CN102498905B - Method for quick cultivation of stock of long-stem tree-like rose and quick cultivation of long-stem tree-like rose using cutting with long shoots - Google Patents

Method for quick cultivation of stock of long-stem tree-like rose and quick cultivation of long-stem tree-like rose using cutting with long shoots Download PDF

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CN102498905B
CN102498905B CN 201110365486 CN201110365486A CN102498905B CN 102498905 B CN102498905 B CN 102498905B CN 201110365486 CN201110365486 CN 201110365486 CN 201110365486 A CN201110365486 A CN 201110365486A CN 102498905 B CN102498905 B CN 102498905B
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stock
grafting
dry type
rose
cutting
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CN102498905A (en
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李树发
李世峰
蔡艳飞
解玮佳
宋杰
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Yunnan landscaping Limited by Share Ltd
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FLOWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF YUNNAN ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for quick cultivation of long-stem standard rose using cutting with long shoots. A stock of the long-stem standard rose to be cultivated by the method is a shoot of rosa multiflora Thunb. var. carnea Thory, which is dipped with rooting powder for cuttage, the rooting powder is made of IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) 0.8-1.0% and thiophanate-methyl 2-5%, mass water content of substrate soil is maintained to be 60-65% after cuttage, relative humidity of air in a seed bed is 60-80%, the relative humidity of the air is reduced to 50-60% after a cutting seedling roots and sprouts, daytime temperature is controlled to be 25-26 DEG C, night temperature is controlled to be 10-14 DEG C, a black shade with light transmittance 50% is used for covering from 11 O'clock to 17 O'clock in two weeks after rooting and sprouting, the black shade is removed after two weeks, daytime temperature is then controlled to be 26-28 DEG C, and the rose shoot or bud is grafted to the stock. The stock has average height 120cm and only requires 135-150 days, and cultivation of the long-stem standard rose only requires 225-270 days, so that production cycle is short.

Description

The method of the breeding method of high dry type dendriform China rose stock and the high dry type dendriform China rose of long shoot cuttage quickly breeding
Technical field
The invention belongs to gardening plant culture technique field, be specifically related to the method for the high dry type dendriform China rose of engrafting and cultivating behind the long shoot cuttage quickly breeding stock.
Background technology
Chinese rose ( Rosa) the genus rose family (Rosaceae) Rosa ( Rosa) plant, be the important ornamental flower in the world, also be one of China's ten big famous flowers.Dendriform China rose is named Chinese rose tree or only dried Chinese rose again, is the big class of modern Chinese rose, and it is to cultivate the only dry type arbor Chinese rose newtype that forms by horticulture technique, and it highly is 30 ~ 200cm.Dendriform China rose is tree-like to be moulding by the people, can be spheroidal, fan-like pattern, outstanding waterfall shape etc., and its pattern is monochromatic, double-colored, makes it have stronger aesthetic feeling; In addition, dendriform China rose also has wide adaptability, characteristics that damage by disease and insect is few, is the good kind during China's township afforestation beautifies, and has vast potential for future development.Though dendriform China rose originates from Yunnan Province of China province Lijiang City, commercial production is started late, and production technology falls behind, and the dendriform China rose cultivation time that provides is long, the production cost height.Domestic at present, the stock of dendriform China rose mainly is by open country and potted plant acquisition, secondly is to excavate big (always) stake rose plant.The outdoor cropping production of stock, it is extensive to have a production management, does not need the advantage of facilities such as booth, sprinkling irrigation, but it is slower to grow, and the cultivation time is long, and the stem thickness of stock and size are inhomogeneous, very easily crooked, graft survival rate is low, growth is irregular, and transport in the strange land, transplanting survival rate is low; Open country is potted plant, though graft survival rate and transplanting survival rate height also are subjected to condition restriction such as potted plant production is loaded down with trivial details.Therefore, two kinds of methods all are not suitable for large-scale breeding production.Excavate big (always) stake rose plant and cultivate stock, though can directly utilize, transplanting survival rate and graft survival rate are all lower, and be very big to the destruction of rose resource, and the quick popularization that has limited dendriform China rose should have.At the cultivation present situation of high dry type dendriform China rose, how to accelerate the cultivation of high-quality stock, effectively improve grafting and the transplanting survival rate of dendriform China rose, shorten the production cycle, reduce production costs, become problem demanding prompt solution in the dendriform China rose industrialized development.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to overcome high dry type dendriform China rose stock and tree-like cultivation period is long, of poor quality, grafting, transplant survival is low, production cost is high defective and deficiency, and its objective is provides the effective high dry type dendriform China rose of quickly breeding of a kind of easy and simple to handle, with short production cycle, grafting, transplant survival and the breeding method of stock thereof.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:
