecological balance of nature, the hostile insect in Appropriate application sky carries out Biological control;Utilize insect The intrinsic light that becomes, the taste that becomes are to catch and kill insect, and every 2~3 hectares of production base to be installed 1 solar insect-killing light (frequency ventilating type is killed Worm lamp HLD-01) carry out insect-killing trapping.When pest and disease damage occurs more serious, it is possible to use allow some mineral and the plant used Medicament carrys out prevention and elimination of disease and pests, also can use rotenone, the Pyrethrum of plant origin, prosparol and kieselguhr with limitation, And microorganism and preparation thereof such as bacillus thuringensis, Bt preparation etc. carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage, it is possible to use sulfur, stone with limitation The prevention and elimination of disease and pests such as ash, lime sulfur, Bordeaux mixture.
(3) protection base ecological environment
Require in process of production not cause environmental pollution and ecological disruption, so will be timely after every batch of crop harvesting Cleaning plant residue, thoroughly sweeps, cleans base, is all transported by plant invalid body and destroys or buried, to reduce disease outside base Insect pest radix.Heap after straw collecting made fertilizer or goes back field fertilizing soil on the spot, making agricultural Organic substance all quilts such as straw Comprehensive utilization.The garbage that agricultural film etc. can not be degraded all to reclaim and to be used.
3. work out scientific and reasonable rotation plan and carry out organic farming
Fructus Capsici is weak to continuous cropping, and during continuous cropping, not only the soil-borne disease such as bacterial wilt occurs serious, and is susceptible to soil even Making obstacle, the most then the underproduction, Chong Zehui garden has no harvest, so must formulate the rotation plan of science during Fructus Capsici organic farming, sets up and closes The rotation system of reason, to control disease pest harm and to prevent the generation of soil continuous cropping obstacle.Through years of researches and production practices, grind Study carefully and summed up In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River early red pepper organic farming rotation system and be: early red pepper late rice Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) (the 1st year) early rice Corm Eleocharitis (the 2nd year), 1 period of crop-rotation is 2 years.After 1 batch of early red pepper of cultivation in 1st year, cultivate 1 batch of evening Rice at later stages interplanting green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici), plough under fertilizing soil in soil, Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) retting the 2nd year spring by green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) The fertilizer of rear generation can make every mu to increase pure N 4.8~7.2kg, then 1 batch of early rice of cultivation, immediately by Caulis et Folium Oryzae after early rice harvesting Ploughing under Tanaka to take advantage of high temperature and macerate rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae fertilizing soil, then cultivate 1 batch of Corm Eleocharitis, Corm Eleocharitis is entered by above-mentioned rotation cropping pattern after gathering again Row cultivation.
(1) early red pepper organic production
It is wet in order to In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River early spring low temperature overcast and rainy day weather many, the most heavy rain, air are mitigated or overcome The unfavourable weather conditions such as degree is big, create the environmental condition being conducive to chili growth to grow, and improve the resistance of Fructus Capsici and alleviate disease pest Evil harm, reaches high yield, stable yields, high-quality, efficient purpose, must project above " early " word on cultivation technique, except using Outside conventional ealy maturing culture technology, should also be noted that following Cultural technique.
1. adapted varieties is selected
In the case of current China has obtained the organic hot pepper seed of certification the most, should select to process without banned substance Seed, prohibit the use of transgenic seed.Tolerance to cold to be selected is prominent, moisture-proof, disease-resistant, wide adaptability, in early days bear fruit ability strong, Yield is concentrated, yielding ability is with commodity is good, quality is excellent, suitable local cultivation and the extremely early mature of the market demand or early red pepper product Kind, grind No. 11 as ground No. 1 (authorization name: Hunan green pepper No. 1), Hunan by the kind Hunan of Hunan Province's crop varietal approval committee (authorization name: Hunan green pepper No. 14), Hunan grind No. 4 (authorization names: Hunan green pepper No. 3), No. 9 (authorization name: Hunan green pepper No. 11), Xiangyan No.19s are ground in Hunan (authorization name: Hunan green pepper No. 16), Hunan grind kinds such as No. 2 (authorization names: Hunan green pepper No. 9).
Cultivate anosis big strong sprout the most ahead of time
According to the feature that Fructus Capsici seedlings are stronger than seedling winter resistance, through Test Summary for many years, we have found out a set of being suitable for In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River Fructus Capsici seedlings are survived the winter seedling-raising technique.The i.e. pepper seedling raising time, ahead of time to elder generation's early and middle ten days in October in year, uses dew Ground seedbed nursery, heels on the seedbed in booth or in the seedling culture hole plate of hole, nutritive cube/50 when seedling grows 3~4 true leaves. Also can directly nursery or use nutritive cube or seedling culture hole plate nursery on the seedbed in booth, children is treated during direct nursery in seedbed Typically to heel in 1 time when Seedling grows 3~4 true leaves;If not heeling in, then must be noted that thickness of sowing is the dilutest, Seedling carries out 1 thinning when growing 3~4 true leaves, between Miao Yumiao at a distance of 5~10cm, a seedling gone out can be heeled in In the seedling culture hole plate of on seedbed in booth or hole, nutritive cube/50.Being gradually reduced along with temperature, carries out booth buckle film insulation later Cold-proof, make seedling grow up to big strong sprout before arriving severe winter.Evening or snowy day during severe winter add a cover Small plastic shed, temperature on seedbed 1 layer of straw screen or mat insulation can be covered the lowest evening or snowy day again.So it is not required to any warming-up device, in Hunan, Hubei one band Fructus Capsici Seedling all can safe overwintering, and be conducive to cultivating the strong sprout that winter resistance is stronger, the expression of Fructus Capsici precocity characteristic can be promoted, to fill The characteristic of its kipeming high yield, high benefit is waved in distribution.During field planting, the standard in big strong sprout is: short between seedling stem slubbing, and blade is plump, root System's prosperity, plant height 18~20cm, there are 8~9 true leaves, more than 70% buddings.
