CN101790931B - Restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir - Google Patents

Restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir Download PDF

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CN101790931B
CN101790931B CN2010101027304A CN201010102730A CN101790931B CN 101790931 B CN101790931 B CN 101790931B CN 2010101027304 A CN2010101027304 A CN 2010101027304A CN 201010102730 A CN201010102730 A CN 201010102730A CN 101790931 B CN101790931 B CN 101790931B
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water
level
zone
reservoir
restoration
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CN101790931A (en
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李璐
史志华
方怒放
尹炜
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华中农业大学
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    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2

Abstract

The invention relates to a restoration method for a damaged ecosystem in a steep-slope area in a water-level-fluctuating zone of a reservoir. The method comprises the following steps:when the impounded water level is at the lowest point, cleaning the upstream slope in the water-level-fluctuating zone, and manually tamping; digging planting holes at the top of the slope, and planting Chinese red pines and the like to form a multifunctional protective forest belt; digging planting grooves and planting holes within the range of the water-level-fluctuating zone, laying jute geotextile, planting vetiver within the range with the water-level-fluctuating depth of 2m to form a hedgerow; and mixedly planting vetiver and wire grass within the range with the water-level-fluctuating depth of 2-10m to form a combined vegetation slope restoration belt. The protective forest belt, the hedgerow and the combined vegetation slope restoration belt form a three-dimensional restoration space together, thereby ensuring that plants can take roots and restore in the steep-slope area in the water-level-fluctuating zone. By restoring the vegetation in large area, the invention effectively reduces the overland flow and the soil erosion, and improves the fertility and the properties of the soil, thereby restoring the damaged ecosystem. The invention has the advantages of convenient construction and less investment, can not be easily damaged by water, and is applicable to the water-level-fluctuating zone of a reservoir with large water-level-fluctuating range and precipitous topography.