1, the breeding method of high dry type dendriform China rose stock may further comprise the steps:
(1) prepare in the stock seedbed: in booth, the matrix of packing in polypots is cultivated stock, matrix is that peat and laterite mix for the ratio of 1:3 by volume, form a seedbed with 1000~1200 polypotss, above every seedbed with the equal-sized net in seedbed, described net is high 80 ~ 100cm apart from ground, drawing one deck light transmittance between described net and booth ceiling is 50~60% black sunshade net, liquor natrii hypochloritis with 800ppm~1000ppm sterilizes to seedbed and matrix, transplants a cutting at the cuttage stock and matrix is watered permeable in preceding 1 ~ 2 day;
(2) stock is transplanted a cutting material and is selected: in spring, choosing is upright, the seven sisters roses of no damage by disease and insect, not damaged and the thick 1.2 ~ 1.5cm of stem, stem length 120 ~ 180cm ( Rosa multifloraVar. CarneaThory) branch is transplanted a cutting material as stock; Seven sisters' Rosa rose family (Rosaceae) Rosas ( Rosa) plant;
(3) stock is transplanted a cutting and handled: the stem section of choosing 100 ~ 150cm at stock cutting material is transplanted a cutting as stock, 2cm below node ~ 3cm place shears, stock is transplanted a cutting and is gone up the node that keeps more than 2, and stock cutting top and bottom are cut into angle, cut off all blades;
(4) cuttage: stock is transplanted a cutting base portion dip in root-inducing powder, 5 ~ 6cm in the matrix in the described polypots of the inserting step while dipping in (1), the upper end that stock is transplanted a cutting leans against on the grid of the described net of step (1); Described root-inducing powder is made up of 0.8 ~ 1.0%IBA+2 ~ 5% thiophanate methyl, the thiophanate methyl matching while using, and described percentage is mass fraction;
(5) insert the back management
A. water supply in media and ambient humidity management: after cuttage, immediately matrix spraying is watered permeable, and adopt the intermittent spraying mode to carry out air humidity and follow-up water management, the mass water content of soil that makes matrix is 60~65%, to the long root of cuttage seeding, the relative air humidity in the seedbed remains on 60 ~ 80% from the beginning cuttage; After cuttage seeding roots, make relative air humidity be reduced to 50 ~ 60%;
B. illumination and temperature treatment: the temperature control on daytime is at 25 ~ 26 ℃, and the temperature at night remains on 10 ~ 14 ℃; Take root and send out in 2 week of back, 11:00 ~ 17:00 covering light transmittance is 50% black sunshade net, and all the other times are removed black sunshade nets, remove black sunshade net after 2 weeks, and the temperature on daytime is controlled at 26 ~ 28 ℃;
C. the extermination of disease and insect pest: high dry type dendriform China rose stock nurturing period main diseases insect pest is aphid and powdery mildew; After treating that a cuttage stock cutting branch comes into leaves, adopt the alternately spraying of 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl and 1200 times of liquid of 15% triadimefon, prevent and treat powdery mildew, sprayed once every 12 ~ 15 days; Spray blade in case eliminate aphis with 3000 times of liquid of 10% Imidacloprid; Described percentage is mass fraction;
D. nutrient management: after stock was transplanted a cutting and sent out branch and come into leaves, the urea that per 15 ~ 20 days pouring mass fractions are 0.5% ~ 1.0 % once;
(6) transplanting breeding of stock: mid or late July then, the stock transplanting breeding of in booth step (5) being cultivated becomes high dry type dendriform China rose stock, change polypots during transplanting, matrix in the polypots is that leaf mould and laterite mix for 2:1 by volume, transplant while every strain in matrix and execute 2 ~ 3g composite fertilizer, N:P in the described composite fertilizer 2O 5: K 2O=15:15:15.
Height * the diameter of the described polypots of step (1) is 6~8 * 10~12cm.
The described polypots of step (1) can be put by the distance of 10 * 10cm and form the seedbed.
The described polypots that changes of step (6), the height * diameter of the polypots that it changes into is 12 * 14cm.
In the breeding method of high dry type dendriform China rose stock, can also in above-mentioned booth, automatic sprayer be installed, in the management of the described water supply in media of (5) A step and ambient humidity: after cuttage, start immediately automatic sprayer to matrix spraying water permeable, follow-up water management adopts the automatic intermittent spraying mode to carry out, and also can start automatic sprayer and carry out spraying of agricultural chemicals and fertilizer in the C. extermination of disease and insect pest and D. nutrient management process.
The chemical name of described thiophanate methyl is two (3-methoxycarbonyl-2-thiocarbamide) benzene of 1,2-; Triadimefon has another name called triazolone, and its chemical name is 3-dimethyl-1-(1,2,4-triazole-1-benzene)-butanone; The chemical name of Imidacloprid is 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-Nitroimidazoline-2-base amine.
