CN102986431A - Method for cultivating watermelons in special shapes in pots in greenhouse without using soil - Google Patents

Method for cultivating watermelons in special shapes in pots in greenhouse without using soil Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102986431A
CN102986431A CN2012105089864A CN201210508986A CN102986431A CN 102986431 A CN102986431 A CN 102986431A CN 2012105089864 A CN2012105089864 A CN 2012105089864A CN 201210508986 A CN201210508986 A CN 201210508986A CN 102986431 A CN102986431 A CN 102986431A
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China
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watermelon
watermelons
mould
special
booth
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CN2012105089864A
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Inventor
羊杏平
侯茜
徐锦华
刘广
高长洲
李苹芳
姚协丰
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Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • Y02P60/216

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for cultivating watermelons in special shapes in pots in a greenhouse without using soil, and the method comprises the following steps: building the greenhouse on the even fertile sandy soil with good irrigation and drainage effects; sowing watermelon seeds in flower pots with the diameters of 40cm; culturing watermelon seedlings by hole trays, wherein a watermelon-seedling culturing medium is prepared by mixing fafard peat, perlite and carbendazim at the mass ratio of 200:50:1; transplanting the watermelon seedlings into flower pots after the watermelon seedlings have two leaves; growing the watermelon seedlings by hanging vines; pruning the watermelon seedlings with two to three vines being left; pollinating the flowers of the watermelon seedlings manually before 10 a.m. every day; and setting the fruit one week later; making moulds for the watermelons in special shapes from non-toxic polypropylene plastic; sleeving the young fruits with good shapes and long stems by the moulds 10-15 days after pollinating; overturning the moulds about every six days; and harvesting the watermelons after the watermelons grow fully in the moulds to have the shapes of the moulds and are 80% manure. The method is suitable for producing the pollution-free products such as the watermelons in special shapes in the greenhouse, guaranteeing the high quality and high yield of the watermelons, improving the ornamental value of the watermelons, realizing the high-grade production of the watermelons and increasing the production efficiency of farmers.