Description

A kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir.
Background technology
Danjiangkou Reservoir is the water head site of " south water to north " work centerline, is positioned at the intersection in Han River and Danjiang River, is one of water-control project of Chinese large-sized.The Danjiangkou Reservoir preliminary engineering built up in 1973, normal pool level 157m, summer flood control 149m, falling zone area 148km 2The second phase dam is increased after engineering finished in 2011, and normal pool level reaches 170m.Reservoir operation will be flood end beginning retaining in annual October, to December water level rise to 170m; In May next year, water level is reduced to flood control gradually by 170m again, remains on the operation of 160-163.5m water level in flood season.New falling zone will on move to the location of storehouse bank height above sea level 160-170m, area is about 205km 2The quality of falling zone vegetation is the important sign that can reservoir healthy operation, also plays an important role in river ecosystem.Yet, reasons such as operation and the natural conditions of regulating and storing owing to reservoir, cause reservoir level frequent and fluctuate widely and flooding time long, vegetation wrecks easily at the reservoir edge, the zone of particularly steep, current urgency and soil depletion in some gradients, therefore its vegetation may flood disappearance, mean that then the reservoir area, Danjiangkou has lost the ecological protective screen one, multiple ecological environment problems such as pollution grows worse, water and soil loss aggravation, geological disaster be frequent can appear in the falling zone, thereby threaten the sustainable use of reservoir and the benign cycle of the reservoir area ecosystem.It is that domestic and international expert thinks one of very effective governance way that the falling zone damaged ecosystem is carried out the plant ecological reparation, the technology of the reservoir swelling and subsiding zone being carried out vegetative protection then is an a great problem, main difficulty is: 1. the soil of falling zone scope is subject to water body and washes away loss, and the basic condition of plant growing is constantly destroyed; 2. the ecotope of falling zone is abominable, and plant will be stood washing away of harmful effects such as deep water, low temperature, fertilizer deficiency and flood for a long time; 3. the operation characteristic of reservoir engineering makes the vegetation of stable type falling zone not rebuild on new falling zone simply.
At present begun ecological recovery is carried out in the falling zone of some relatively large hydroelectric projects, with bio-diversity and the environmental aspect of improving the reservoir area.As " a kind of novel plant configuration and ecological engineering technology that is used for river levee reservoir erosion control shore protection " (Chinese patent application number 03146885.3), it is a kind of based on vetiver, dispose other vegetable material again, by on-site land survey, art designs, select seedling breeding, construction plantation, professional maintenance management, be used for the ecological engineering technology of river levee reservoir erosion control shore protection." a kind of wetland improvement method that is used to improve reservoir drawdown district ecotope " (Chinese patent application 200910099098.X), excavate excavating the zone, the reclamation district is filled, split and dig the filling body end face and upstream face protects, disappear ecological region planting submerged plant and floating leaf submerged plant between the degree of depth 3-5m, the degree of depth 3m that disappears is with inner region plantation emergent aquactic plant and humidogene shrub." repairing the method for reservoir drawdown band and riverbank damaged ecosystem with Bermuda grass " (Chinese patent application number 200810032895.1), the screening Bermuda grass is as rehabilitation plant, plant or be transplanted to the reparation district after adopting vegetative propagation or sexual propagation, carry out maintenance then, guarantee growth in the coming year, thereby rebuild and recovery falling zone, storehouse and Riparian Zone ecology.
Falling zone, reservoir area, Danjiangkou will be flooded by seasonal after retaining, some local water loggings will reach 6 months, the 10m height of water therebetween, drought-resistant, anti-soil is thin and weak when selecting water level to fall after rise, and the amphibious plants that ability is flooded for a long time behind the rising of groundwater level offsets band and recovers very important.Simultaneously, subregion, falling zone, reservoir area, the Danjiangkou gradient is steep, current urgency, soil depletion, land occupation condition are poor, directly plantation, required moisture and nutriment in a fertilizer lack, and slope wash is more serious, the vegetation growth difficulty, be difficult for survival, need to adopt some ancillary methods of practical and effective.To consider also that simultaneously vegetation to interception and filtering function from the water and soil loss and the widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area of storehouse bank, carries out suitable configurations to it.In sum, more than invention all is not suitable for using in this area.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is at above-mentioned present situation, aim to provide a kind of construct convenient, drop into little, be suitable for wide, be difficult for by damaged or destroyed by flood, effective, can satisfy area, Danjiangkou Reservoir falling zone and carry out effective water and soil conservation, pollute the restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir of control.
The implementation of the object of the invention is, a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir, and concrete steps are as follows:
1) be chosen in reserve-water-level when minimum, smooth to the falling zone domatic place under repair that meets water, cleaning stone, weeds, rubbish, and carry out suitable hand compaction;