3. base manure, the most ahead of time field planting are used sufficient
The bedding of whole ground and basal dressing: previous crops Corm Eleocharitis is turned over early after gathering and shines in vain, uses sufficient base after ploughing deeply 1 time again before field planting Fertilizer, base manure should account for the 70%~80% of total fertilizer application amount, execute decomposed dung 2000~3000kg, cake fertilizer 150~200kg for general every mu Or person poultry muck 2500~3000kg of becoming thoroughly decomposed, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg, potassium breeze 20~30kg, can drink according to soil fertility Feelings increase and decrease.Acid heavier soil is also wanted every mu and is executed quick lime 50~100kg.General after ploughing deeply 1 time at the beginning of 3 months basal dressing with whole Ground bedding, furrow width (wrapping a gutter) 1.1~1.2m, furrow ditch depth 20~30cm, and hold successfully and enclose ditch and Yao Gou, accomplish furrow ditch, Yao Gou Communicate in order to draining with enclosing Gou Gougou.Base manure typically all applies furrow face, the most wholely, covering with plastic film before whole ground.
Field planting in time: can covering with ground sheeting field planting when 10cm soil temperature is stablized at 10~12 DEG C.In In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River, Fructus Capsici with alabastrum can arrive mid or late March~timely covering with ground sheeting field planting land for growing field crops at the beginning of 4 months above the average age for marriage strong sprout ahead of time.Every furrow field planting 2 row, Spacing in the rows 25~33cm, every mu of field planting 3500~4800 strain.Field planting ahead of time not only improves Fructus Capsici listing ahead of time, increases economic benefit, Garden can be stopped again the most ahead of time and allow stubble, alleviate the senilism phenomenon of megathermal period to improve Fructus Capsici total output, also can avoid cutworm, anthrax The peak period of causing harm of disease, virosis etc., it is thus achieved that the effect got twice the result with half the effort.
4. field management
Emphasis catches early yield to be to obtain cultivation successfully key, management needs maximize favourable factors and minimize unfavourable ones, protects early stage and promote the later stage, anti- Stopped presenility.
The rational application of fertilizer: field planting is watered after 1 week and executed 10%~20% and become thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 200~300kg as carrying seed manure. Can topdress less in the case of using sufficient base manure, but and often gather after the 1st, 2 layers of fruit are occupied stably and should regard plant growing way feelings after 1~2 time Condition imposes appropriate instant nitrogenousfertilizer, typically can impose 20%~30% and become thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 2~3 times, each 300~500kg, Or the cake fertilizer 50~100kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed of spreading manuer in holes, water the most in right amount.Topdressing amount must before light after weight, persistently yield positive results meeting Fructus Capsici Nutritional need, delay tree vigo(u)r old and feeble, strengthen result reserve strength, so can strive early stage high yield, later stage volume increase, high yield of full phase.
Water management: to water field planting water after field planting immediately, moisture is unsuitable excessive, then should suitably control to water after slow Seedling, with Improve ground temperature, hestening rooting;Phase of bearing fruit abundance to be supplied water;Rainy season must carry out the work that digs trenches to drain the water away, and prevents flood stain to hinder root.
It addition, be also noted that and erase the following side shoot of a green pepper in time, to reduce nutrient consumption, make nutrient centralizedly supply fruit, Improve fruit-setting rate, promote growth of young.
Disease pest and weed is prevented and treated: must the most early prevent pest and disease damage, should be based on integrated pest control in agriculture, by selecting Resistant Kind and disease-free seed, employing temperature scald seed soaking (i.e. to be put into seed in 55 DEG C of warm water of seed weight 3~4 times, is stirred continuously about 15 minutes, after water temperature is down to room temperature, continue seed soaking 4~5 hours, then sowing or directly sowing after accelerating germination) kill the surface of the seed The pathogenic bacteria carried, carry out reasonable rice field-upland field rotation, execute appropriate quick lime regulation acid-base value, cultivate anosis big strong sprout ahead of time, suitably carry Early field planting, employing zanjon height plot of land film mulching and planting, rational close planting, reinforcement rich water quality management make plant strain growth stalwartness, prevent field The cultivation management of the science such as hydrops, creates and is conducive to chili growth to grow and be unfavorable for the environmental condition that disease pest and weed occurs, with Strengthen the resistant to diseases and insects of plant;Check in time, find that diseased plant is pulled out immediately, burns or buried, in cave, spread fertilizer over the fields Calx;Cleaning Rural area, removing field and periphery weeds, reduce disease pest propagating source etc..Next to that use biological and physical control, as utilized seven-star The natural enemy such as ladybug, Encarsia formosa is prevented eliminating aphis;With frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, the yellow insect-killing trapping such as plate, backboard, as installed the sun Insect-killing trapping can be carried out by trapping lamp (frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp HLD-01), or every mu of suspension 30~40 block specifications are the Huang of 25cm × 40cm Plate and backboard insect-killing trapping;Can also be used with Silver Grey Mulching Film cover keep away aphid, with sweet-and-sour liquid, gyplure trapping black cutworm, diamondback moth, Prodenia litura etc.;When pest and disease damage occurs heavier, the plant source Biocidal antibacterial such as soft soap, matrine or local raw can be used Long plant (Herba Houttuyniae, Bulbus Allii, Herba Menthae, tansy, Melia azedarach L. etc.) extractant carrys out pest control, such as the tansy with 30g/L (fresh weight) Liquid is anti-to eliminate aphis and acarid, with Herba Alii fistulosi Bulbus Allii mixed liquor and the generation of the pre-preventing disease and pest of Bulbus Allii leachate;Also fish can be used with limitation Rattan ketone, the Pyrethrum of plant origin, prosparol and kieselguhr, and microorganism and preparation thereof are as revived with Bt preparation, HD-l The pest controls such as rue gold bacillus or nuclear polyhedrosis virus, can also be used with the controlling disease such as Bordeaux mixture.Prevention and control of weeds typically utilizes Covering with ground sheeting suppression weed growth, uses artificial weeding if desired.