Description

A kind of special-shaped watermelon shed basin alms bowl soilless culture method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of special-shaped watermelon shed basin alms bowl soilless culture method, belong to the crop cultivating technology field.
Background technology
Along with China reform and opening-up to go deep into tourism development rapid, the raising of living standard of urban and rural population level, watermelon market trend is superior, miniaturization, high quality.In the market for farm products situation that seriously supply exceed demand, winning victory by quality becomes friend's peasant common recognition.The control total amount improves quality. obtain higher income. become new market key to win.The culture technique of greenhouse watermelon has been used for the large-scale production of watermelon at present, and the method has proposed a kind of basin alms bowl soilless culture method of booth abnormity watermelon, has filled up the technological gap in this field.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem:
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of booth abnormity watermelon basin alms bowl soilless culture method, be applicable to the large-scale production of non-polluted farm product booth abnormity watermelon.Make watermelon crop high-quality, excellent product, and strengthened its sight and realized superior production, improve peasant's productivity effect.
Technical scheme:
A kind of basin alms bowl soilless culture method of booth opposite sex watermelon, related to from the booth construction, grown seedlings, management behind melon dress mould, the dress mould is made, is selected in transplanting, melon patch management, special-shaped watermelon diaphragm capsule, integrated pest prevention and control is to a complete set of production technology of gathering, be applicable to the production of non-polluted farm product booth abnormity watermelon, it is characterized in that:
(1) booth is built: should select that physical features is smooth, fertile soil, the good sandy loam of filling row.Bamboo wood booth is wide to be 4.5m, high 1.8 m~2.2m, arch spacing 0.6cm~0.8 cm; Steelframe booth arch spacing 0.8cm~1.0 cm, span 6m~8m, shoulder height 1.4m~1.8m, the high 2.5m~3.2m of canopy.
(2) grow seedlings: use point disk seedling growing, adopting fafard peat, perlite is the matrix that 200:50:1 mixes with the carbendazim mass ratio.
(3) transplant: the general spring is planted late Febuary to field planting mid-March, and Xia Qiu plants late July to the early August field planting.Be colonizated in the flowerpot of bore 40cm, before the field planting in booth soil deeptillage, but make the zanjon of three placing flowerpots, wide, deeply about 45cm puts into flowerpot successively; Planting matrix is that the fafard kind is planted peat No. one.
(4) melon patch management: seedling-slowing stage is in time filled the gaps with seedlings.The interior temperature of booth on daytime is controlled at about 25 ℃~32 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is not less than 13 ℃.Need not water.Stretching climing phase day temperature is 25 ℃~28 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is not less than 15 ℃.Adopt the climing training in 2 climing~3, hang climingly during the climing 40cm of growing to of melon~50cm, hang 1 time every 4 joints~6 joints later on.The melon wooden fork of in time erasing before the setting.The setting phase day temperature of blooming should remain on 28 ℃~32 ℃, is not less than 15 ℃ night.10 o'clock every mornings were carried out artificial supplementary pollination in the past.A Zhou Dingguo after the pollination.The second or the 3rd female flower setting of selecting and remain, a strain can be stayed 2 or a plurality of fruit.
(5) Mold Making: make the nonpoisonous polypropylene plastics that special-shaped watermelon growing device should adopt printing opacity, ventilation, anti-tension.Described mould top is provided with air vent, and the mold center position is provided with perforate, makes things convenient for carpopodium to put into.Preferred thickness 0.4~0.5 cm.Wall thickness is 0.4 cm, and screwhole diameter is 0.4 cm, and screw spacing 2.5 cm~3.5 cm, the bolt of two halves diaphragm capsule close hem width 〉=1 cm.Be applicable to 1kg~2kg small fruit type variety of watermelon.Described special-shaped watermelon growing device is heart-shaped, square, cylindrical or triangle.
(6) select melon dress mould: 10~15d after the pollination, the calibration of choosing fruit type, the long young fruit of carpopodium begin to fill mould, and every strain fills 1~2 fruit, and each mould fills a young fruit; If a strain has 2 eurymeric fruits, dress mould surrounding time is poor at 1~2 day;
(7) management behind the dress mould: every about 5d, turn over once behind the dress mould, make its in uniform light, and make outside the moisture delivery cassette stagnant in the mould, in case watermelon rots in the box.
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest: disease is take damping off, anthracnose, virus disease as main: insect pest is as planting a fly, melon aphid, melon tetranychid as main.Take cultural control, physical control, biological control as main, chemical control is auxiliary.
(9) gather: adopt according to selecting breediness, watermelon in mould, fully to grow up to the mould type shape and just can gathering when medium well.
Key point of the present invention is the selection of mould, is particularly suitable for the watermelon of 1-2kg size, and this mould at first possesses printing opacity, ventilation, and be provided with air vent, prevent that watermelon from rotting.Dress mould selection of time is very important, generally selects to be pollinated rear 10-15d.
  
