CN102972209A - Method for interplanting stropharia rugosannulata in vineyard - Google Patents

Method for interplanting stropharia rugosannulata in vineyard Download PDF

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CN102972209A
CN102972209A CN2012105339658A CN201210533965A CN102972209A CN 102972209 A CN102972209 A CN 102972209A CN 2012105339658 A CN2012105339658 A CN 2012105339658A CN 201210533965 A CN201210533965 A CN 201210533965A CN 102972209 A CN102972209 A CN 102972209A
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temperature
water
annulata
days
covering
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罗英俊
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ZUNYI CITY TONGGAN GRAPE SPECIALIZED COOPERATIVES
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ZUNYI CITY TONGGAN GRAPE SPECIALIZED COOPERATIVES
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for interplanting stropharia rugosannulata in a vineyard. The method comprises the following steps of scarifying soil and drying the soil in the sun before seeding, so that the soil is cured and loosened; seeding at a temperature between 8 DEG C. and 30 DEG C.; soaking straws for 35 6 hours; soaking wheat straws, cornstalks and bean stalks for 48 hours; pre-stacking cultivation materials, wherein the stack width is 2 m, and the stack height is 1.5 m; turning the stacks after three days, and turning the stacks again after another two to three days; seeding when the water content is 75%; first spreading a humus soil layer which is 4-5 cm in thickness when seeding; forming a turtleback ridge-up bed which is 30 cm in height and 1.3 m in width, wherein sidewalks of 40 cm in width are left among the ridges, and a first spreading on the ridges is 8-10 cm in thickness; seeding 50% of strains; not spraying water on the stropharia rugosannulata bed within 20 days after seeding, but spraying on coverings; controlling the temperature of the cultivation materials at 20-30 DEG C.; uncovering films for ventilation when the temperature is higher than 30 DEG C. and spraying water on the coverings for cooling; and covering the ridges with mats or films when the temperature is below 20 DEG C., wherein the relative humidity on the ridge surface is between 90% and 95%; and the preferenpreferencetial temperature for fruiting is 14 to 25 DEG C.

Description

The method of interplanting Stropharia rugoso-annulata in the vineyard
Technical field
The present invention relates to the culture technique of edible mushroom, especially relate to the method for interplanting Stropharia rugoso-annulata in the vineyard.
Background technology
Interplanting edible mushroom-Stropharia rugoso-annulata in the vineyard
Past was not cultivated Stropharia rugoso-annulata in the vineyard, the villager is used as the branch of pruning waste material, abandons and burns at ordinary times, fail to take full advantage of resource, in order to take full advantage of branch that rice hulls, straw, corn straw and grape prune after pulverizing fermentation, in the orchard, interplanted edible mushroom-Stropharia rugoso-annulata under the grape frame.Management through science successfully generates the out mushroom body of tasty Stropharia rugoso-annulata in early April under grape trellis, existing just towards the market mass selling, wholesale unit price per kilogram 8-10 is first.
Stropharia rugoso-annulata, be commonly called as the big legs mushroom, the kidney-nourishing mushroom, the bright cloud mushroom, the sluggard mushroom is the new varieties of develop and spread at home and abroad in recent years, become the pillar industry of Modern Agricultural source of finance, rely on the plantation Stropharia rugoso-annulata to go on the of common occurrence of appurtenance road, the plantation upsurge of Stropharia rugoso-annulata occurred, obtained good economic benefit and social benefit.Utilize green house to carry out off-season cultivation, the fresh goods of output is looked at by consumer's parent deeply in Spring Festival listing on New Year's Day, understand by the consumer acceptance during putting on market, and sales volume is higher than mushroom, flat mushroom, Asparagus etc. at once.So far the contiguous city of product supply can't be satisfied, and presents the situation that supply falls short of demand.Domestic deep-processing factory more is badly in need of the source of goods, and the international marketing market potential is very big.These specialty industries are convenient to broad masses and are received and promote, and extremely are fit to regionality, scale, intensive commercial entity cultivation.Because little, the instant effect of investment, benefit are large, cultivation place flexibly, when not striving with farming, do not strive grain, do not strive ground, do not strive fertilizer with ground with grain with the people, waste material obtains comprehensive development and utilization, and this just forces rural area pattern of farming strategical adjustment constantly to develop in depth and breadth to stropharia rugoso-annulata plantation.
In the past few years by the further discussion to Stropharia rugoso-annulata life habit, growth factor, progressively improved the problem that occurs in many actual productions, comprehensively perfect each production link technology is for extensive penetration and promotion stropharia rugoso-annulata plantation has from now on been laid solid technical foundation.