The size in described seedbed i.e. long the and wide stock quantity that can cultivate as required and decide, and stock is transplanted a cutting also can be without the direct cuttage of polypots on the seedbed of laying matrix, but in order to be convenient to whole transplanting behind the grafting survival at open country, the employing polypots is more convenient.
2, the method for the high dry type dendriform China rose of long shoot cuttage quickly breeding may further comprise the steps:
(1) cultivates high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to the breeding method of technique scheme 1 described high dry type dendriform China rose stock;
(2) grafting: in the grafting of mid or late October then that high dry type dendriform China rose stock is cultivated, preceding 15 ~ 20 days of grafting was watered once permeablely every 4 ~ 7 days to described high dry type dendriform China rose stock, and every basin is used N:P 2O 5: K 2Composite fertilizer 4 ~ 6g of O=15:15:15, at this stock apart from matrix table soil 2/3 to stay 3 ~ 4 side shoots around the stock on top, all the other side shoots are wiped out, during grafting, the side shoot that stays stays 12 ~ 15cm to shear, and the grafting point location is on the side shoot of distance trunk 8 ~ 10cm, and the Chinese rose bud sheet that select anosis worm, has the Chinese rose branch of bud to do scion or anosis worm is done scion, adopt common scion grafting or bud grafting to carry out grafting, all rudiments on the stock of erasing after grafting is finished;
(3) managing after grafting: watered once permeable every 3 days after the grafting, use mass fraction weekly and be 4 ~ 6% urea 1 time, adopt the intermittent spraying mode to carry out air humidity and water management, making the mass water content of soil of matrix is 64 ~ 67%, and relative air humidity remains on 60 ~ 80%; The shoot that grows when scion is long during to 40 ~ 50cm, removes the band of grafting, stays that 30 ~ 40cm is short to be cut, and relative air humidity is reduced to 50 ~ 60%; When described shoot is long-living when growing side shoot, band soil or band alms bowl are transplanted to the outer open country plantation of booth, carry out the cultivation management of conventional dendriform China rose.
The present invention has following beneficial effect with respect to prior art:
1. the breeding method of the high dry type dendriform China rose of the present invention stock, the stock piece of taking root, the survival rate height, the stem quality is good, and the cultivation time is short.Existing dendriform China rose stock adopts outdoor cropping, the cultivation time is 2 years, and the breeding method of the high dry type dendriform China rose of the present invention stock adopts the long shoot cuttage, suitable matrix and the processing of taking root, add water management, comprehensive cultivation step such as effective control of temp. and humidity has promoted long shoot to take root fast, has improved survival rate, survival rate all reaches more than 85%, the average height 120cm of stock, stem even thickness, the average thick 1.3cm of stem, stem is straight, quality is good, but the stock of cultivating into grafting only needs 135~150 days, particular significant effect, effectively cultivate high-quality high level cadre stock, have laid a good foundation for cultivating high bar type dendriform China rose.
2. the method for the high dry type dendriform China rose of long shoot cuttage quickly breeding of the present invention adopts to connect at high level cadre's stock top side shoot height, and average graft survival rate is up to 90%, and tree-like cultivation is fast, just can be shaped through cultivation in 90 ~ 120 days behind the grafting survival.The dendriform China rose of blooming from long shoot stock cottage breeding to formation 3rd level branch is tree-like substantially, whole high dry type dendriform China rose cultivating process, only need 225 ~ 270 days, solved that high dry type dendriform China rose stock and tree-like cultivation period thereof are long, of poor quality, grafting, transplant survival is low, production cost is high problem, be a kind of fast breeding method easy and simple to handle, with short production cycle, strengthened international competitiveness.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with embodiment, but they are not limitation of the invention.The seven sisters roses that embodiment is used, fertilizer, agricultural chemicals, for the net of supporting stock cutting upper end, all test materials such as black sunshade net all can buy from the commercial channel.
The breeding method of the high dry type dendriform China rose of embodiment 1 the present invention stock
The cultivation of stock female parent:
February 12 was cultivated the wild seven sisters roses in Kunming in plastic tunnel, plough deeply soil before the cultivation earlier, and every mu is executed 1000 ~ 1500 kilograms of well-rotted farmyard manures, make the culturing and planting furrow of wide 70 ~ 80cm, adopt the duplicate rows field planting, seeding row spacing is 15 * 20 cm, every mu of cultivation 5000 strains; After field planting, water weekly and execute 5% urea rich water once, promote the growth of branch, after seven sisters roses send out branch 10 ~ 15cm, whenever to select good strains in the field for seed and stay 4 ~ 5 vigorous branches, all the other are wiped out; The vigorous branches built of selecting and remain out supports, and keeps its vertical growth; When highly reach 120 ~ 180cm, when rugosity reaches 1.2 ~ 1.5cm, stopping liquid manure supplying with, impel the cortex of limb and form layer thickening, be conducive to grafting survival, can provide by above-mentioned cultivation step and to meet following step (2) stock and transplant a cutting material and select desired stock female parent, also can be directly select to meet branch that following step (2) reaches the requirement of dendriform China rose stock from seven sisters roses of field growth and transplant a cutting material as stock, cultivate described high dry type dendriform China rose stock by the following method, do three processing.