Beneficial effect
Advantage of the present invention is:
1, use the point disk seedling growing planting percent high, Miao Qimiao is strong; Economize kind of an abridged edition, volume increase is efficient; Easy and simple to handle, be easy to promote; Be convenient to transportation, can realize concentrating for seedling.
2, grow seedlings, in the planting matrix fafard peat to add an amount of wetting agent and Nutrient germinant by pure eriophorum peat formulated, the pH value has also been added wetting agent in the fafard peat of 5.5-6.5, can make medium fully, moistening fast, added Nutrient germinant, a kind of water miscible nutritional agents, can guarantee to supply with in 7~14 days seed, seedling early growth desired nutritional, the bud ratio survival rate improves.Perlite porous in the matrix has adsorption capacity, can make fertilizer moisture carrier, has good water conservation airing function, fafard peat can provide the growth of seedling desired nutritional, and carbendazim can kill the most of bacterium in the matrix.
3, adopt soilless culture method to improve agricultural product unit are benefit, set up the high-efficiency agriculture that adapts to market economy
4, mould adopts the nonpoisonous polypropylene plastics of printing opacity, ventilation, anti-tension, and nontoxic, good mechanical property, hardness be high, good bending fatigue resistance is arranged, to make mould convenient and swift and have the long life-span reusable.
4, the present invention has realized the production of non-polluted farm product booth abnormity watermelon, makes watermelon crop high-quality, excellent product, uniform, and has strengthened its sight and realized superior production, improves peasant's productivity effect.
Description of drawings:
Fig. 1 is the heart-shaped mould schematic top plan view of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the cylindrical die schematic side view
Fig. 3 is the square dies schematic side view
Fig. 4 triangular mould schematic diagram schematic top plan view;
Wherein 1 is mould, the 2nd, and osculum, the 3rd, perforate, the 4th, screw.
Embodiment
Specify content of the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:
Following embodiment mentions material:
Matrix: it is by the processing of Canadian Fafard company that fafard peat and fafard kind are planted peat, can buy from Zhejiang Hongyue Flowers Co., Ltd;
Composite fertilizer's (potassium sulfate type): Hubei Yangfeng Stock Co., Ltd
Embodiment 1
1) select that physical features is smooth, fertile soil, the good sandy loam of filling row.Bamboo wood booth is wide to be 4.5m, high 1.8 m~2.2m, arch spacing 0.6cm~0.8 cm; Steelframe booth arch spacing 0.8cm~1.0 cm, span 6m~8m, shoulder height 1.4m~1.8m, the high 2.5m~3.2m of canopy.
2) use point disk seedling growing, generally adopt 50 holes dish, cave dish specification is 540mm * 280mm * 5.5mm.Select that physical features is higher, leeward on the sunny side, irrigation and drainage field easily, carry out the furrow of growing seedlings, the wide 1.8~2.4m of furrow, length is decided with the amount of growing seedlings, 1000 strain watermelon seedlings need seedbed area 3~4m.With fafard peat, perlite and carbendazim in mass ratio example make its fluffy cave dish of packing into after as the matrix mixing and stirring for 200:50:1, and scrape off unnecessary matrix on the card.Install the rear vola water that evenly waters, matrix is sunk naturally, then in the cave dish central authorities hole that to make a call to a degree of depth be 1cm, watermelon seed is put into cave dish aperture hit exactly, 1 in 1 cave is built floatingly again with matrix, neatly be emitted on the seedbed.Temperature is controlled at 28~32 ℃ daytime, is controlled at 20~25 ℃ night.Watermelon 5~6d is emerged, and at this moment will in time lift the film on surface, seedbed, and suitably cooling, and temperature remains on 22~24 ℃ daytime, l5~l8 ℃ of night.The rear attention of emerging in time shells.
3) transplant, the general spring is planted late Febuary to field planting mid-March, and Xia Qiu plants late July to the early August field planting.Be colonizated in the flowerpot of bore 40cm, before the field planting in booth soil deeptillage, but make the zanjon of three placing flowerpots, wide, deeply about 45cm puts into flowerpot successively; Planting matrix is that the fafard kind is planted peat No. one.Treat that seedling grows to one heart stage of two leaves, can carry out field planting and transplant that refined seedling before the field planting, hardening can make the seedling transplanting seedling time shorten, and is beneficial to seedling and survives.Method is to allow seedling fully accept illumination before the lifting, reduces gradually temperature, strengthens temperature difference management, strengthens gradually and ventilates, and does not water during the hardening as far as possible.Watermelon matrix shoot root system is flourishing, can coil the root of forming consolidation and stick together.Root sticks together and takes out together with matrix during lifting, and for the ease of lifting, 1d can water in right amount before lifting.