Stropharia rugoso-annulata is the bright edible mushroom rising star of a strain that latest domestic emerges, one of ten outstanding on the international mushroom class trade market large mushroom classes, also be that one of feature breed of cultivating is recommended by international food and agricultural organization to developing country, mushroom body colour pool is gorgeous, leg slightly covers fertilizer, food flavor delicate fragrance, fine and smooth tender and crisp, smooth good to eat, nutritious, dried mushroom aromatic flavour, be rich in quite high protein and to human body beneficial's multi mineral prime element and vitamin, can treat or improve the effect of human body various diseases, it is beautiful to be rated as the look delicate flavour, has the full nutrition health food of " meat or fish in the element ".
Stropharia rugoso-annulata fruiting adaptive temperature wide ranges, raw material are extensive, can gather materials on the spot, can take full advantage of agricultural byproduct, such as rice husk, straw, maize straw, rape seed stalk, soybean stalk, the waste material (appear the bacterium chaff of mushroom or pollute material) of plantation auricularia auriculajudae, mushroom, pholiota nameko, flat mushroom etc. all can be cultivated the waste material of bacterium and be cultivated.The whole cost of cultivation is minimum a kind of in all edible fungus varieties, can utilize the green house the Inverse season for culturing, utilize to grow up mixes under forest land, conceding the land to forestry woods ground, pine tree forest land, orchard, the grape trellis, corn field, the short canopy of the little bow in land for growing field crops etc. carry out intercropping or interplanting.
" plantation Stropharia rugoso-annulata, benefit is the most outstanding " Do away with the management operation road, every mu of ground (667 square metres), actual cultivated area is about 450 square metres,, as select maize straw and straw mixture only to need about 5000 kilograms.Under the condition of not adding other auxiliary materials (wheat bran, rice chaff, corn flour), can cultivate.General 45 days fruitings, about biological transformation ratio 80%, every mu of about 2500 kilograms of output in ground, 1-2 ten thousand yuan of the output values can be created in every mu of ground, its income is 8-10 times of crops, the grape growing way of interplanting Stropharia rugoso-annulata is better than what do not interplant; " grape and Stropharia rugoso-annulata interplanting, be not only solely to obtain economic benefit, a kind of circulation cropping pattern of making the best use of everything can produce the various offcuts such as grape vine, branch in the planting process of grape especially, then is the raw material that is conducive to edible fungi growth after they are pulverized; And Stropharia rugoso-annulata can decompose offcuts in process of growth, becomes the micromolecular compound that is conducive to grape growth, " by grape facility interplanting Stropharia rugoso-annulata; can promote this two kinds of inhomogeneity product growths, improve per unit area yield, improve unit land output benefit.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide cultivation method in a kind of vineyard
The important technological parameters of stropharia rugoso-annulata plantation is:
(1) sends out 21~27 ℃ of bacterium cultural hypha temperature; Composts or fertilisers of cultivating water content 70%~75%; Incubation time 25~45 days; Gas concentration lwevel〉2%, ventilate per hour 0~1 time, do not need illumination.
(2) the mushroom flower bud forms 10~16 ℃ of former base differentiation temperature, relative moisture 95%~98%; 14~21 days time; Gas concentration lwevel<0.15%; Per hour ventilate 4~8 times or decide according to the concentration of carbonic acid gas; Illumination 100~500 luxs.
(3) fruit body development (long mushroom) growth temperature is 16~21 ℃, relative moisture 85%~95%; 7~14 days time, gas concentration lwevel<0.15% ventilates per hour 4~8 times, illumination 100~500 luxs, and fruiting two tide zone facies are every 3~4 weeks.
Cultivation management
1. planting material
Stropharia rugoso-annulata can utilize the stalk of crops and the branch of pruning to make raw material, and with the composts or fertilisers of cultivating that does not add any fertilizer, the mycelia of Stropharia rugoso-annulata just can normal growth and fruiting.Do not add nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer or potash fertilizer in stalk, the mycelial growth of Stropharia rugoso-annulata is fine on the contrary.The effect of wood chip, barnyard manure, leaf, hay cultivation Stropharia rugoso-annulata also.Commerial growing Stropharia rugoso-annulata material requested quantity is large, should collect in advance for this reason, stores for subsequent use.Crops straw can be straw, corn straw, wheat-straw, barley-straw, rape straw etc.