Gather the most in time
When pepper fruit fully expand, fruit is harder and color of the leather is bright time just can gather, door green pepper and green pepper should suitably be carried Early gathering, and note the most repeatedly gathering as far as possible, in order to avoid affecting plant strain growth and affecting yield, the best fruiting period is typically every 2~3 days Can gather 1 time.In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River typically in May early and middle ten days start to gather, gathered before mid or late July end allow in time Stubble, then inoculate 1 season late rice.The most both reached to capture within a short period of time the purpose of high-yield and high-efficiency benefit, soil can have been improved again Utilization rate, it is thus achieved that the ideal effect of early maturing and high yield high benefit.The Quality of Capsicum produced is excellent, yield is high, meets the life of organic hot pepper Producing requirement, general yield is 2000~3500kg/ mus.
Selecting Hunan to grind No. 1 capsicum variety, (CK selects to use organic farming alternating method of the present invention and conventional cultivation method The soil cultivation of solanaceous crops, every mu of sealing fertilizer 50kg, calcium superphosphate 50kg, ammonium hydrogencarbonate 30kg was not planted in nearly 3 years Make base manure, sealing fertilizer 30kg or carbamide 20kg to topdress;Chemical agent is used to carry out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control no less than 4 times) carry out Contrast test, the area of each process is 8m × 20m, if 3 times are repeated.Result of the test shows: organic cultivation method of the present invention The disease pest harm of the 1st~the 3rd period of crop-rotation is the lightest, and yield is the most more stable, and low unlike CK, also have the most gradually The trend increased;Meanwhile, the product quality of organic farming alternating method of the present invention significantly improves than CK, reaches the mark of organic products Standard, but the product quality of CK can only achieve non-harmful standard (being shown in Table 1).
Table 1 Hunan is ground No. 1 Fructus Capsici and is used organic farming alternating method of the present invention and conventional cultivation method (CK) to carry out precocious cultivation Yield and quality and the pest and disease damage of training a situation arises comparison sheet
(2) Oryza sativa L. (late rice and early rice) organic production and interplanting green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici)
Fructus Capsici is gathered after end stops garden and cleans rural area in time, and straw collecting heap after break process is made fertilizer, field Between pour water after turn over immediately, then cultivation 1 batch of late rice.Green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) can at the neat fringe of late rice, (eave tile refers to Oryza sativa L. to eave tile Seed substantially grow full after, spike of rice is owing to undertaking the weight of seed and reclinate period) arrive harvesting afterwards before, in 9 months The last ten-days period, every mu of application rate was 1.5~2.0kg in direct sowing rice field at the beginning of 10 months.After late rice harvesting, Caulis et Folium Oryzae is collected and manure of livestock and poultry etc. Heap makes fertilizer.Green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) is ploughed under fertilizing soil in soil by next year mid or late March~early April, then cultivates 1 batch of morning Rice.
Cultivation Oryza sativa L. anosis strong sprout the most in good time
Fruit variety: disease and insect resistance is strong, resistant to lodging, wide adaptability, yielding ability are good in selection, meter Zhi Hao, suitable local ecology Environment, quality reach country and plant excellent non-transgenic Early-mid ripening late rice and the early-paddy brown rice of substandard, and prioritizing selection is recognized through organic The organic paddy rice seed of card agency qualification.
Begin sowing in good time, cultivate tiller strong sprout: during presoaking and germinating, about 10 hours can be soaked seed to kill seed with 1% lime water The pathogenic microorganism on surface, carries out presoaking and germinating after cleaning with clear water according to a conventional method;Or kill the surface of the seed with the boiling hot seed soaking of temperature Pathogen, will put in 55 DEG C of warm water and soak seed 10~20 minutes by seed, and be stirred continuously, water temperature is down to after room temperature routinely Method carries out presoaking and germinating, and accelerating germination shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally can sow to broken breast.