4) the melon seedling-slowing stage is in time filled the gaps with seedlings, and the interior temperature of booth on daytime is controlled at about 25 ℃~32 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is not less than 13 ℃.Need not water.Stretching climing phase day temperature is 25 ℃~28 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is not less than 15 ℃.Water 1 time behind the slow seedling, if do, when the climing 30cm of growing to of melon~40cm, rewater 1 time.In conjunction with per 667 ㎡ sealing fertilizer 10kg that water, in melon ditch one side from melon root 10cm ditch spread at a distance or spread manuer in holes.Adopt the climing training in 2 climing~3.Hang climingly during the climing 40cm of growing to of melon~50cm, hang 1 time every 4 joints~6 later on.The melon wooden fork of in time erasing before the setting.Bloom the setting phase, day temperature should remain on 28 ℃~32 ℃, is not less than 15 ℃ night.Do not topdress, control is watered.10 o'clock every mornings were carried out artificial supplementary pollination in the past.A Zhou Dingguo after the pollination.The second or the 3rd female flower setting of selecting and remain, a strain can be stayed 2 or a plurality of fruit.
5) make the nonpoisonous polypropylene plastics that special-shaped watermelon growing device should adopt printing opacity, ventilation, anti-tension.Described mould top is provided with osculum 2, and the mold center position is provided with perforate 3, makes things convenient for carpopodium to put into.Mold wall thickness is 0.4 cm, and screw 2 diameters are 0.4 cm, and screw spacing 2.5 cm~3.5 cm, the bolt of two halves diaphragm capsule close hem width 〉=1 cm.Be applicable to 1kg~2kg small fruit type variety of watermelon.Type shape and specification that mould should adopt see attached list one.
6) 10~15d after the pollination, the calibration of choosing fruit type, the long young fruit of carpopodium begin to fill mould, and every strain fills 1~2 fruit, if a strain has 2 eurymeric fruits, dress mould surrounding time is poor at 1~2 day.Will choose young fruit embed in the mould of opening, the melon handle is vertical with the melon navel, buckles die cap, bolts on, and mould is sling not tangible melon handle fine hair during operation with thin wire etc. behind the watermelon dress mould.Every about 5d, turn over once behind the dress mould, make its in uniform light, and make outside the moisture delivery cassette stagnant in the mould, in case watermelon rots in the box.The cooling of in good time leaking informaton, temperature is controlled at below 35 ℃, but nocturnal temperature should not be lower than 18 ℃.When temperature of shed reaches 30 ℃, in the straw shading of the diaphragm capsule loam cake thin layer that fills melon.When fruit stops to water behind the fruit (stopping growing) surely.The composite fertilizer's (potassium sulfate type) of when melon grows to 200g~250g, spreading manuer in holes.
7) disease is take damping off, anthracnose, virus disease as main: insect pest is as planting a fly, melon aphid, melon tetranychid as main.When damage by disease and insect reaches index for control, should at first select ecological agricultural chemical, such as antibiotic insecticide, mainly contain Avermectins; Antibiotic insecticide mainly contains: pesticide corrosion 120, agricultural streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin, trichodermin etc.; The bacterium insecticides mainly is the Bt biopesticide; And plant insecticide, such as kushenin, green spirit etc.
8) according to selecting breediness, watermelon in mould, fully to grow up to the mould type shape and just can gathering when medium well.The melon handle stays 3 leaves to cut off when gathering, and the form removal action will be handled with care.
Planting experiment:
Test period: year October in July, 2012-2012
Test site: six directions base, Jiangsu Province Agriculture Science Institute watermelon shed
Experimental scheme: choose at random six steelframe booths as the growth of watermelon canopy, adopt consistent management mode in each booth.Experimental group: choose at random three booths, adopt the plantation of booth abnormity watermelon basin alms bowl soilless culture method.Control group: three booths adopt watermelon common cultivation method in addition, and the test kind is Xiao Lan.。
Experimental result: by booth abnormity watermelon basin alms bowl soilless culture method and the contrast of common greenhouse watermelon cultivation method, booth booth abnormity watermelon basin alms bowl soilless culture method productivity ratio is 87%, common greenhouse watermelon cultivation method productivity ratio is 82%, and productivity ratio is significantly improved; Abnormity watermelon shape uniqueness and neat and consistent, comparing with common watermelon has increased its productivity effect.
  
