CN104335879A - Manual restoration method of vegetation in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir - Google Patents

Manual restoration method of vegetation in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104335879A
CN104335879A CN201410456059.1A CN201410456059A CN104335879A CN 104335879 A CN104335879 A CN 104335879A CN 201410456059 A CN201410456059 A CN 201410456059A CN 104335879 A CN104335879 A CN 104335879A
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China
Prior art keywords
water
vegetation
reservoir
level
zone
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CN201410456059.1A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈海生
金连根
庞崇安
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ZHEJIANG VOCATIONAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Zhejiang Tongji Vocational College of Science and Technology
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ZHEJIANG VOCATIONAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
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Priority to CN201410456059.1A priority Critical patent/CN104335879A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G23/00Forestry
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B1/00Equipment or apparatus for, or methods of, general hydraulic engineering, e.g. protection of constructions against ice-strains
    • E02B1/003Mechanically induced gas or liquid streams in seas, lakes or water-courses for forming weirs or breakwaters; making or keeping water surfaces free from ice, aerating or circulating water, e.g. screens of air-bubbles against sludge formation or salt water entry, pump-assisted water circulation

Abstract

The invention discloses a manual restoration method of vegetation in a water-level-fluctuating zone of a reservoir. The method comprises the following steps: firstly, leveling, cleaning and tamping the upstream batter surface of the water-level-fluctuating zone when the water level is lowest, secondly, planting riparian homonoia roots or Chinese ash at the top of the outer slope surface of the water-level-fluctuating zone, so as to form a protective forest belt, and thirdly, paving plate-cultured festuca arundinacea on the upstream batter surface of the water-level-fluctuating zone, and in a zone with the fluctuating depth smaller lower than 2 m, and planting miscanthus floridulus in a zone with the fluctuating depth greater lower than 2 m, so as to form a hedgerow belt. The method has the advantages that the construction is convenient, the investment is small, the application range is wide, the vegetation is not easily damaged by flood, a good effect is realized, and the method can be applied to water-level-fluctuating zones of reservoirs in mountains to realize effective water and soil conservation and pollution control.