Stropharia rugoso-annulata is on the fresh stalks such as straw, and every square metre can be produced 12 kilograms in mushroom, and every square metre of the stalk that used a year only produces 5 kilograms in bright mushroom, only produces 1 kilogram in bright mushroom and be grown on the old stalk every square metre.Except main material, also need prepare to build the covering used behind the heap and the film of rainproof usefulness.Covering can utilize waste and old gunnysack, after cleaning is dried, its bottom and a side is cut off, and flattens to get final product, and larger broken hole will be filled.Also can cover with quality thicker nonwoven or straw screen or mat, also useful stacked disregard message paper is made covering.
2. planting type
Stropharia rugoso-annulata can carry out groundbed cultivation, box-type culture and bedstead cultivation in the mushroom room, be not suitable for intensive indoor growing.Mainly adopt cold bed to carry out extensive style bare area or the cultivation of protection ground in outdoor (garden, orchard) at present.Be main at outdoor cultivation in raw material, simple for production because do not need special installation, and manageability, the cultivation cost is low, good in economic efficiency.
3. cultivation season
Biological property and the conditions such as local climate and cultivating facility according to Stropharia rugoso-annulata are decided.Stropharia rugoso-annulata is to cultivate since mid-May to mid-June.In China North China, as with the plastic tunnel protection, except of short duration severe winter and heat, almost can arrange production throughout the year.As in evergreen citrus or the gardens such as deciduous fruit tree such as Chinese chestnut, carrying out the solid interplanting, combination of Stropharia rugoso-annulata and trees formation is proper, rational in infrastructure in order to make, the better vertical cultivation pattern of remarkable in economical benefits, also must consider the picking time of different cultivars fruit.
Warmer area can utilize the field in winter slack, adopts the measure cultivation of protection canopy.Should be arranged in sowing time at the beginning of mid or late November to 12 month, the peak period of its fruiting is in around the Spring Festival, or adjust sowing time by the market demand, make its fruiting peak period be in vegetables dull season or other edible mushroom landings few seasons.
Embodiment
The high-yield culture technique of Stropharia rugoso-annulata
1, the place is selected
Stropharia rugoso-annulata can be at the indoor and outdoor artificial cultivation, the output no significant difference.Outdoor field in winter slack, ground, vegetable garden, the orcharding of utilizing done the cultivation field.Milpa soil require slant acidity, fertile, contain the humus height, environmental requirement sunshine is sufficient, draining is good, shading rate is three sun, seven cloudy or two positive eight the moon.It is loose before the sowing native scarifying solarization to be made it slaking in vain.
2, cultivation season arrangement
Stropharia rugoso-annulata all can be sowed between 8~30 ℃ of temperature, but the suitableeest temperature is 15~26 ℃, and the fruiting phase should be arranged in 15~26 ℃ of periods of temperature.Domestic with the sowing of mid-August and mid-February, begin early October and mid-April fruiting for well.Take 3~4 months from sowing to harvest home under normal circumstances.
3, the choosing of composts or fertilisers of cultivating standby with processing
The composts or fertilisers of cultivating of Stropharia rugoso-annulata, can gather materials on the spot in different regions.Planting material requires fresh, dry, not mouldy, without putrefaction.Prescription has following all kinds of: 1. do pure straw 100%; 2. do pure straw 100%; 3. soybean stalk 50%, cornstalk 50%; 4. dry rice straw 80%, dried wood chip 20%; 5. dry rice straw 40%, husk 40%, weed tree sawdust 20%.
With immersions such as rice straws, make it to suction moisture, reduce pH value and softening.Change water every day 1~2 time, in order to avoid become sour.General straw soaked 36 hours, and straw, cornstalk, beans stalk soaked 48 hours.Auxiliary material need be do not added in the material, otherwise anti-mycelial growth will be affected.During sowing, temperature is higher than more than 23 ℃, and planting material need be piled in advance, piles wide 2 meters, high 1.5 meters, the long stockpile of not limitting.Stockpile requires consolidation, and turning after 3 days will expect somersault 1 time through 2~3 days again, and material need be trembled loose also water transfer and make water content reach about 75% can to advance drill seeding kind.Then do not need pre-heap if temperature hangs down during sowing.