General use water-raised seedling method to concentrate seedling, rice seedling bed within 3~5 days, combine prior to seeding turn over every mu execute fully become thoroughly decomposed excellent Matter fertilizer 1000~2000kg, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg or cake fertilizer 150kg make base manure.Late rice is typically sowed in mid or late June, 1.0~during 1.5 leaf or within 5~7 days before transplanting, chase after appropriate dilute night soil or methane liquid send and transfers fertilizer, the length of time rice seedlings grow control 28 days with In.Early rice is typically sowed at late March~early April, after planting keeps seedling bed to moisten to 1.5 leaves, be incubated with diaphragm seal, Moisturizing is main;Alternation of wetting and drying after 2 leaf 1 hearts, fills horse race water, and fine day is taken off film ventilation seedling exercising the most afterwards, prevented rice shoot from burning, and 3 After the leaf phase, fine day starts to take off lid seedling exercising at night day, transplants first 3 days and all takes off film;Within 5~7 days before transplanting, impose dilute night soil in right amount Or methane liquid, the length of time rice seedlings grow controls within 30 days.
2. land for growing field crops prepares and rice transplanting
Land for growing field crops prepares: the previous crops of late rice is Fructus Capsici, and the previous crops of early rice is green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici), owing to applying fertilizer relatively during cultivated peppers Many, fertilizer of having a surplus is not finished, and Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) ploughs under soil of having fostered and apply fertilizer in soil, so base manure need not be too many during rice-cultivating, typically ties Close ploughing soil every mu and execute farm organic fertilizer 1000~2000kg or cake fertilizer 100~200kg, the ground phosphate rock such as the barnyard manure that fully becomes thoroughly decomposed 30~50kg make base manure, after turning over keep 3~3.3cm water layers harrow a field, plough rake whole after prepare rice transplanting.
Rice transplanting in time: general employing is manually planted or transplanting.Late rice is in mid or late July rice transplanting, Reference Strains line-spacing 18cm × 20cm, Planting Densities every mu 1.8~2.0 ten thousand root and stem of certain plants, every root and stem of certain plants is inserted the 2~4 young plants suckering plant of 1 paddy (1 young plant be), is participated for every mu Basic Seedling 70,000~90,000.Early rice is in mid or late April rice transplanting, Reference Strains line-spacing 17cm × 20cm, Planting Densities 1.8 ten thousand~2.2 ten thousand The root and stem of certain plants/mu, every root and stem of certain plants is inserted the suckering plant of 2~3 paddy, is participated Basic Seedling 70,000~100,000 for every mu.
3. field management
The rational application of fertilizer: according to front rush, middle control, the most steady fertilization principle, suitably executes tillering fertilizer in the case of base manure abundance With take the circumstances into consideration to use fringe granulated fertilizer.General after transplanting 4~5 days every mu impose become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 100~150kg or organic commercial fertilizer 50~ 100kg makees tillering fertilizer, and after dry field rehydration, horse back every mu executes the cake fertilizer 50~100kg or organic commercial fertilizer about 50kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed as fringe Fertile.
Water management: should make full use of filling draining to regulate the water in rice field, fertilizer, air and heat, create the field of suitable paddy growth Between miniclimate.Late rice deep water live the root and stem of certain plants, (i.e. shallow water rice transplanting, pours water the most at once and 5~7cm facilitates work, early stage after turning green in shallow water tiller Shallow irrigation promotees tiller), enough timely dry fields of Seedling (i.e. starting dry field when Seedling number reaches 200,000/mu left and right), to shine to Tanaka's mud It is degree that face sclerderm, limit, field open crackle, intermittent irrigation after rehydration, accomplishes there is water strong bud heading, moistens strong seed, and later stage dry and wet is wet To ripe, prevent dehydration too early.The water management of early rice accomplishes there is water cutting seedling, and the shallow water root and stem of certain plants, tiller alive, Seedling foot dry field, dry field is multiple To moisten after water, keep dry and wet irrigation method, note rice shoot turn green after 2~3 days draining open fields, to cultivate good root System, open field 2~after 3 days again answer shallow water, the later stage can not be dehydrated too early, in order to avoid affecting mass of 1000 kernel.
4. disease pest and weed preventing and treating
Preferentially use cultural control, by select disease-resistant variety, efficent rotation, cultivation strengthen seedling, rational close planting, enrich organic Fertile, remove the Healthy culture measures such as weeds, Scientific Regulation rich water, in good time dry field in time and improve field microclimate so that it is ventilate thoroughly Light is good, strengthens the resistance of plant self, reduces the generation of pest and disease damage;Thoroughly remove irrigation canals and ditches the edge of a field weeds, Oryza sativa L. residuum, subtract The place that few pest and disease damage grows;By measures such as rational close planting, the water and fertilizer managements increasing Basic Seedling and science, make Oryza sativa L. early envelope OK, reach to suppress the purpose of weed growth;Manually cut weeds control crop smothering by farming weed eradication and using.Next to that use biology With physical control, pest natural enemy such as birds, batrachia, Aranea, parasitic wasp etc. are utilized to control the population quantity of insect, as when rice field moth Trichogramma releases preventing and treating rice leaf roller, striped rice borer and yellow rice borer when worm insect population radix reaches 100/mu;Prevented by duck-raising enclosed paddy fields Control the insect pests such as planthopper, striped rice borer, yellow rice borer and control weeds in field;Use frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp trapping striped rice borer, leaf roll snout moth's larva, The insects such as non-glutinous rice plant hopper, mini pest uses yellow card's trap.Can be selected for when pest and disease damage is more serious through Organic certification agency qualification Biological pesticide preparation prevent and treat, as with bacillus subtilis wettable powder preventing and treating rice blast and false smut, with Bt preparation, Chemical control striped rice borer, the rice leaf roller such as azadirachtin preparation, with preventing and treating rice such as matrine, azadirachtin preparation, beauveria fungus preparations Plant hopper.