Handle 1: step is as follows:
(1) prepare in the stock seedbed: in booth, be that the polypots of the 6 * 10cm matrix of packing into is cultivated stock with height * diameter, matrix is the mixture that peat and laterite mix for the ratio of 1:3 by volume, polypots is put by the distance of 10 * 10cm, form a seedbed with 1000 polypotss, space between the polypots is filled out and is put this matrix and fix, the top in every seedbed draw in the net the eye be the equal-sized net of 10 * 10cm and seedbed, this net is high 80cm apart from ground, drawing one deck light transmittance between net and booth ceiling is 50% black sunshade net, liquor natrii hypochloritis with 1000ppm sterilizes to seedbed and matrix, transplants a cutting at the cuttage stock and matrix is watered permeable in preceding 1 day;
(2) stock is transplanted a cutting material and selected: on March 2nd, 2010, seven sisters' japanese rose branchlet bars of, no damage by disease and insect upright from the maternal choosing of stock that the cultivation of above-mentioned stock female parent is cultivated, not damaged and the thick 1.2 ~ 1.3cm of stem, the long 120cm of stem are transplanted a cutting material as stock;
(3) stock is transplanted a cutting and handled: the stem section of choosing 100cm at stock cutting material is transplanted a cutting as stock, and the 2cm place shears below node, and stock is transplanted a cutting to go up and kept 2 or 3 nodes, and stock cutting top and bottom are cut into angle, cut off all blades;
(4) cuttage: stock is transplanted a cutting base portion dip in root-inducing powder, 5 ~ 6cm in the matrix in the described polypots of the inserting step while dipping in (1), the upper end that stock is transplanted a cutting leans against on the grid of the described net of step (1); Described root-inducing powder is made up of the 0.8%IBA+2% thiophanate methyl, and thiophanate methyl is matching while using, and described percentage is mass fraction;
(5) insert the back management
A. water supply in media and ambient humidity management: after cuttage, immediately the matrix in polypots spraying is watered permeable, and adopt the intermittent spraying mode to carry out air humidity and follow-up water management, the mass water content of soil that makes matrix is 60~61%, to the long root of cuttage seeding, the relative air humidity in the seedbed remains on 75~80% from the beginning cuttage; After cuttage seeding roots, make relative air humidity be reduced to 50%~52%;
B. illumination and temperature treatment: the temperature control on daytime is at 25 ℃ ~ 26 ℃, and the temperature at night remains on 10 ℃ ~ 11 ℃; Take root a branch in 2 weeks of back, and 11:00 ~ 17:00 covering light transmittance is 50% black sunshade net, and all the other times are removed black sunshade nets, remove black sunshade net after 2 weeks, and the temperature on daytime is controlled at 26 ~ 27 ℃, promote its growth;
C. the extermination of disease and insect pest: after the stock of cuttage is transplanted a cutting and is sent out branch and come into leaves, adopt mass fraction be 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl and 1200 times of liquid of 15% triadimefon alternately spraying prevent and treat powdery mildew, sprayed once every 12 days; Spray blade in case eliminate aphis with 3000 times of liquid of 10% Imidacloprid, spray the requirement of number of times by specification;
D. nutrient management: after stock is transplanted a cutting and is sent out branch and come into leaves, per 15 days pouring mass fractions be 0.5% urea once;
(6) transplanting breeding of stock: July 15 then, the stock transplanting breeding of in booth step (5) being cultivated becomes described high dry type dendriform China rose stock, this high dry type dendriform China rose stock can be directly used in grafting, during transplanting polypots changed into the polypots that height * diameter is 12 * 14cm, matrix in the polypots is the mixture that leaf mould and laterite mix for the ratio of 2:1 by volume, transplant while every strain in matrix and execute 2g composite fertilizer, N:P in the described composite fertilizer 2O 5: K 2O=15:15:15.
Handle 2:Except following step difference, all the other operating procedures are identical with processing 1, repeat no more.