Description

The artificial restorative procedure of a kind of reservoir drawdown band vegetation
Technical field
The present invention relates to reservoir ecological environmental protection technical field, particularly relate to the artificial restorative procedure of a kind of reservoir drawdown band vegetation.
Background technology
The quality of falling zone vegetation is that can reservoir the healthy important sign run, and plays an important role in reservoir ecosystem.But, due to reasons such as Reservoir Operation operation and natural conditions, cause reservoir level frequent and fluctuate widely and flooding time long, vegetation easily wrecks at reservoir edge, the particularly anxious and region of soil depletion of, current steep in some gradients, therefore its vegetation may flood disappearance, then mean that Reservoir region loses one ecological protective screen, falling zone there will be the multiple ecological environment problems such as pollution grows worse, water and soil loss aggravation, geological disaster be frequent, thus threatens the safety of Reservoir Water Quality and the benign cycle of ecology in reservoir area system.
Carrying out plant ecological reparation to falling zone damaged ecosystem is that domestic and international expert thinks one of very effective governance way, the technology of reservoir drawdown band being carried out to vegetative protection is then a great problem, main difficulty is: 1. the soil of falling zone scope is subject to water body and washes away loss, and the basic condition of plant growth is constantly destroyed; 2. the ecotope of falling zone is severe, and plant will stand washing away of the harmful effects such as deep water, low temperature, fertilizer deficiency and flood for a long time; 3. the operation characteristic of reservoir engineering makes the vegetation of stable type falling zone not rebuild on new falling zone simply.
Start to carry out ecological recovery to the falling zone of some relatively large hydroelectric projects, to improve bio-diversity and the environmental aspect of reservoir area at present.Chinese patent application 200910099098.X discloses a kind of wetland administering method for improving river channel below dams ecotope, comprise: excavation region is excavated, reclamation district is filled, split excavation and filling building body end face and upstream face protects, disappear ecological region planting submerged plant and floating leaf submerged plant between degree of depth 3-5m, ecological region planting emergent aquactic plant and humidogene shrub within the degree of depth 3m that disappears.Chinese patent application 200810032895.1 discloses a kind of method that Bermuda grass repairs reservoir drawdown band and riverbank damaged ecosystem, specifically comprise: screening Bermuda grass is as rehabilitation plant, carry out after adopting vegetative propagation or sexual propagation planting or being transplanted to repairing district, then maintenance is carried out, guarantee that the coming year grows, thus rebuild and recover falling zone, storehouse and Riparian Zone ecology.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides the artificial restorative procedure of a kind of reservoir drawdown band vegetation, can effectively control falling zone water and soil loss and secondary pollution of water.
The artificial restorative procedure of a kind of reservoir drawdown band vegetation, comprising:
(1) when water level is minimum, to falling zone meet water domatic place under repair smooth, cleaning, compacting;
(2) outer slope top, falling zone plantation adina or Chinese ash, shelter belt is formed;
(3) meet water in falling zone the domatic region laying dish training Festuca Arundinacea of the degree of depth lower than 2m that disappear, and the degree of depth that disappears is greater than the ecological region planting Caulis Miscanthis floriduli of 2m, forms plant hedge band.
Shelter forest has and conserves water and soil, water conservation, improves the effects such as water quality, during plantation shelter forest, should first at outer slope top, falling zone with fish scale land preparation mode excavation kind of a plant hole, then adina or Chinese ash to be planted in kind of plant hole.The described kind of wide 50-80cm of plant hole, long 70-100cm, dark 40-60cm, spacing 200-300cm.
Described Caulis Miscanthis floriduli is planted by clump, every clump of 3-4 strain.Caulis Miscanthis floriduli clump is arranged in several rows, and clump is apart from 20-30cm, and the Caulis Miscanthis floriduli clump between adjacent lines is staggeredly arranged.
Before plantation, by the sub-cut of Caulis Miscanthis floriduli overground part to 25-35cm, root system is cut to 5-15cm, and during plantation, plant leans against side, keeps the angle of 45-60 ° with ground, from the compacting of opposite side earthing.
Caulis Miscanthis floriduli is a kind of amphibious plants, has degeneration-resistant (drought, wet, cold, heat, sour, alkali) ability of extremely strong annidation, can resist prolonged drought or accumulated water; Very low to the requirement of soil, photosynthetic capacity is strong, and growth is fast, easily plants, easily survives, manageability, seldom to spread disease insect pest.Its root is netted, and root system depth is flourishing, can more firmly fixing soil, and the tension stress of root system is very powerful.Cauline leaf part also can be survived when long-term waterflooding.Caulis Miscanthis floriduli plant hedge band can reduce rainwash and the soil erosion effectively, the silt in runoff can be blocked and amass before careless hedge, and effectively reduce rainwash.
Described dish accompanies the growth of Festuca elata age to be 60d, cradles, stubble height 60mm through 5 times.
During cultivation, in the dish of cave, first spread three layers of non-woven fabrics, and then sow Festuca Arundinacea grass-seed.Non-woven fabrics can cover neatly and be attached to soil surface, effectively reduces raindrop splash erosion, interception slope flow, controls grogs and moves, thus the conservation of soil and water effectively;