5. gather in the crops
Late rice is typically ripe in mid or late October, and early rice is ripe in mid or late July.Gather in the crops in time after maturation, it is desirable to single receipts, Singles, single solarization, single storage, after drying, unification is sold.Average per mu yield late rice is 550~650kg, and early rice is 480~560kg.
(3) Corm Eleocharitis organic production
1. land for growing field crops prepares
Caulis et Folium Oryzae ploughs under after the harvesting of previous crops early rice Tanaka immediately take advantage of high temperature and macerate rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae fertilizing soil, remove field and surrounding Ridge weeds and stubble.The farm organic fertilizer such as farmyard manure or decomposed dung 2000~3000kg or corruption is executed in conjunction with real tillage every mu Ripe person poultry muck 1000~2000kg or the rapeseed cake 150~200kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, separately add ground phosphate rock 40kg, potassium breeze 20kg makees base manure. Acid heavier soil quick lime 50~100kg/ mu to be executed when ploughing.Two plough two rakes, make face, field smooth, keep active soil stratum 20~25cm, and keep 2~5cm shoaling layers, accomplish that face, field is smooth, mud work, clay fertilizer, grass are clean, water foot treats field planting.
2. cultivation Corm Eleocharitis anosis strong sprout
Fruit variety: select disease-resistant, strong stress resistance, bulb is big, skin is thin, taste is sweet, matter fine slag is few, is suitable for the height of locality cultivation Product, high-quality Corm Eleocharitis kind, such as Hubei Province shepherd's purse 1, osmanthus hoof 2, Xiaogan Corm Eleocharitis, 91-33 Corm Eleocharitis, Guilin Horse hoof, Shayang County Corm Eleocharitis, Tuanfeng County's water chestnut The improved seeds such as shepherd's purse, Huichang County Corm Eleocharitis, Yuhang Radix Campylotropis Hirtella (Herba Myrsines Africanae), Suzhou Corm Eleocharitis.
Reserving seed for planting and plant shepherd's purse and select: formerly year Corm Eleocharitis Later growth, growth selection neat and consistent, tiller plant division are strong, without falling Volt, without disease pest endanger field make seed field.Profile rounding, epidermis is taken without damaged, terminal bud lateral bud sturdy sound, skin when gathering Dark brown, single bulb weight more than 20g, the bulb storage with institute's cultivar feature are passed the winter, it is also possible to preserve at field wintering March in next year has dug direct nursery.
Nurturing staff: the Yangtze river basin preferably uses two-phase method nursery, i.e. one stage nursery (drought Seedling) and two-stage nursery (seedling Tian Miao) two-phase method nursery, need to plant shepherd's purse 110~200 for every mu of land for growing field crops, sowing quantity 2.0~5.0kg.A. first stage nursery (drought Ground nursery): typically at early and middle ten days selection in April hidding and sunny side, loosing soil, fertile nonirrigated farmland or vegetable garden soil, hoe pine table soil is about 10cm, broken for thin for soil hoe hoe, is made into furrow wide 100~the seedbed of 150cm;Corm Eleocharitis digging after that preserve or field wintering preserve Middle reselection is full, epidermis is smooth and color and luster consistent, and individual big uniform, terminal bud and lateral bud are complete, healthy and strong, without wound, rot, have The bulb of this varietal characteristic, soaks 18~24 hours with clean clear water, takes out and drains open fire, according to line-spacing 15~20cm, spacing in the rows 5 ~8cm neatly comes in seedbed, making terminal bud upwards, uniform fold thin sand and soil after the water of spray vola, thickness is advisable to cover terminal bud, fixed Phase waters holding ground moistening to lifting;Early stage takes Small plastic shed because of the low need of temperature and lid plastic sheeting carries out accelerating germination, after entering May Available Shading net covering prevents direct sunlight from burning seedling, transplants to rice seedling bed when kind of top dome bud length 20~25cm and carries out second-order Duan Yumiao.B. second stage nursery (rice seedling bed nursery): typically select irrigation and drainage abundant paddy field convenient, organic mid-May, often Mu is executed and is become thoroughly decomposed farm organic fertilizer 2000~3000kg or become thoroughly decomposed dung polluted water 1500~2000kg or the cake fertilizer 150kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed makees base manure, Turn over seedling field by the soil water plough be made into pasty state, accomplish that the flat mud in field is rotten;In mid or late May, in cultivating seedlings in dry land seedbed, lifting moves Plant, Reference Strains line-spacing 40~50cm × 50~60cm, every cave 1 young plant;Early stage water irrigating depth 2~3cm after transplanting seedlings, should not surpass the most deeply Crossing 4cm, the later stage depth of water keeps 3~5cm;Topdress seedling stage and preferably gently execute duty and execute, transplant latter about 15 days every mu water and execute 30% loose stool water Or dilute methane liquid 500~1000kg, and weed Fender grass, every about 10 days every mu water again and execute 30% loose stool water or dilute methane liquid 500 ~1000kg;After 30~40 days, height of seedling reaches 35~more than 40cm, field planting during cladode thick more than 0.5cm.