Subordinate list one

Claims (3)

1. special-shaped watermelon shed basin alms bowl soilless culture method is characterized in that: realize as follows:
(1) booth is built: should select that physical features is smooth, fertile soil, the good sandy loam of filling row; Bamboo wood booth is wide to be 4.5m, high 1.8 m~2.2m, arch spacing 0.6cm~0.8 cm; Or steelframe booth arch spacing 0.8cm~1.0 cm, span 6m~8m, shoulder height 1.4m~1.8m, the high 2.5m~3.2m of canopy;
(2) grow seedlings: the matrix of using point disk seedling growing to adopt fafard peat, perlite and carbendazim mass ratio to mix as 200:50:1; Watermelon seed is planted in matrix, and temperature is controlled at 28~32 ℃ daytime, is controlled at 20~25 ℃ night;
Watermelon 5~6d is emerged, and temperature remains on 22~24 ℃ daytime, l5~l8 ℃ of night;
(3) transplant: the general spring is planted late Febuary to field planting mid-March, and Xia Qiu plants late July to the early August field planting; Be colonizated in the flowerpot of bore 40cm, before the field planting in booth soil deeptillage, but make the zanjon of three placing flowerpots, wide, dark 45cm puts into flowerpot successively; Planting matrix is a plantation of fafard peat;
(4) melon patch management: seedling-slowing stage is in time filled the gaps with seedlings; The interior temperature of booth on daytime is controlled at about 25 ℃~32 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is not less than 13 ℃, need not water; Stretching climing phase day temperature is 25 ℃~28 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is not less than 15 ℃, adopts the climing training in 2 climing~3, hangs climingly during the climing 40cm of growing to of melon~50cm, hangs 1 time every 4 joints~6 joints later on; The setting phase day temperature of blooming should remain on 28 ℃~32 ℃, is not less than 15 ℃ night; 10 o'clock every mornings were carried out artificial supplementary pollination in the past; A Zhou Dingguo after the pollination, the second or the 3rd female flower setting of selecting and remain, a strain can be stayed 2 or a plurality of fruit;
(5) Mold Making: special-shaped watermelon growing device is that light transmissive material consists of, and described mould top is provided with osculum, and the mold center position is provided with perforate;
(6) select melon dress mould: 10~15d after the pollination, the calibration of choosing fruit type, the long young fruit of carpopodium begin to fill mould, and every strain fills 1~2 fruit, and each mould fills a young fruit; If a strain has 2 eurymeric fruits, dress mould surrounding time is poor at 1~2 day;
(7) management behind the dress mould: every about 5d, turn over once behind the dress mould;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest;
(9) gather: watermelon fully grows up to the mould type shape and just can gather when medium well in mould.
2. described a kind of special-shaped watermelon shed basin alms bowl soilless culture method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described special-shaped watermelon growing device thickness 0.4~0.5 cm of step (5), screwhole diameter is 0.4 cm, screw spacing 2.5 cm~4 cm, the bolt of two halves diaphragm capsule closes hem width 〉=1 cm, is applicable to 1kg~2kg small fruit type variety of watermelon.
3. described a kind of special-shaped watermelon shed basin alms bowl soilless culture method according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that the described special-shaped watermelon growing device of step (5) is heart-shaped, square, cylindrical or triangle.
CN2012105089864A 2012-12-04 2012-12-04 Method for cultivating watermelons in special shapes in pots in greenhouse without using soil Pending CN102986431A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103988766A (en) * 2014-05-29 2014-08-20 太仓绿丰农业生物基质有限公司 Method for manufacturing soilless culture substrates for watermelons
CN104025927A (en) * 2014-06-28 2014-09-10 任金瑞 Automatic-size-adjusting watermelon die
CN104145694A (en) * 2014-08-28 2014-11-19 太仓市丰缘农场专业合作社 Square watermelon planting method
CN104541867A (en) * 2014-12-29 2015-04-29 太和县九龙种植专业合作社 Cultivation method for square watermelon
CN107593172A (en) * 2017-10-30 2018-01-19 曹霞 A kind of greenhouse gardening watermelon supports plasticity frame
CN108781875A (en) * 2018-06-29 2018-11-13 贵州关岭阿依苗生态农业发展有限公司 A kind of abnormity watermelon breeding apparatus and its breeding method

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103988766A (en) * 2014-05-29 2014-08-20 太仓绿丰农业生物基质有限公司 Method for manufacturing soilless culture substrates for watermelons
CN104025927A (en) * 2014-06-28 2014-09-10 任金瑞 Automatic-size-adjusting watermelon die
CN104145694A (en) * 2014-08-28 2014-11-19 太仓市丰缘农场专业合作社 Square watermelon planting method
CN104541867A (en) * 2014-12-29 2015-04-29 太和县九龙种植专业合作社 Cultivation method for square watermelon
CN104541867B (en) * 2014-12-29 2017-02-22 太和县九龙种植专业合作社 Cultivation method for square watermelon
CN107593172A (en) * 2017-10-30 2018-01-19 曹霞 A kind of greenhouse gardening watermelon supports plasticity frame
CN108781875A (en) * 2018-06-29 2018-11-13 贵州关岭阿依苗生态农业发展有限公司 A kind of abnormity watermelon breeding apparatus and its breeding method

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