(1) prepare in the stock seedbed: be the polypots of the 8 * 12cm matrix cultivation stock of packing into height * diameter, the net of the top in seedbed is high 90cm apart from ground, drawing one deck light transmittance between net and booth ceiling is 60% black sunshade net, liquor natrii hypochloritis with 900ppm sterilizes to seedbed and matrix, transplants a cutting at the cuttage stock and matrix is watered permeable in preceding 2 days;
(2) stock is transplanted a cutting material and is selected: on March 26th, 2010, transplant a cutting material from thick 1.4 cm of the stem ~ 1.5cm, the long 160cm of stem that handle 1 described stock female parent selection seven sisters rose branches as stock;
(3) stock is transplanted a cutting and handled: the stem section of choosing 130cm at stock cutting material is transplanted a cutting as stock, and the 3cm place shears below node, and stock is transplanted a cutting to go up and kept 3 or 4 nodes;
(4) cuttage: described root-inducing powder is made up of the 1.0%IBA+5% thiophanate methyl;
(5) management after stock is transplanted a cutting
A. water supply in media and ambient humidity management: making the mass water content of soil of matrix is 62~63%, and the relative air humidity in the seedbed remains on 60~65%; After cuttage seeding roots, make relative air humidity be reduced to 53~55%;
B. illumination and temperature treatment: the temperature at night remains on 12 ~ 13 ℃; Take root and send out in 2 week of back, 11:00 ~ 17:00 covering light transmittance is 50% black sunshade net, and all the other times are removed black sunshade nets, remove black sunshade net after 2 weeks, and the temperature temperature on daytime is brought up to 27 ℃ ~ 28 ℃;
C. the extermination of disease and insect pest: after the stock of cuttage is transplanted a cutting and is sent out branch and come into leaves, adopt mass fraction be 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl and 1200 times of liquid of 15% triadimefon alternately spraying prevent and treat powdery mildew, sprayed once every 14 days;
D. nutrient management: after stock is transplanted a cutting and is sent out branch and come into leaves, per 20 days pouring mass fractions be 1.0% urea once;
(6) transplanting breeding of stock: arrive July 28 then, when the stock of step (5) cultivation was transplanted to polypots, 3g composite fertilizer was executed in every strain in matrix.
Handle 3:Except following step difference, all the other operating procedures are identical with processing 1, repeat no more.
(1) prepare in the stock seedbed: automatic sprayer is installed in booth, the net of the top in seedbed is high 100cm apart from ground, drawing one deck light transmittance between net and booth ceiling is 55% black sunshade net, start automatic sprayer and use the liquor natrii hypochloritis of 800ppm to be sterilized in seedbed and matrix, transplant a cutting at the cuttage stock and matrix was watered permeable in preceding 1 day;
(2) stock is transplanted a cutting material and is selected: on March 28th, 2010, transplant a cutting material from the thick 1.3 ~ 1.4cm of stem, the long 180cm of stem that handle 1 described stock female parent selection seven sisters rose branches as stock;
(3) stock is transplanted a cutting and handled: the stem section of choosing 150cm at stock cutting material is transplanted a cutting as stock, and the 3cm place shears below node, and stock is transplanted a cutting to go up and kept 5 or 6 nodes;
(4) cuttage: described root-inducing powder is made up of the 0.9%IBA+3% thiophanate methyl;
(5) management after stock is transplanted a cutting
A. water supply in media and ambient humidity management: start automatic sprayer, adopting the automatic intermittent spraying mode to make the mass water content of soil of matrix is 64~65%, makes the relative air humidity in the seedbed remain on 66~74%; After cuttage seeding roots, make relative air humidity be reduced to 56~60%;
B. illumination and temperature treatment: the temperature at night remains on 13 ℃ ~ 14 ℃; 2 weeks back dismounting black sunshade net makes the temperature temperature on daytime bring up to 27 ℃ ~ 28 ℃;
C. the extermination of disease and insect pest: after the stock of cuttage was transplanted a cutting and sent out branch and come into leaves, starting automatic sprayer, alternately to spray mass fraction be that 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl and 1200 times of liquid of 15% triadimefon are prevented and treated powdery mildew, sprayed once every 16 days;
D. nutrient management: after stock is transplanted a cutting and is sent out branch and come into leaves, per 17 days pouring mass fractions be 0.7% urea once;
(6) transplanting breeding of stock: arrive July 28 then, when the stock of in booth step (5) being cultivated was transplanted to polypots, 2.5g composite fertilizer was executed in every strain in matrix.
The outdoor cropping production of existing stock, the cultivation time is 2 years, and the stem thickness of stock and big or small inhomogeneous, and is very easily crooked, excavate big (always) stake rose plant cultivate stock except to the destruction of rose resource very greatly transplanting survival rate be generally about 60 ~ 70%, and graft survival rate is low.