4, inoculation method
At ground elder generation layer overlay 4~5 cm thick humus soil, be made into again the turtleback shape ridge-up bed that high 30 centimetres, wide 1.3 meters, length are not limit during sowing.Stay People's Bank of China's raceway groove of 40 centimetres between furrow and the furrow, such as the antecedent soil moisture rear stone of then should spraying water first.Then ground floor stone 8~10 cm thicks are sown into 50% bacterial classification on the furrow, and the wheat kind is disseminated, and grass seeds is broken into the bunch planting of pigeon eggs size off with the fingers and thumb; Thick 10~12 centimetres of the second layered material is broadcast remaining bacterial classification again; Thick 4~5 centimetres of the 3rd layer of stone.It is real to require layering to compress.Every square metre of ridge-up bed is with 2 bottles of 25 kilograms of siccatives, 3 bottles of forage kinds or wheat kinds.If temperature is still higher, available wooden stick is made a call to 6 centimetres of large caves of 1 diameter to expecting at the end, in order to heat radiation every 30 centimetres on charge level.At last, cover the damaged hemp bag or the film that soak, seedling is sent out in moisturizing, and notes lifting every day gunnysack or film several, makes it to ventilate.
5, hair tube reason
(1) water transfer
Broadcast in rear 20 days and directly do not spray water on the mushroom bed, only be sprayed on the covering, and avoid in the material that bleeds.It is rainproof that the chance rainy day should be covered film, throws off behind the rain, and the ditch internal water accumulation should in time be got rid of all around.After planting general 3 days mycelia begin to sprout, and mycelia accounts for the whole bed of material more than 1/2 after 20 days, and local exsiccation of charge level this moment turns white, and answers local work of water sprinkling for better material moisture, and spray more the side around the furrow, and the middle part is sprayed less or do not sprayed.Injection flow rate is excessive, too much, can cause the mycelia decline.
(2) temperature control
Require material temperature to be controlled at 20~30 ℃, best 25 ℃.Expect that after planting the planted agent plugs in thermometer, sooner or later observe material temperature every day and change.Material temperature is higher than 30 ℃ and should takes to take off the film ventilation and make it cooling in measures such as charge level covering spray cold water; If material temperature is lower than 20 ℃, charge level sooner or later covers straw screen or mat and thickens covering and cover film in the above, and the solar time is arranged daytime, removes covering, only covers film, to improve the gentle material temperature in ground.
6, earthing is urged mushroom
Select fertile, loose, subacidity, the abundant loam of humus, in after planting 30 days, when mycelia approaches when covering with the bed of material, cover on the charge level, thick 3~4 centimetres, and the damping overburden layer.Can see mycelia in 3 days behind the earthing and climb to soil layer, at this moment will keep soil layer moistening, will be sprayed on the covering during water spray as far as possible, but the bed of material that must not bleed, and note ventilation, control air humidity 85%~90%.After mycelia was covered with native face, the covering of should taking away stopped water spray and cooling, prevents over growth of hyphae and causes lodging.At this moment mycelia forms the bacterium bundle gradually in the soil layer, twists together into the little former base of white and develops into gradually button.
7, management of producing mushroom
From the earthing to the fruiting, need 15~20 days.This stage weather is dry, and emphases of supervision is moisturizing and strengthens ventilation, keeps covering and soil layer moisture state, and fine day is accomplished the diligent spray of mist, must guard against excessive water, will prevent that especially water from flowing in the bed of material.Furrow face relative moisture is controlled at 90%~95%, impels fruiting.When the furrow face has a large amount of fruit bodys to occur, need to strengthen throughput.14~25 ℃ of Stropharia rugoso-annulata fruiting preference temperatures are lower than 4 ℃ of then president mushrooms not.Have more mushroom for making, gone out mushroom, when temperature is lower than 14 ℃, should take to set up shed, thicken covering, reduce the measure such as water spray with the raising material temperature.Enter the frost phase, when increasing covering, stop water spray, make the small mushroom bud safe overwintering.
8, the extermination of disease and insect pest
Main competitive miscellaneous bacteria is terrible umbrella and excrement bowl in the Stropharia rugoso-annulata cultivation in raw material.Therefore they mainly bring propagation into by forage inferior, and selecting materials should be fresh, parch, and should tan by the sun sterilization before the cultivation.If cultivation the time is found terrible umbrella, need in time pull out and burn or buried, nutrient and expansion spread in the material to prevent from consuming.The Stropharia rugoso-annulata resistance cultivation is in earlier stage conscientiously controlled temperature and moisture well, makes mycelial growth healthy and strong, vigorous, captures advantage, multiplies to suppress other miscellaneous bacterias.