3. field planting in good time
General in mid or late July field planting, at the latest less than the beginning of autumn.1 clump, every cave during field planting, every clump has 3~5 cladodes, The field planting degree of depth is advisable to enter mud 10~12cm.If rice shoot is the highest, the tip of a branch should be prescinded, stay cladode high 30~35cm, or by the tip Head gives a discount and plants in water, in order to avoid being broken by windbreak after field planting and shaking stock.In order to improve field ventilation and penetrating light, reduce pest and disease damage Generation, during organic farming should suitable thin planting, density is generally 2500~3000 caves/mu, Reference Strains line-spacing 40~50cm × 50 ~60cm.
4. field management
Topdress: the principle of " front control steady, middle, then attack " is grasped in fertilising, and base manure to be used sufficient, early stage of topdressing with nitrogenous fertilizer is in good time Master, later stage are based on potash fertilizer.Topdress for 1st time after field planting 7~10 days, transplant and combine the 1st intertillage every mu after turning green and execute and become thoroughly decomposed Night soil 400~500kg, to promote early tiller plant division;Topdress for 2nd time every 10~15 days, about in the August of plant vigorous growth In the middle ten days, execute become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 70~80kg or plant ash 100~200kg promotion envelope row in conjunction with weeding every mu;Topdress in JIUYUE for 3rd time Early and middle ten days, imposes balling according to full field growing state fertile, the center strain of cladode color burn, ramet the most on the ground in right amount Execute the cake fertilizer 100kg or methane liquid 750kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu when starting pumping scape, separately add potassium breeze 20kg, to promote knot shepherd's purse.
Water management: keep about 3cm shoaling layer in order to taking root during field planting, keep the depth of water 5~8cm in order to work after field planting The root and stem of certain plants, keeps shoaling layer 2~5cm in order to plant division, accelerates gradually to deepen to pour water along with plant strain growth later after turning green, vigorous period Keep water layer 6~9cm, want appropriateness draining dry field at the beginning of 9 months such as stem and leaf over growth by the end of August, to suppress too much plant division, promote to carry Early knot shepherd's purse, expansion of corms phase mid-September to mid-October keeps the depth of water 5~10cm, late October field start to cut off the water supply, keep shallow Water moistens;Mid or late November digs trenches to drain the water away in order to excavating.
Middle weeding: combining for 7~10 days after field planting topdresses carries out the 1st intertillage, cuts weeds with hand-lifting.Every 10~15 days Topdress in conjunction with the 2nd time and carry out weeding in the 2nd time, find that the close ground of Seedling can take out a part of thin and delicate Seedling, promote ventilation and penetrating light, Make strain clump robust growth, enhance disease resistance.The formation of corm phase is strictly on guard against that people and animals go to the field, in order to avoid stepping on disconnected sobole.
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: preferentially use cultural control, such as efficent rotation, selection Resistant kind, selects anosis field to stay Plant, select anosis kind of ball work kind, nurturing staff;Rational close planting, suitable thin planting, keep ventilation and penetrating light between good strain;Strengthen Cultivation management, apply fertilizers scientifically, enrich phosphorus, potash fertilizer, strengthen plant resistant to diseases and insects;Cleaning rural area in time, winter, cladode was withered After residual for field stem dead leaf is all removed, focus on or retting compost, root out limit, field weeds, reduce first the invading of pest and disease damage in the coming year Dye source;Science Guan Shui, it is to avoid string filling, flood irrigation and the water by morbidity Tanaka pour into anosis Tanaka, period of disease appropriateness dry field, reduce wet Degree, moistens little cracking (i.e. mud surface is hard, and the inside is soft) be advisable to shine to face, field, rehydration immediately after junction;Land for growing field crops plough is every when turning over Mu is executed quick lime 50~100kg and is carried out soil disinfection.Advocate and use biological and physical control, protection batrachia predation Field Pests, Utilize the natural enemy predation insects such as trichogramma, Cao Ling, Encarsia formosa, ladybug, wasp fly;Use frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp or sex attractant Trapping Prodenia litura, white standing grain snout moth's larva etc., use yellow card's trap alatae adult.Their early stage is pulled out diseased plant in time and is taken out of outside field deep Bury, can prevent and treat with Bt preparation with bacillus subtilis or Bacillus licheniformis or Paenibacillus polymyxa controlling disease if desired Insect pest.
5. gather
About in mid or late November, the ground stem and leaf of Corm Eleocharitis starts the most withered and the most yellow and gradually withered lodging, bulb skin When color is transformed into yellowish-brown to bronzing by white, bulb maturation can be gathered.General after mid-December, per day temperature Degree is down to less than 5 DEG C, and in bulb, sugar content is high, and the sweet succulence of taste, for optimum period of gathering.Collection period is with February in late December to next year The first tenday period of a month are advisable.General yield 1500~2500kg/ mu.
In sum, Fructus Capsici, Oryza sativa L. and the Corm Eleocharitis not only quality that organic farming alternating method of the present invention produces is excellent, meets and has The prescription of machine agricultural product, and yield is high, does not has notable difference with the yield of conventional cultivation;In planting process, pest and disease damage is sent out Life is light, soil fertility can be effectively improved, and uses the inventive method rotation cropping for many years, and whole structure performance is stable, peppery The yield of green pepper has the trend being gradually increased.