Adopt above-mentioned processing 1 of the present invention, processing 2 and handle 3 stocks of cultivating, 28 ~ 35 days foliations of taking root after the long shoot cuttage of employing 100 ~ 150cm were transplanted, but change the grafting in 90 ~ 100 days of alms bowl transplant in booths in 45 ~ 50 days; But only need 135~150 days from cuttage to the stock of cultivating into grafting; The survival rate of three processing reaches and reaches 83%, 86%, 86% respectively, and average survival reaches 85%, the average height 120cm of stock, the stem even thickness of stock, the average thick 1.35cm of stem, stem is straight, quality is good, and particular significant effect is had laid a good foundation for cultivating high dry type dendriform China rose.
Embodiment 2
The method of the high dry type dendriform China rose of long shoot cuttage quickly breeding of the present invention is done 3 processing, handles I, handles II and handles III.
The processing I may further comprise the steps:
(1) cultivate high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to the breeding method of getting embodiment 1 processing 1 high dry type dendriform China rose stock, get the embodiment 1 processing 1 high dry type dendriform China rose stock of cultivating and carry out following grafting and cultivation:
(2) grafting: in grafting on October 17 in 2010, preceding 15 days of grafting was watered once permeablely every 5 days to the stock of described high dry type dendriform China rose, and every basin is used N:P 2O 5: K 2The composite fertilizer 5g of O=15:15:15, this stock apart from matrix table soil 2/3 with top around different directions stay 3 side shoots, all the other side shoots are wiped out, during grafting, the side shoot that stays stays 12 cm to shear, and the grafting point location is selected anosis worm, eye to enrich full Chinese rose branch and done scion on the side shoot of distance trunk 8 cm, adopt conventional whip grafting to carry out grafting, all rudiments on the stock of erasing after grafting is finished;
(3) managing after grafting: watered once permeable every 3 days after the grafting, use mass fraction weekly and be 5% urea 1 time, adopt the intermittent spraying mode to carry out air humidity and water management, making the mass water content of soil of matrix is 66 ~ 67%, and relative air humidity remains on 69 ~ 70%; When shoot length arrives 40cm, remove the band of grafting, stay the 30cm weak point to cut, relative air humidity is reduced to 54 ~ 55%; When described shoot is long-living when growing side shoot, the band alms bowl is transplanted to the outer open country plantation of booth, supports the high bar type dendriform China rose of institute's grafting with builts such as bamboo or waddys, after this carries out conventional dendriform China rose cultivation management, namely waters weekly once; Executed N:P in per 3 months 2O 5: K 2The composite fertilizer of O=15:15:15 1 time, each 5g; Replace spraying with 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl and 1200 times of liquid of 20% triadimefon in 20 ~ 30 days and prevent and treat powdery mildew.
Handle IIDivided by under operate outside the difference, to handle I identical with embodiment 2, repeats no more.
(1) cultivate high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to the breeding method of getting embodiment 1 processing 3 high dry type dendriform China rose stocks, get the embodiment 1 processing 3 high dry type dendriform China rose stocks of cultivating and carry out following grafting and cultivation:
(2) grafting: in grafting on October 30 in 2010, preceding 20 days of grafting was watered once permeablely every 7 days to the stock of described high dry type dendriform China rose, and every basin is used N:P 2O 5: K 2The composite fertilizer 4g of O=15:15:15, this stock apart from matrix table soil 2/3 with top around different directions stay 4 side shoots, during grafting, the side shoot that stays stays 15cm to shear, the grafting point location is on the side shoot of distance trunk 10cm, select anosis worm, eye to enrich full Chinese rose bud sheet and do scion, adopt conventional subsides bud grafting method to carry out grafting, namely at the prune cortex of long 1.5cm ~ 2cm of stock, get the bud sheet of 1.5cm ~ 2cm from scion, the formation layer that bud sheet and stock are cut mouth fits, and wraps up with plastic film strip.
(3) managing after grafting: use mass fraction weekly and be 4% urea 1 time, making the mass water content of soil of matrix is 64 ~ 65%, and relative air humidity remains on 60 ~ 61%; When shoot length arrives 50cm, remove the band of grafting, stay the 40cm weak point to cut, relative air humidity is reduced to 59 ~ 60%;
Handle IIIDivided by under operate outside the difference, to handle I identical with embodiment 2, repeats no more.
(1) cultivate high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to the breeding method of getting embodiment 1 processing 2 high dry type dendriform China rose stocks, get the embodiment 1 processing 2 high dry type dendriform China rose stocks of cultivating and carry out following grafting and cultivation:
(2) grafting: in grafting on October 30 in 2010, preceding 17 days of grafting was watered once permeablely every 4 days to described high dry type dendriform China rose stock, and every basin is used N:P 2O 5: K 2The composite fertilizer 6g of O=15:15:15, this stock apart from matrix table soil 2/3 with top around different directions stay 4 side shoots, during grafting, the side shoot that stays stays 13 cm to shear, the grafting point location is selected anosis worm, eye to enrich full Chinese rose branch and is done scion on the side shoot of distance trunk 9cm;
(3) managing after grafting: use mass fraction weekly and be 6% urea 1 time, making the mass water content of soil of matrix is 66 ~ 67%, and relative air humidity remains on 79 ~ 80%; When shoot length arrives 45cm, remove the band of grafting, stay the 35cm weak point to cut, relative air humidity is reduced to 50 ~ 51%.