2) fish scale pit land preparation mode excavation kind of plant hole is adopted at outer slope top in falling zone, plants plantation masson pine or other preferents in the plant hole;
3) at the degree of depth 2m that disappears with inner region, employing is excavated planting groove along contours of water table strip soil preparation mode, disappearing employing cave-shaped, fish scale pit land preparation mode excavation kind of a plant hole in zone between the degree of depth 2-10m, cut stem in kind of a plant hole exterior domain employing and remove platen press plantation Bermuda grass;
4) the domatic laying one deck jute geotextiles that meets water along the falling zone, the top and bottom of jute geotextiles all adopt the U-shaped holdfast to be fixed in the soil matrix;
5) in the planting groove of degree of depth 2m that disappear, transplant vetiver in the kind plant hole in the zone that disappears between the degree of depth 2-10m with inner region;
6) in time water normal root water;
7) routine care.
The present invention adopts the jute geotextiles with multifunctional ecological benefit to carry out slope protection, the jute geotextiles is a kind of biodegradable opening mesh fabric that is made into by yellow kenaf raw material such as low and bast fibre spinning offcuts, it is a kind of new material that can control the erosion caused by sloping surfaces fast, when preventing the soil erosion, provide a kind of stable growing environment, promote plant in domatic surviving and growing to plant.
The present invention is at preferential species of trees such as slope top plantation masson pines, form have conserve water and soil, water conservation, the multifunctional protection woods of improving effects such as water quality; Zone, falling zone upper end dense planting vetiver, form vetiver plant hedge band, can improve soil fertility and soil property, reduce the rainwash and the soil erosion effectively; At falling zone vetiver plant hedge band with lower area with vetiver and Bermuda grass mixed planting, make full use of vetiver well developed root system, bank protection characteristics that native ability is strong admittedly and Bermuda grass stolon and rhizome and expand the characteristics that spread fast, form the domatic recovery band of composite plant cover.The domatic recovery band of shelter belt of the present invention, plant hedge band and composite plant cover is common to constitute a stereo restoration space, guarantees the plant recovery of taking root on area, abrupt slope, falling zone.By the large tracts of land restore vegetation, improve the soil fertility and the soil property of falling zone, reduce the rainwash and the soil erosion effectively, interception, filtration widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area reach the purpose that damaged ecosystem is repaired.
That the present invention constructs is convenient, it is little to drop into, it is wide to be suitable for, be difficult for by damaged or destroyed by flood, effective, is applicable to the water and soil conservation in the reservoir drawdown band area that the scope that disappears is big, physical features is precipitous and pollutes control.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a falling zone recovering vegetation on slope structure front view,
Fig. 2 is a falling zone recovering vegetation on slope structure side view.
Embodiment
The present invention be directed to the area, abrupt slope of Danjiangkou Reservoir falling zone, the gradient is big, soil depletion, land occupation condition are poor, after particularly reservoir is regulated and stored and is moved, water level frequent and fluctuate widely and flooding time long, cause reservoir edge vegetation to wreck easily and grow difficulty, further cause water and soil loss and pollution grows worse problem, can't realize the situation of ecological recovery and a kind of method of inventing.
Below with reference to Fig. 1,2, be that embodiment describes the present invention in detail with area, abrupt slope, Danjiangkou Reservoir falling zone.
The concrete steps that damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone is repaired are as follows:
1) be May to the Danjiangkou Reservoir reserve-water-level when minimum, thus be chosen in May, smooth to the falling zone domatic place under repair that meets water, cleaning stone, weeds, rubbish, and carry out suitable hand compaction.Among the figure, rolling off the production line is summer floods limiting water level line 8, and reaching the standard grade is normal pool level line 9.
2) at outer slope top, falling zone, promptly fish scale pit land preparation mode excavation kind of plant hole is adopted in the above zone of water level 170m.The kind plant hole at outer slope top, falling zone, the wide 50-80cm in cave, the long 70-100cm in cave, the dark 40-60cm in cave, cave are apart from 200-300cm.During excavation kind of plant hole, the table mound is placed on the top in cave, and mellow soil is deposited in the below in cave, and the stone that picks is built into a weir in the lower edge in cave, height of weir 20-25cm, about above the cave two jiaos each tiltedly open and draw the ditch that holds rainwater together.Plant plantation masson pine 2 or other preferents in the plant hole, want classification to plant when planting, the nest root does not hang sky, and root system is unfolded, and sets upright nursery stock, treads and beats tightly.Masson pine 2 or other preferents form on slope top have conserve water and soil, water conservation, the multifunctional protection forest belt 1 of improving effects such as water quality.
3) at the degree of depth 2m that disappears with inner region, adopt and to excavate planting groove along contours of water table strip soil preparation mode, plantation groove width 20-25cm, line-spacing 40-60cm, be 20-30cm deeply.Cave-shaped, fish scale pit land preparation mode excavation kind of a plant hole is adopted in the zone that disappears between the degree of depth 2-10m, and planting plant hole is " V " shape, and the cave is apart from 30-40cm, cave line-spacing 80-100cm, the dark 20-30cm in cave.