Claims (10)

1. early red pepper, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) organic farming production base is set up;
(2) suitable kind is selected: capsicum variety selects that tolerance to cold is prominent, moisture-proof, disease-resistant, wide adaptability, bear fruit ability in early days By force, yield concentrate, yielding ability with commodity is good, quality is excellent, suitable local cultivation and the extremely early mature of the market demand or early-maturing variety, Including: Hunan grind No. 1, Hunan grind No. 11, Hunan grind No. 4, Hunan grind No. 9, Xiangyan No.19, Hunan grind No. 2;Rice varieties selects disease and insect resistance By force, resistant to lodging, wide adaptability, yielding ability are good, meter Zhi Hao, suitable local environment, quality reach country plant substandard excellent Good Early-mid ripening late rice or early-paddy brown rice, prioritizing selection is through the organic paddy rice seed of Organic certification agency qualification;Corm Eleocharitis Fruit variety Disease-resistant, strong stress resistance, bulb is big, skin is thin, taste is sweet, matter fine slag is few, is suitable for the high yield of locality cultivation, high-quality Corm Eleocharitis kind, including: Hubei Province shepherd's purse 1, osmanthus hoof 2, Xiaogan Corm Eleocharitis, 91-33 Corm Eleocharitis, Guilin Horse hoof, Shayang County Corm Eleocharitis, Tuanfeng County Corm Eleocharitis, Huichang County Corm Eleocharitis, Yuhang are big Red robe, Suzhou Corm Eleocharitis;
(3) rotation cropping pattern is: cultivation successively in the 1st year: early red pepper late rice Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici), cultivation successively in the 2nd year: early Rice Corm Eleocharitis, 1 period of crop-rotation is 2 years;
(4) prescription and production specifications according to organic farm products carry out organic hot pepper, organic paddy rice and organic Corm Eleocharitis Cultivation, and by straw-returning and retting fertilizer and green manuring fertilizing soil.
Early red pepper the most according to claim 1, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that step (1) the organic farming production base described in is that traffic convenience, irrigation and drainage are convenient, good away from city and industrial and mining area, ecological condition, nothing Heavy metal and pesticide residual contamination, away from soot and other polluter and traffic backbone, and there is sustainable production capacity Agricultural producing areas, soil environment quality require be not less than two in " standard of soil environment quality " (GB 15618-1995) Grade standard, irrigation water water quality meets the regulation of " agricultural irrigation water quality standard " (GB 5084-2005), and ambient air quality is the lowest Secondary standard in " ambient air quality " (GB 3095-2012);The cultivated area of each organic farming production base Not less than 10 hectares, production base is linked to be sheet, has integrity, and organic production base has substantially with the conventional plot intersection that produces Isolation strip or buffer strip.
Early red pepper the most according to claim 1, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that described Organic farming includes following measures:
In whole cultivation, prohibit the use of including pesticide, chemical fertilizer, herbicide, hormone and growth regulator is artificial Chemosynthesis material, does not use technique for gene engineering and products thereof, to maintain balance and the bio-diversity of farmland ecosystem;
Only allowing application of organic fertilizers, green manuring and straw-returning fertilizing soil in whole cultivation, fertilizer uses and fills Divide one or more in fertilizer, efficient organic fertilizer and the bio-bacterial manure become thoroughly decomposed;Except use animal wastes and plant retting fertile, Outside green manure, plant ash, cake fertilizer, biogas manure, moreover it is possible to use potassium breeze, ground phosphate rock, calcium chloride, could be used that organic fertilizer and micro- Bio-feritlizer;
The preventing and treating of disease pest and weed, based on integrated pest control in agriculture, uses biological and physical method preventing and treating, does not use synthetic Pesticide carry out chemical prevention, when there being pest and disease damage to occur, utilize allow use mineral or plant medical agent prevent and treat disease pest Evil, moreover it is possible to use rotenone, the Pyrethrum of plant origin, prosparol and kieselguhr, and include bacillus thuringensis, Bt preparation Carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage in interior microorganism and preparation thereof, could be used that sulfur, Calx, lime sulfur, Bordeaux mixture are prevented and treated Pest and disease damage;
Stablizing of farmland ecosystem to be maintained, it is impossible to cause environmental pollution and ecological disruption, at every batch of work Plant residue will be cleared up in time after thing results, heap after straw collecting made fertilizer or goes back field fertilizing soil on the spot, making bag Including straw to be all integrated into utilizing at interior agriculture Organic substance, the garbage that can not degrade including agricultural film all to reclaim And be used.
4. according to the early red pepper described in claim 1 or 2 or 3, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) described in step (3) is and the green manure crop of late rice Later growth interplanting, and Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) arrives after the neat fringe of late rice, eave tile Before harvesting, in sowing at the beginning of mid or late September to 10 month, Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) is ploughed under soil of fostering and apply fertilizer in soil by next year mid or late March~early April Earth.
5. according to the early red pepper described in claim 1 or 2 or 3, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that Organic hot pepper cultivation described in step (4) is: previous crops Corm Eleocharitis is turned over after gathering early, cultivates 1 batch of early red pepper, bag after shining soil Include: select adapted varieties, cultivate anosis big strong sprout ahead of time, field planting the most ahead of time, field management and gather.