Adopt the graft survival rate of above-mentioned processing I, processing II and the processing III of the method for the high dry type dendriform China rose of long shoot cuttage quickly breeding of the present invention to reach 90%, 88%, 92% respectively, average graft survival rate reaches 90%, transplanting success reaches 90%, 92%, 94% respectively, average transplanting success 92%, again through 90 ~ 120 days, it is tree-like substantially to cultivate into the dendriform China rose that the 3rd level branch blooms behind the grafting survival.Tree-like substantially to cultivating into the dendriform China rose that the 3rd level branch blooms from long shoot stock cottage breeding, whole high dry type dendriform China rose cultivating process only needs 225 ~ 270 days.

Claims (8)

1. the breeding method of high dry type dendriform China rose stock may further comprise the steps:
(1) prepare in the stock seedbed: in booth, the matrix of packing in polypots is cultivated stock, matrix is that peat and laterite mix for the ratio of 1:3 by volume, form a seedbed with 1000~1200 polypotss, above every seedbed, arrange and the equal-sized net in seedbed, described net is high 80 ~ 100cm apart from ground, drawing one deck light transmittance between described net and booth ceiling is 50~60% black sunshade net, liquor natrii hypochloritis with 800ppm~1000ppm sterilizes to seedbed and matrix, transplants a cutting at the cuttage stock and matrix is watered permeable in preceding 1 ~ 2 day;
(2) stock is transplanted a cutting material and selected: in spring, choosing is upright, seven sisters' japanese rose branchlet bars of no damage by disease and insect, not damaged and the thick 1.2 ~ 1.5cm of stem, stem length 120 ~ 180cm are transplanted a cutting material as stock;
(3) stock is transplanted a cutting and handled: the stem section of choosing 100 ~ 150cm at stock cutting material is transplanted a cutting as stock, 2cm below node ~ 3cm place shears, stock is transplanted a cutting and is gone up the node that keeps more than 2, and stock cutting top and bottom are cut into angle, cut off all blades;
(4) cuttage: stock is transplanted a cutting base portion dip in root-inducing powder, 5 ~ 6cm in the matrix in the described polypots of the inserting step while dipping in (1), the upper end that stock is transplanted a cutting leans against on the grid of the described net of step (1); Described root-inducing powder is made up of 0.8 ~ 1.0%IBA and 2 ~ 5% thiophanate methyls, the thiophanate methyl matching while using, and described percentage is mass fraction;
(5) insert the back management
A. water supply in media and ambient humidity management: spraying is watered permeable to matrix after cuttage, and adopt the intermittent spraying mode to carry out air humidity and follow-up water management, the mass water content of soil that makes matrix is 60~65%, to the long root of cuttage seeding, the relative air humidity in the seedbed remains on 60 ~ 80% from the beginning cuttage; After cuttage seeding roots, make relative air humidity be reduced to 50 ~ 60%;
B. illumination and temperature treatment: the temperature control on daytime is at 25 ~ 26 ℃, and the temperature at night remains on 10 ~ 14 ℃; Take root and send out branch in 2 weeks of back, the light transmittance of the described black sunshade of 11:00 ~ 17:00 net is 50%, and all the other times are removed black sunshade nets, 2 week the back remove black sunshade nets, and with the temperature control on daytime at 26 ~ 28 ℃;
C. the extermination of disease and insect pest: high dry type dendriform China rose stock nurturing period main diseases insect pest is aphid and powdery mildew; After treating that a cuttage stock cutting branch comes into leaves, adopt the alternately spraying of 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl and 1200 times of liquid of 15% triadimefon, prevent and treat powdery mildew, sprayed once every 12 ~ 15 days; Spray blade in case eliminate aphis with 3000 times of liquid of 10% Imidacloprid; Described percentage is mass fraction;
D. nutrient management: after stock was transplanted a cutting and sent out branch and come into leaves, the urea that per 15 ~ 20 days pouring mass fractions are 0.5% ~ 1.0 % once;
(6) transplanting breeding of stock: mid or late July then, the stock transplanting breeding of in booth step (5) being cultivated becomes high dry type dendriform China rose stock, change polypots during transplanting, matrix in the polypots is that leaf mould and laterite mix for 2:1 by volume, transplant while every strain in matrix and execute 2 ~ 3g composite fertilizer, N:P in the described composite fertilizer 2O 5: K 2O=15:15:15.