Non-woven fabrics water imbibition is strong, natural fiber structure makes it to change Pore structure in soil to a certain extent, add soil water sorption ability, add its network structure and can also stop rainwater, promote that moisture is to soil permeability, improve the hydraulic conductivity of soil, thus there is adjustment soil temperature, improve the characteristic of the ecological microenvironments such as soil moisture, for plant provides good growing environment, thus promote that plant germination is emerged, planting survives and grow, improve emergence rate, survival rate, and have obvious facilitation to the growth of overground part and underground part.
Non-woven fabric net ocular structure can make plant have enough growing spaces, and can fix plant, and plant is attacked from wind and rain; Each root cotton rope of composition mesh, all as a miniature reservoir, can absorb and collected rainwater, can slow down moisture evaporation when arid.
With the prolongation of service time, non-woven fabrics is degraded gradually, has good ecological benefits for needs using plant as the domatic of long-term bank protection measure.
Laying dish training Festuca Arundinacea can make overland flow water flow velocity slack-off, increases soil water percolating capacity, reduces run-off; Cover earth's surface, increase covered ground degree, reduce sputter, stop and reduce current, raise and soak datum level, reduce domatic flow velocity, prevent rill erosion from producing, efficiency of soil conservation is high.
The inventive method construction is convenient, drops into little, is suitable for wide, not easily by damaged or destroyed by flood, effective, can meet reservoir drawdown band area, mountain region and carry out effective water and soil conservation and Environmental capacity.
Embodiment
Governor pool, Zhejiang reservoir (north latitude 28 ° 30 ' ~ 28 ° 40 ', east longitude 121 ° 00 ' ~ 121 ° 04 ') is positioned at Huangyan District, Taizhou City of Zhejiang Province.Reservoir original name Chang Tan lake, long pool, is established in 1958, is completed, is positioned at Jiangjiang basin, western mountainous areas, Huangyan District Yongning Jiang Shangyou in 1964, is one control flood, to irrigate, to supply water, combine generate electricity, large-scale synthesis river construction that cultivation is integrated.Reservoir height of dam 43 meters, peak level 42 meters, aggregate storage capacity is 6.9 × 109 cubic metres, ordinary water level 36 meters, corresponding storage capacity 4.57 × 109 cubic metres, and irrigated area 70,000 hectares, occupies first of Zhejiang Province.It is the main source of three cities of district one (Huangyan, Jiangjiang, road and bridge, Wenling) Drinking Water for Residents.
Mountainous Region of Zhejiang Province reservoir drawdown band will be flooded by seasonal after retaining, some local water loggings will reach 6 months, the 10m height of water therebetween, when selecting water level to fall after rise, drought-resistant, resistance to soil is thin and weak, and the amphibious plants that after rising of groundwater level, ability is flooded for a long time offsets band and carries out recovering very important.Meanwhile, the mountain reservoir reservoir area fluctuating zone subregion gradient is steep, current urgency, soil depletion, land occupation condition are poor, directly plants, and required moisture and nutriment in a fertilizer lack, and slope wash is relatively more serious, and vegetation growth difficulty, not easily survives.
The falling zone vegetation of the present invention to long pool reservoir has carried out artificial reparation, specific as follows:
When selecting mountain region reservoir filling water level minimum, to falling zone meet water domatic place under repair smooth, cleaning stone, weeds, rubbish, and carry out suitable hand compaction.
At outer slope top, falling zone, adopt fish scale pit land preparation mode excavation kind of plant hole.The kind plant hole at outer slope top, falling zone, the wide 50-80cm in cave, the long 70-100cm in cave, the dark 40-60cm in cave, cave are apart from 200-300cm.When excavation plants plant hole, table mound is placed on the top in cave, and mellow soil is deposited in the below in cave, and the stone picked builds into a weir on the lower edge in cave, height of weir 20-25cm, and above cave, two jiaos, left and right is each tiltedly opens the ditch drawing together and store rainwater.Plant plantation adina or Chinese ash in plant hole, want classification to plant when planting, nest root, does not hang sky, and root system is unfolded, and righting nursery stock, treads and be tightened.
The domatic laying dish that meets water along falling zone training Festuca Arundinacea, is laid in the region of below the degree of depth 2m that disappears by dish training Festuca Arundinacea.Seedling-cultivating tray is of a size of: bottom surface 400mm × 400mm, 430mm × 430mm suitable for reading, high 60mm, thick about 0.7mm, and containing 576 6mm × 6mm square holes, hole area is 13% of the gross area;
Select perennial tall fescue seed, plant in seedling-cultivating tray, often coiling the amount of broadcasting is 5g seed, i.e. 31.3gm -2.On seedling-cultivating tray, bed course is 3 layers of non-woven fabrics (10gm -2), grass-seed seepage, water suction moisturizing, fixing root system can be prevented when nursery.The growth of Festuca elata age is 60d, cradles through 5 times, stubble height 60mm.The root system of grass, by after the bed course of seedling-cultivating tray and bottom surface square hole, forms certain thickness intensive root net trying to get to the heart of a matter, ensures its recovery of taking root on abrupt slope, falling zone; large area recovers vegetation; realize restoration of the ecosystem, effectively the conservation of soil and water, good protective effect is played to Reservoir Water Quality.
Caulis Miscanthis floriduli is transplanted in the kind plant hole in region between degree of depth 2-10m that disappears.By clump plantation in planting groove or kind plant hole, every clump of plantation 3-4 strain.Before plantation, by the sub-cut of Caulis Miscanthis floriduli overground part to 25-35cm, root system is cut to 5-15cm, during plantation, plant is leant against side, and plant and ground keep the angle of 60 °-45 °, from the compacting of opposite side earthing.Clump in planting groove is apart from 20-30cm.Form Caulis Miscanthis floriduli plant hedge band.
Normal root water is watered in time after planting.
Observe discovery for many years after reparation, vegetation growth is good, and water and soil loss and environmental pollution are effectively controlled.