Early red pepper the most according to claim 5, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that described Cultivating anosis big strong sprout ahead of time is: ahead of time to early and middle ten days seeding and seedling raising in first October in year, uses seedbed nursery, treats that seedling grows 3~4 Heeling on the seedbed in booth during sheet true leaf or in the seedling culture hole plate of hole, nutritive cube/50, if not heeling in, then noticing that sowing is close Spend the dilutest, when seedling grows 3~4 true leaves by seedling between Miao Yumiao at a distance of 5~10cm, or use nutritive cube/50 Hole seedling culture hole plate nursery;Being gradually reduced along with temperature during nursery, carries out booth buckle film heat-insulating and cold, makes seedling in severe winter Grow up to big strong sprout before facing, add a cover Small plastic shed cold season on seedbed and add a cover straw screen or mat insulation evening, making Hot Pepper Seedling safe overwintering;Fixed When planting, the standard in big strong sprout is: short between seedling stem slubbing, and blade is plump, well developed root system, plant height 18~20cm, has 8~9 very Leaf, more than 70% buddings.
Early red pepper the most according to claim 5, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that described Organic hot pepper cultivation is: use zanjon height bedding cultivation, selects anosis big strong sprout fixed to mid or late March~covering with ground sheeting at the beginning of 4 months ahead of time Planting, every mu of field planting 3500~4800 strain, May, early and middle ten days started to gather, end of gathering before mid or late July.
Early red pepper the most according to claim 5, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that described Organic hot pepper cultivation fertilization principle based on base manure, rationally topdress, by 70%~the 80% of total fertilization amount be used as base manure, every mu Execute decomposed dung 2000~3000kg, cake fertilizer 150~200kg or person poultry muck 2500~3000kg of becoming thoroughly decomposed, ground phosphate rock 30~ 50kg, potassium breeze 20~30kg, apply furrow face after ploughing deeply before whole ground;Before topdressing light after weight, persistently bloom knot meeting Fructus Capsici The nutritional need of fruit, field planting is watered after 1 week and is executed 10%~20% become thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 200~300kg as carrying seed manure, bears fruit After fruit growth impose 20%~30% collection period and become thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 2~3 times, each 300~500kg, or spread manuer in holes Become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 50~100kg.
9. according to the early red pepper described in claim 1 or 2 or 3, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, it is characterised in that Organic paddy rice cultivation described in step (4) includes organic late rice and the cultivation of organic early rice, specifically: previous crops Fructus Capsici is gathered end Rear cleaning rural area, pours water and cultivates 1 batch of late rice after turning over and use sufficient base manure;Late rice selects the kind of suitable local environment in 6 Month the middle ten days and the last ten days seeding and seedling raising, mid or late July rice transplanting, to before harvesting after the neat fringe of late rice, eave tile, at the beginning of mid or late September to 10 month Live green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) in rice field;Green manure Herba Astragali Melilotoidis (Herba Astragali Sinici) is ploughed under fertilizing soil in soil by next year mid or late March~early April, executes 1 batch of early rice is cultivated again after foot base manure;Early rice selects the kind of suitable local environment to educate in late March~early April sowing Seedling, mid or late April rice transplanting, after early rice harvesting, immediately Caulis et Folium Oryzae is ploughed under Tanaka and take advantage of high temperature and macerate rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae fertilizing soil.
10., according to the early red pepper described in claim 1 or 2 or 3, Oryza sativa L., Corm Eleocharitis crop rotation organic cultivation method, its feature exists In, the cultivation of organic Corm Eleocharitis described in step (4) is: Caulis et Folium Oryzae ploughs under after the harvesting of previous crops early rice Tanaka immediately and takes advantage of high temperature and macerate rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae Fertilizing soil, cultivates 1 batch of Corm Eleocharitis after using sufficient base manure in conjunction with arable land;Corm Eleocharitis selects to be suitable for the kind of locality cultivation, in early and middle ten days in April Beginning with two-phase method to cultivate anosis strong sprout, mid or late July field planting, early Febuary in mid or late November to next year gathers.
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CN107646587A (en) * 2017-09-27 2018-02-02 舒城县文禾种植专业合作社 A kind of method for improving industrial sprout cultivation greenhouse utilization ratio
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CN107041224A (en) * 2017-04-19 2017-08-15 和县瑞祥水稻种植专业合作社 The composite plant method of water spinach and sponge gourd is planted between a kind of rice field
CN109548570A (en) * 2017-09-25 2019-04-02 镇江市丹徒区澳源食用菌专业合作社 A kind of water chestnut greenhouse cultivation method
CN107646587A (en) * 2017-09-27 2018-02-02 舒城县文禾种植专业合作社 A kind of method for improving industrial sprout cultivation greenhouse utilization ratio
CN107771624A (en) * 2017-10-31 2018-03-09 宜州市怀远镇诚信辣椒种植专业合作社 A kind of implantation methods of cherry green pepper
CN108541435A (en) * 2018-04-13 2018-09-18 中国热带农业科学院环境与植物保护研究所 Hot-zone rice and capsicum crop rotation reduce the nutrient combo fertilizer applications of fertilizer amount
CN109287396A (en) * 2018-08-14 2019-02-01 贵州省册亨县兆丰食品有限责任公司 A kind of red pepper high-yield implantation methods
CN109452210A (en) * 2018-10-29 2019-03-12 童传洪 A kind of feeding lobster method of rice field kind water chestnut
CN111248041A (en) * 2020-03-05 2020-06-09 句容市后白镇杜氏家庭农场 Organic rice planting method for efficiently preventing and treating insect pests

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