2. the breeding method of high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the height * diameter of the described polypots of step (1) is 6~8 * 10~12cm.
3. the breeding method of high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the described polypots that changes of step (6), the height * diameter of the polypots that it changes into is 12 * 14cm.
4. the breeding method of high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to claim 3 is characterized in that: the described polypots of step (1) can be put by the distance of 10 * 10cm and form the seedbed.
5. according to the breeding method of the described high dry type dendriform China rose stock of arbitrary claim in the claim 1 to 4, also be included in automatic sprayer be installed in the above-mentioned booth, in the described water supply in media of (5) A step and ambient humidity management: after cuttage, start automatic sprayer to matrix spraying water permeable and the automatic intermittent spraying mode is carried out follow-up water management.
6. the breeding method of high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to claim 5 is characterized in that, starts automatic sprayer and carry out spraying of agricultural chemicals and fertilizer in (5) C. extermination of disease and insect pest and D. nutrient management process.
7. the method for the high dry type dendriform China rose of long shoot cuttage quickly breeding may further comprise the steps:
(1) cultivates high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to the breeding method of the described high dry type dendriform China rose stock of claim 1;
(2) grafting: in the grafting of mid or late October then that high dry type dendriform China rose stock is cultivated, preceding 15 ~ 20 days of grafting was watered once permeablely every 4 ~ 7 days to the described high dry type dendriform China rose stock of step (1), and every basin is used N:P 2O 5: K 2Composite fertilizer 4 ~ 6g of O=15:15:15, at this stock apart from matrix table soil 2/3 to stay 3 ~ 4 side shoots around the stock on top, all the other side shoots are wiped out, during grafting, the side shoot that stays stays 12 ~ 15cm to shear, and the grafting point location is on the side shoot of distance trunk 8 ~ 10cm, and the Chinese rose bud sheet that select anosis worm, has the Chinese rose branch of bud to do scion or anosis worm is done scion, adopt common scion grafting or bud grafting to carry out grafting, all rudiments on the stock of erasing after grafting is finished;
(3) managing after grafting: watered once permeable every 3 days after the grafting, use mass fraction weekly and be 4 ~ 6% urea 1 time, adopt the intermittent spraying mode to carry out air humidity and water management, making the mass water content of soil of matrix is 64 ~ 67%, and relative air humidity remains on 60 ~ 80%; The shoot that grows when scion is long during to 40 ~ 50cm, removes the band of grafting, stays that 30 ~ 40cm is short to be cut, and relative air humidity is reduced to 50 ~ 60%; When described shoot is long-living when growing side shoot, band soil or band alms bowl are transplanted to the outer open country plantation of booth, carry out the cultivation management of conventional dendriform China rose.
8. the method for the high dry type dendriform China rose of long shoot cuttage quickly breeding may further comprise the steps:
(1) cultivates high dry type dendriform China rose stock according to the breeding method of the described high dry type dendriform China rose stock of claim 6;
(2) grafting: in the grafting of mid or late October then that high dry type dendriform China rose stock is cultivated, preceding 15 ~ 20 days of grafting was watered once permeablely every 4 ~ 7 days to the described high dry type dendriform China rose stock of step (1), and every basin is used N:P 2O 5: K 2Composite fertilizer 4 ~ 6g of O=15:15:15, at this stock apart from matrix table soil 2/3 to stay 3 ~ 4 side shoots around the stock on top, all the other side shoots are wiped out, during grafting, the side shoot that stays stays 12 ~ 15cm to shear, and the grafting point location is on the side shoot of distance trunk 8 ~ 10cm, and the Chinese rose bud sheet that select anosis worm, has the Chinese rose branch of bud to do scion or anosis worm is done scion, adopt common scion grafting or bud grafting to carry out grafting, all rudiments on the stock of erasing after grafting is finished;
(3) managing after grafting: watered once permeable every 3 days after the grafting, use mass fraction weekly and be 4 ~ 6% urea 1 time, adopt the intermittent spraying mode to carry out air humidity and water management, making the mass water content of soil of matrix is 64 ~ 67%, and relative air humidity remains on 60 ~ 80%; The shoot that grows when scion is long during to 40 ~ 50cm, removes the band of grafting, stays that 30 ~ 40cm is short to be cut, and relative air humidity is reduced to 50 ~ 60%; When described shoot is long-living when growing side shoot, band soil or band alms bowl are transplanted to the outer open country plantation of booth, carry out the cultivation management of conventional dendriform China rose.
CN 201110365486 2011-11-17 2011-11-17 Method for quick cultivation of stock of long-stem tree-like rose and quick cultivation of long-stem tree-like rose using cutting with long shoots Active CN102498905B (en)

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