The selection of cultivation place
1. the advantage of Stropharia rugoso-annulata is cultivated in forest land, orchard
Interplanting edible fungus culturing pattern is the characteristic edible mushroom new projects of in recent years develop and spread in forest land or the orchard, brings high economic benefit for vast mushroom farming, is that one of main trend that develops is popularized in the Stropharia rugoso-annulata scale.The in recent years industry restructuring of forest economy is subject to the whole nation from the leadership to the masses and unprecedentedly payes attention to.Sixteenth CPC National Congress is defined as ecological construction again the objective of the struggle of national building a well-off society, and Supporting Forestry is space of top prominence in ecological construction simultaneously.Part Wild mixes the forest land by the system of contractual operation by workers and staff as individuals at present, and its income phase effect is longer.Along with artificial afforestration, orchard area constantly enlarge, forest land space utilization problem more and more comes into one's own, but forest juvenile stage space Planting Crops, but along with forest grows year by year, be not suitable for crop growth, taking full advantage of sylvan life vacant lot cultivation Stropharia rugoso-annulata is wise selection, successful guarantee.But the Effective Raise land utilization rate does not account for the farmland, not only receives forest but also receive mushroom, can cut down expenses.Utilize the sunshade of forest tree crown branches and leaves natures, and moisture-keeping air is effective, temperature is than outside air temperature 3-5 ℃ on the low side in the forest land.Just in time suitable forest land cultivation of condition according to Stropharia rugoso-annulata grows and likes half sunshade can promote benign cycle.Stropharia rugoso-annulata gives off carbon dioxide, absorbs oxygen in growth and development process, and tree growth photosynthesis needs absorbing carbon dioxide, exhalation oxygen, just in time forms complementary, the mutually common growth of utilization.Forest land kind Stropharia rugoso-annulata can suppress weedy, alleviates the forest land disease.Waste material behind the kind mushroom is again the fertilizer of high-quality, can improve the soil physicochemical property, increases soil fertility, and better promotes tree growth.The decomposition and inversion utilization of the most suitable Stropharia rugoso-annulata mycelia of the dead twigs and withered leaves of sylvan life, bacterium bed surface adopt the fertile Nutrition Soil of sylvan life as overburden layer, and more favourable raising cultivation output reaches benign ecological cycles.
Select the forest land to suit measures to local conditions, should select ventilates is convenient to irrigation and drainage, traffic convenience, and sunshade density is good, the forest land that maybe can dig a well in nearly water source.
Forest land cultivation Stropharia rugoso-annulata
Stropharia rugoso-annulata and plant sunshade interplanting form solid growth, and this interplanting pattern has not only overcome high temperature, and cultivation causes the heat evil to Stropharia rugoso-annulata, has created the two production purposes of receiving of mushroom woods.
. the advantage of green house and simple and easy sunshade, field production Stropharia rugoso-annulata
The green house cultivation mode belongs to the cultivation of protection ground; being exactly can insulation, moisturizing, sunshade, rainproof, snow defence; Stropharia rugoso-annulata grown create the ecological environmental condition of matters; can utilize the green house of vegetables plantation of changing the line of production, also can utilize the land for growing field crops to take and execute simple and easy sunshade, also can utilize plantation melon canopy, seedling culture shed, strawberry canopy to carry out positive season cultivation.Green house the Inverse season for culturing Stropharia rugoso-annulata is best environmental condition, and the fruiting phase, the production marketing price was high in the winter time to spring, and whole cultivation benefit is large, adopts the interior cultivations of simple and easy sunshade such as cold canopy, can continue fruiting autumn, shifts to an earlier date fruiting early spring.
Requirement and proportioning to composts or fertilisers of cultivating
Stropharia rugoso-annulata is typical straw rotting fungus class, and mycelia decomposition lignin is relatively poor, and the decomposition of cellulose ability is stronger, is the aerobic nitrogen mushroom class of detesting, can be from dividing the cultivation such as the raw materials that utilize local agricultural crop straw, rice husk.South with the straw cultivation, is used two or more raw materials to mix and is used separately at present, mutually to replenish oligotrophy separately, is beneficial to the raising mycelial concentration, thereby improves output.The quality such as wheat straw, maize straw, beans bar more firmly, the long the most handy water caltrop machine of raw material is cut into 2-4 centimetres of dreg pieces or stalk is layered on the level land, rolls flat rear use with tricycle etc., and rice husk does not need advanced processing.Require straw not go mouldy, be the new raw material of not stacking for a long time.Do not add N,P,K fertilizers in the synthetic composts or fertilisers of cultivating, in production practices, composts or fertilisers of cultivating is mixed with in the matrix of soil, the Stropharia rugoso-annulata mycelial growth is dense especially, generation mushroom body is loose, the fruiting reserve strength is sufficient, output obviously increases, this is relevant with soil comprehensive nutrient element, soil is the carrier of growth, and the trophic factors of its multielement excites the mycelia vigor, thereby facilitates mycelial growth healthy and vigorous.The mycelium that gathers in the matrix is intensive, reaches the high yield purpose.Add Nutrition Soil in the synthesis material, turfy soil preferably, namely every woven bag rice husk or Mixed culture material are about 30 jin, a traditional unit of weight, should add a large spade soil and get final product (10 jin of wet soils of every spade), can increase production about 20%.Add the bacterium chaff in the culture matrix material and can increase substantially output.