Claims (7)

1. the artificial restorative procedure of reservoir drawdown band vegetation, comprising:
(1) when water level is minimum, to falling zone meet water domatic place under repair smooth, cleaning, compacting;
(2) outer slope top, falling zone plantation adina or Chinese ash, shelter belt is formed;
(3) meet water in falling zone the domatic region laying dish training Festuca Arundinacea of the degree of depth lower than 2m that disappear, and the degree of depth that disappears is greater than the ecological region planting Caulis Miscanthis floriduli of 2m, forms plant hedge band.
2. the artificial restorative procedure of reservoir drawdown band vegetation as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, described Caulis Miscanthis floriduli is planted by clump, every clump of 3-4 strain.
3. the artificial restorative procedure of reservoir drawdown band vegetation as claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that, Caulis Miscanthis floriduli clump is arranged in several rows, and clump is apart from 20-30cm, and the Caulis Miscanthis floriduli clump between adjacent lines is staggeredly arranged.
4. the artificial restorative procedure of reservoir drawdown band vegetation as claimed in claim 4, it is characterized in that, described Caulis Miscanthis floriduli and ground keep 45-60 ° of angle.
5. the artificial restorative procedure of reservoir drawdown band vegetation as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described dish accompanies the growth of Festuca elata age to be 60d, cradles, stubble height 60mm through 5 times.
6. the artificial restorative procedure of reservoir drawdown band vegetation as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, first plants plant hole at outer slope top, falling zone with fish scale land preparation mode excavation, then adina or Chinese ash is planted in kind of plant hole.
7. the artificial restorative procedure of reservoir drawdown band vegetation as claimed in claim 6, is characterized in that, the described kind of wide 50-80cm of plant hole, long 70-100cm, dark 40-60cm, spacing 200-300cm.
CN201410456059.1A 2014-09-09 2014-09-09 Manual restoration method of vegetation in water-level-fluctuating zone of reservoir Pending CN104335879A (en)