Cut stem in kind of a plant hole exterior domain employing and remove platen press plantation Bermuda grass 5.Kind of method for planting is, with the segment that the stolon and the rhizome of Bermuda grass 5 is cut into 6-10cm, mixed soil is spread in this zone, and in time suppression makes it contact with soil.
Because of Bermuda grass 5 spreadabilities are strong, anti-trample does not have too much influence so lay jute geotextiles 6 and plant vetiver 3 to its growth.
4) the domatic laying one deck jute geotextiles 6 that meets water along the falling zone, jute geotextiles 6 are a kind of biodegradable opening mesh fabric that are made into by yellow kenaf raw material such as low and bast fibre spinning offcuts, and specification is: weight is not less than 200g/km 2, thread count: every 10cm * 10cm is the 4-6 root.The top and bottom of jute geotextiles 6 all adopt the U-shaped holdfast to be fixed in the soil matrix, make the 6 graticule mesh stretch-draw of jute geotextiles tight, the spacing of U-shaped holdfast is not more than 2m, and the lap of splice of adjacent jute geotextiles is not less than 15cm, and stack place is to wear in a zigzag with the harmless material of degradable ties up.
The present invention adopts jute geotextiles 6 to carry out slope protection, and jute geotextiles 6 is a kind of new materials that can control the erosion caused by sloping surfaces fast, and in international water and soil conservation field, it is described as " soil rescue thing " and " Anti-lost thing ".Its in temperature adjustment, to preserve moisture, be of value to the geotextiles that the advantage aspect the plant growing makes by synthetic material incomparable.Reason is:
The jute geotextiles can cover and be attached to soil surface neatly, reduces the raindrop sputter effectively, the interception slope flow, and the control grogs moves, thus the conservation of soil and water effectively; The tossa water imbibition is strong, the natural fiber structure makes it to have changed to a certain extent the soil pore space structure, increased the soil water absorbing capacity, add its network structure and can also stop rainwater, promote moisture to soil permeability, improve the hydraulic conductivity of soil, thereby has the adjusting soil temperature, improve the characteristic of ecological microenvironments such as soil moisture, for plant provides growing environment preferably, thereby promote plant germination to emerge, planting survives and grow, improve emergence rate, survival rate, and the growth of overground part and underground part is all had obvious facilitation.With the prolongation of service time, the jute geotextiles is degraded gradually, and can improve fertilizing soil, for having good ecological benefits as long-term bank protection measure domatic with plant.
Add it unique eyed structure is arranged.Eyed structure can make plant that enough growing spaces are arranged, and fixing seed, makes seedling avoid wind and rain and attacks; Each root cotton rope of forming mesh can absorb and collected rainwater all as a miniature reservoir, can slow down water evaporates when arid.
In a word, adopt jute geotextiles 6 can make the overland flow water flow velocity slack-off, postpone the initial runoff yield time, increase the soil water percolating capacity, reduce run-off; Cover the face of land, increase the ground cover degree, reduce sputter, stop and reduces current, raise and soak datum level, reduce domatic flow velocity, prevent the rill erosion generation, protect native high efficiency.
5) transplant vetiver 3 at the degree of depth 2m that disappears in the planting groove of inner region, transplant vetiver 3 in the kind plant hole in the zone between the degree of depth 2-10m of disappearing.In planting groove and kind plant hole, plant every clump of plantation 3-4 strain by clump.Before the plantation, to 25-35cm, root system is cut to 5-15cm with vetiver 3 overground part sub-cuts, during plantation plant is leaned in a side, and plant and ground keep 60 °-45 ° angle, from the compacting of opposite side earthing.Clump in the planting groove is apart from 20-30cm.
Transplant vetiver 3 at the degree of depth 2m that disappears in the planting groove of inner region, constitute vetiver plant hedge band 4.
Vetiver 3 is a kind of amphibious plantss, has degeneration-resistant (drought, wet, cold, hot, sour, alkali) ability of extremely strong annidation, can resist prolonged drought or accumulated water; Requirement to soil is very low, and photosynthetic capacity is strong, and growth is fast, easily plants, easily survives, manageability, the seldom insect pest that spreads disease.Its root is netted, and the prosperity of root system depth can reach 2-3m deeply, even 5m, fixing soil that can be more firm, and also the tension stress of root system is very powerful, is 1/6 of equivalent diameter mild steel.The cauline leaf part also can be survived under the situation of long-term waterflooding.Vetiver plant hedge band 4 can improve soil fertility and soil property, reduces the rainwash and the soil erosion effectively, can block the silt in the runoff and amass before careless hedge, and reduce rainwash effectively.
Disappear and transplant vetiver 3 between the degree of depth 2-10m in the ecological region planting cave, up-downgoing vetiver 3 is vertically staggered, and becomes the plantation of " product " font.
Disappearing zone between the degree of depth 2-10m; the present invention is with vetiver and Bermuda grass mixed planting; make full use of vetiver 3 well developed root systems; characteristics that the solid native ability of bank protection is strong and Bermuda grass 5 stolons and rhizome expansion fast spread; spreadability is strong; the characteristics of anti-trample; setting up a composite plant cover recovers to be with 7; itself and multifunctional protection forest belt 1 and vetiver plant hedge band 4 be common to constitute a stereo restoration space; guarantee its recovery of on the abrupt slope, falling zone, taking root; the large tracts of land restore vegetation; realize restoration of the ecosystem; the conservation of soil and water is effectively played the certain protection effect to reservoir.
6) in time water normal root water behind the plant planting.
7) routine care.