20 ℃ of natural temperatures with interior environmental condition under, use separately straw, rice husk or wheat straw after the appropriateness of soaking, just can use and carry out cultivation in raw material, cost is low, but output is on the low side.Soak careless method: straw can be dropped in the ditch pond, the introducing clean water soaked after 48 hours pulls draining out, also straw can be layered on ground, adopt many days spray modes just straw suction moisture, repeatedly spray every day and water, stir repeatedly, make the straw suction evenly, water content reaches 70-75%.Extract one of representational straw, it is tightened with hand, water droplet breaks if there is water droplet to ooze out in the grass, shows the water content appropriateness.Leach the rice husk water transfer method without water droplet afterwards if tighten: flood spray, limit water the waterside and turn with creeper, spade, make rice husk run through water, and without siccative, water content should greatly should not be little.Straw or rice husk are an amount of through damping, just can sow by stone at hypothermic phase.
High the feeding intake season of extraneous natural temperature owing to raw material are made the bed after planting, easily produces the living temperature of fermentation and hinders bacterium in the material ridge, cause the cultivation loss.Synthetic composts or fertilisers of cultivating will be processed through heap fermentation, help raising output, the quality of composts or fertilisers of cultivating heap fermentation with educate the bacterium yield rate and output closely related.
Concrete heap fermentation method:
Synthetic composts or fertilisers of cultivating heap fermentation
At first will pile up the place and carry out comprehensive desinsection processing with 1500 times of liquid of phoxim, the composts or fertilisers of cultivating of damping appropriateness is piled about 3 meters of bottom width, high 1.5 meters, the long terraced windrow of not limitting, the heap table is the plane, avoid large vertex (vertices) heap shape, pile little difficult intensification, stockpile is excessive, the easy anoxic in center, affect ferment effect, stockpile is well rear to punch the hole downwards to ground from the stockpile end face, and 40 centimetres of pitch-rows are more than rugosity 10 the insides, and prick two round holes to the stockpile centre bottom in spacing 40 the insides, stockpile two sides, prevent that stockpile middle part and bottom anoxic from producing the acid change or ammonia is smelly.
Forest land culture technique main points
1. place environmental treatment
Cleaning weeds and other plant roots and stems are leveled land, and with rotovator ground are turned over once before the plantation, and it is best that soil layer is graininess.To carry out sterilizing pesticide to ground, ceiling/rear wall and surrounding enviroment before turning over and process, reduce the harm of disease worm, process with the bactericide such as Methylpartricin Sodium Laurylsulfate and phoxim insecticide with spraying.Plastic foil, straw screen or mat capping that ceiling covers are complete.Practice shows: same booth is not next year planted continuously mushroom and is easily caused the problems such as disease or per unit area yield are low to occur.
2 forest lands are selected and arrangement
Traffic convenience will be selected in the forest land, the plot that maybe can dig a well in nearly water source, physical features is slightly smooth, Land leveling, artificial tree forest land be the adult forest land more than 4 years preferably, and it is good that wild weedtree forest land should select tree shade to hide close property, be convenient to clearly woods arrangement, pine forest land cultivation effect is better, and the then fallen leaves that the pine forests earth's surface is covered contain tannin rosin oil material will be removed, and the dead twigs and withered leaves of bottom is that the Stropharia rugoso-annulata mycelia is decomposed the better culture matrix that utilizes.The forest land will weed a garden or the little assorted tree in forest land before the plantation that feeds intake, and holds the drain ditch successfully, and comprehensive desinsection processing is carried out in the forest land.Spray with 2000 times of liquid phoxims, will dig a well in advance in plot without nearly water source, sprinkler is complete, makes in advance a furrow, being capable poplar forest land will be take trees as a center, can prevent the wound tree root that fetches earth, ridge-up bed is wide 1.3 meters, the wide 40-50 in operation road centimetre, bedding is fetched earth degree of depth 2-3 centimetre, be placed on the operation road, be used for material top layer, ridge earthing, the actual form of making bed can be grasped flexibly according to the forest land situation.