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104963310A (en) * 2015-07-10 2015-10-07 常州市荣顺电子有限公司 Method for repairing hydro-fluctuation belt by means of vegetation
CN105040635A (en) * 2015-07-10 2015-11-11 常州市荣顺电子有限公司 Manual restoration method of hydro-fluctuation belt
CN105103828A (en) * 2015-06-16 2015-12-02 贵州师范大学 Method for restoring hydro fluctuation belt of reservoir using phalaris arundinacea
CN105145154A (en) * 2015-07-21 2015-12-16 淳安县新安江开发总公司 Environmental-friendly bamboo powder base fertilizer thin bamboo strip woven container suitable for plants in hydro-fluctuation belt
CN105165520A (en) * 2015-08-12 2015-12-23 广东红日节能环保科技有限公司 Plantation method using water dampness-resistant tree seed to restore reservoir hydro fluctuation belt
CN105284380A (en) * 2015-11-11 2016-02-03 浙江人文园林有限公司 Construction method for configuring gradient of aquatic plants of water-level-fluctuating zone
CN105519332A (en) * 2015-12-10 2016-04-27 北京林业大学 Method for rapid greening of exposed beach land of land-and-water ecotone
CN105613001A (en) * 2015-12-30 2016-06-01 西南大学 Vegetation construction method of cynodon dactylon in deep-depth reservoir water fluctuation zone and river bank water fluctuation zone
CN105794487A (en) * 2016-05-30 2016-07-27 广东红日节能环保科技有限公司 Method for vegetation restoration of reservoir hard soil slope water-level-fluctuating zone
CN107347426A (en) * 2017-08-25 2017-11-17 重庆市风景园林科学研究院 A kind of falling zone barricade area vegetation implantation methods
CN108217960A (en) * 2018-01-25 2018-06-29 江苏省农业科学院 A kind of waste water ecological control method and its application
CN109964718A (en) * 2019-04-18 2019-07-05 重庆大学 A kind of barren region planting structure of falling zone soil property and method

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105103828A (en) * 2015-06-16 2015-12-02 贵州师范大学 Method for restoring hydro fluctuation belt of reservoir using phalaris arundinacea
CN104963310A (en) * 2015-07-10 2015-10-07 常州市荣顺电子有限公司 Method for repairing hydro-fluctuation belt by means of vegetation
CN105040635A (en) * 2015-07-10 2015-11-11 常州市荣顺电子有限公司 Manual restoration method of hydro-fluctuation belt
CN105145154A (en) * 2015-07-21 2015-12-16 淳安县新安江开发总公司 Environmental-friendly bamboo powder base fertilizer thin bamboo strip woven container suitable for plants in hydro-fluctuation belt
CN105145154B (en) * 2015-07-21 2018-01-19 淳安县新安江开发总公司 A kind of environment-friendly type bamboo scraps base fertilizer thin bamboo strip planted trees suitable for falling zone compiles container
CN105165520A (en) * 2015-08-12 2015-12-23 广东红日节能环保科技有限公司 Plantation method using water dampness-resistant tree seed to restore reservoir hydro fluctuation belt
CN105284380A (en) * 2015-11-11 2016-02-03 浙江人文园林有限公司 Construction method for configuring gradient of aquatic plants of water-level-fluctuating zone
CN105519332A (en) * 2015-12-10 2016-04-27 北京林业大学 Method for rapid greening of exposed beach land of land-and-water ecotone
CN105613001A (en) * 2015-12-30 2016-06-01 西南大学 Vegetation construction method of cynodon dactylon in deep-depth reservoir water fluctuation zone and river bank water fluctuation zone
CN105794487A (en) * 2016-05-30 2016-07-27 广东红日节能环保科技有限公司 Method for vegetation restoration of reservoir hard soil slope water-level-fluctuating zone
CN107347426A (en) * 2017-08-25 2017-11-17 重庆市风景园林科学研究院 A kind of falling zone barricade area vegetation implantation methods
CN108217960A (en) * 2018-01-25 2018-06-29 江苏省农业科学院 A kind of waste water ecological control method and its application
CN109964718A (en) * 2019-04-18 2019-07-05 重庆大学 A kind of barren region planting structure of falling zone soil property and method

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Application publication date: 20150211