Claims (9)

1. restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir is characterized in that concrete steps are as follows:
1) be chosen in reserve-water-level when minimum, smooth to the falling zone domatic place under repair that meets water, cleaning stone, weeds, rubbish, and carry out suitable hand compaction;
2) fish scale pit land preparation mode excavation kind of plant hole is adopted at outer slope top in falling zone, plants plantation masson pine or other preferents in the plant hole;
3) at the degree of depth 2m that disappears with inner region, employing is excavated planting groove along contours of water table strip soil preparation mode, disappearing employing cave-shaped, fish scale pit land preparation mode excavation kind of a plant hole in zone between the degree of depth 2-10m, cut stem in kind of a plant hole exterior domain employing and remove platen press plantation Bermuda grass;
4) the domatic laying one deck jute geotextiles that meets water along the falling zone, the top and bottom of jute geotextiles all adopt the U-shaped holdfast to be fixed in the soil matrix;
5) in the planting groove of degree of depth 2m that disappear, transplant vetiver in the kind plant hole in the zone that disappears between the degree of depth 2-10m with inner region;
6) in time water normal root water;
7) routine care.
2. according to the said a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir of claim 1, it is characterized in that the kind plant hole at outer slope top, falling zone, the wide 50-80cm in cave, the long 70-100cm in cave, the dark 40-60cm in cave, cave are apart from 200-300cm.
3. according to claim 1 or 2 said a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir, when it is characterized in that excavation is planted plant hole, the table mound is placed on the top in cave, mellow soil is deposited in the below in cave, the stone that picks is built into a weir in the lower edge in cave, height of weir 20-25cm, about above the cave two jiaos each tiltedly open and be used to draw the ditch that holds rainwater together.
4. according to the said a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir of claim 1, it is characterized in that jute geotextiles (6) is a kind of biodegradable opening mesh fabric that is made into by yellow kenaf raw material such as low and bast fibre spinning offcuts, specification is: weight is not less than 200g/km 2, thread count: every 10cm * 10cm is the 4-6 root.
5. according to the said a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir of claim 1, it is characterized in that the spacing that jute geotextiles (6) upper and lower end is fixed on the U-shaped holdfast in the soil matrix is not more than 2m, the lap of splice of adjacent jute geotextiles is not less than 15cm, and stack place is to wear in a zigzag with the harmless material of degradable ties up.
6. according to the said a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir of claim 1, it is characterized in that transplanting the plantation groove width 20-25cm of vetiver (3), line-spacing 40-60cm is 20-30cm deeply.
7. according to the said a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir of claim 1, the kind plant hole that it is characterized in that transplanting vetiver (3) is " V " shape, and the cave is apart from 30-40cm, cave line-spacing 80-100cm, the dark 20-30cm in cave.
8. according to the said a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir of claim 1, it is characterized in that plantation vetiver (3) preceding, vetiver overground part sub-cut to 25-35cm, root system cut to 5-15cm, during plantation plant is leaned in a side, plant and ground keep 60 °-45 ° angle, from the compacting of opposite side earthing.
9. according to the said a kind of restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir of claim 1, it is characterized in that vetiver (3) is planted the 3-4 strain for every clump by the clump plantation in planting groove kind plant hole.
CN2010101027304A 2010-01-29 2010-01-29 Restoration method for damaged ecosystem in steep-slope area in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir CN101790931B (en)

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