South-north direction is made ridge-up bed, 1.3 meters of bedsides.Cut the earth at first earthward dark 3-4 centimetres and fetch earth, soil is placed on the operation road at ridge-up bed interval, use for earthing.Slightly high curvature of the spinal column type in the middle of the bed surface finishing is prevents a prodelta clay water.Bed surface sprays with lime powder and phoxim, spreads the lime bed surface and sees white getting final product.When the composts or fertilisers of cultivating water transfer reaches 75%, the material temperature degree begins stone when being down to below 25 ℃.
At first will expect to spread about 8 centimetres of thickness, wide 1.2 meters, then 1.2 meters material bed will be divided into two ridges, about 12 centimetres of two distance between the ridges, two, Shuan Long north and south materials are fenced, increase inventory, increase the fruiting amount, and be convenient to pour water after the shutoff of furrow both sides.
The arrangement bed of material is smooth, even thickness, width is consistent, break into bacterial classification off with the fingers and thumb walnut size block shape, three caves are laterally play on every little single ridge, the bacterium interblock is apart from 10 centimetres, along successively three row program requests of ridge, ground floor is finished after planting in 10 centimetres of bacterial classification block gaps, repave the composts or fertilisers of cultivating of 8 centimetres of thickness on each single ridge, arrangement is arch ridge shape, then bacterial classification is pressed into the top layer and expects interior 2 centimetres of depths, the successively bunch planting of feeding ridge three row, the bacterium interblock is apart from 10 centimetres, with hand or rake bacterium piece materials in the cave are covered tightly, want thick 3 centimetres of a small amount of stone in the ditch that two distance between the ridges are about 12 centimetres, be beneficial to a large amount of fruitings in the ditch.
In sum, economic benefit, the social benefit of interplanting Stropharia rugoso-annulata all are appreciable in the vineyard.

Claims (2)

1. interplant the method for Stropharia rugoso-annulata in the vineyard, it is characterized in that: orcharding is done cultivation, milpa soil require slant acidity, fertile, contain the humus height, the environmental requirement draining is good, shading rate is three sun, seven cloudy or two positive eight the moon, and it is loose before the sowing native scarifying solarization to be made it slaking in vain;
Cultivation season:
Stropharia rugoso-annulata all can be sowed between 8~30 ℃ of temperature, and the fruiting phase should be arranged in 15~26 ℃ of periods of temperature, with mid-August and sowing mid-February, begins early October and mid-April fruiting;
The choosing of composts or fertilisers of cultivating standby with processing:
The composts or fertilisers of cultivating of Stropharia rugoso-annulata, planting material requires fresh, dry, not mouldy, without putrefaction, and 1. prescription does pure straw 100%; 2. do pure straw 100%; 3. soybean stalk 50%, cornstalk 50%; 4. dry rice straw 80%, dried wood chip 20%; 5. dry rice straw 40%, husk 40%, weed tree sawdust 20%;
With immersions such as rice straws, make it to suction moisture, reduce pH value and softening, change water every day 1~2 time, in order to avoid become sour, general straw soaked 36 hours, and straw, cornstalk, beans stalk soaked 48 hours, need not add auxiliary material in the material, during sowing, temperature is higher than more than 23 ℃; Planting material need be piled in advance, piles wide 2 meters, high 1.5 meters, the long stockpile of not limitting, and stockpile requires consolidation, and turning after 3 days will expect somersault 1 time through 2~3 days again, and material need be trembled loose also water transfer and make water content reach about 75% can to advance drill seeding kind; Temperature hangs down during sowing does not then need pre-heap;
Inoculation method:
At ground elder generation layer overlay 4~5 cm thick humus soil, be made into again the turtleback shape ridge-up bed that high 30 centimetres, wide 1.3 meters, length are not limit during sowing; Stay People's Bank of China's raceway groove of 40 centimetres between furrow and the furrow, such as the antecedent soil moisture rear stone of then should spraying water first; Then ground floor stone 8~10 cm thicks are sown into 50% bacterial classification on the furrow, and the wheat kind is disseminated, and grass seeds is broken into the bunch planting of pigeon eggs size off with the fingers and thumb; Thick 10~12 centimetres of the second layered material is broadcast remaining bacterial classification again; Thick 4~5 centimetres of the 3rd layer of stone; It is real to require layering to compress; Every square metre of ridge-up bed is with 2 bottles of 25 kilograms of siccatives, 3 bottles of forage kinds or wheat kinds.If temperature is still higher, available wooden stick is made a call to 6 centimetres of large caves of 1 diameter to expecting at the end, in order to heat radiation every 30 centimetres on charge level; At last, cover the damaged hemp bag or the film that soak, seedling is sent out in moisturizing, and notes lifting every day gunnysack or film several, makes it to ventilate;
Hair tube reason:
(1) water transfer
Broadcast in rear 20 days and directly do not spray water on the mushroom bed, only be sprayed on the covering, and avoid in the material that bleeds; It is rainproof that the chance rainy day should be covered film, throws off behind the rain, and the ditch internal water accumulation should in time be got rid of all around; After planting general 3 days mycelia begin to sprout, and mycelia accounts for the whole bed of material more than 1/2 after 20 days, and local exsiccation of charge level this moment turns white, and answers local work of water sprinkling for better material moisture, and spray more the side around the furrow, and the middle part is sprayed less or do not sprayed; Injection flow rate is excessive, too much, can cause the mycelia decline;
(2) temperature control
Require material temperature to be controlled at 20~30 ℃, best 25 ℃; Expect that after planting the planted agent plugs in thermometer, sooner or later observe material temperature every day and change; Material temperature is higher than 30 ℃ and should takes to take off the film ventilation and make it cooling in measures such as charge level covering spray cold water; If material temperature is lower than 20 ℃, charge level sooner or later covers straw screen or mat and thickens covering and cover film in the above, and the solar time is arranged daytime, removes covering, only covers film, to improve the gentle material temperature in ground;
Earthing is urged mushroom:
Select fertile, loose, subacidity, the abundant loam of humus, in after planting 30 days, when mycelia approaches when covering with the bed of material, cover on the charge level, thick 3~4 centimetres, and the damping overburden layer; Can see mycelia in 3 days behind the earthing and climb to soil layer, at this moment will keep soil layer moistening, will be sprayed on the covering during water spray as far as possible, but the bed of material that must not bleed, and note ventilation, control air humidity 85%~90%; After mycelia was covered with native face, the covering of should taking away stopped water spray and cooling, prevented over growth of hyphae and caused lodging, and at this moment mycelia forms the bacterium bundle gradually in the soil layer, twists together into the little former base of white and develops into gradually button;
Management of producing mushroom:
From the earthing to the fruiting, need 15~20 days, this stage weather is dry, emphases of supervision is moisturizing and strengthens ventilation, keep covering and soil layer moisture state, fine day is accomplished the diligent spray of mist, must guard against excessive water, will prevent that especially water from flowing in the bed of material, furrow face relative moisture is controlled at 90%~95%, impels fruiting, when the furrow face has a large amount of fruit bodys to occur, need to strengthen throughput, 14~25 ℃ of Stropharia rugoso-annulata fruiting preference temperatures are lower than 4 ℃ of then president mushrooms not, have more mushroom for making, gone out mushroom, when temperature is lower than 14 ℃, should take to set up shed, thicken covering, reduce water spray and wait measure to improve material temperature, enter the frost phase, when increasing covering, stop water spray, make the small mushroom bud safe overwintering;
The extermination of disease and insect pest:
Therefore main competitive miscellaneous bacteria is terrible umbrella and excrement bowl in the Stropharia rugoso-annulata cultivation in raw material, and they mainly bring propagation into by forage inferior, and selecting materials should be fresh, parch, should tan by the sun sterilization before the cultivation, if cultivation the time is found terrible umbrella, need in time pull out and burn or buried, nutrient and expansion spread in the material to prevent from consuming.
2. the method for interplanting Stropharia rugoso-annulata in according to claim 1 the vineyard, it is characterized in that: concrete heap fermentation method, synthetic composts or fertilisers of cultivating heap fermentation, at first will pile up the place and carry out comprehensive desinsection processing with 1500 times of liquid of phoxim, the composts or fertilisers of cultivating of damping appropriateness is piled about 3 meters of bottom width, high 1.5 meters, the long terraced windrow of not limitting, the heap table is the plane, avoids large vertex (vertices) heap shape, piles little difficult intensification, stockpile is excessive, the easy anoxic in center affects ferment effect, and stockpile is well rear to punch the hole downwards to ground from the stockpile end face, 40 centimetres of pitch-rows, more than rugosity 10 the insides, and prick two round holes to the stockpile centre bottom in spacing 40 the insides, stockpile two sides, prevent that stockpile middle part and bottom anoxic from producing the acid change or ammonia is smelly.
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