CN105756015B - Method for restoring biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system - Google Patents

Method for restoring biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system Download PDF

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CN105756015B
CN105756015B CN201410798099.4A CN201410798099A CN105756015B CN 105756015 B CN105756015 B CN 105756015B CN 201410798099 A CN201410798099 A CN 201410798099A CN 105756015 B CN105756015 B CN 105756015B
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soil
stiffening
layer
biological
cage
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CN105756015A (en
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任立
任梓维
袁兴中
袁�嘉
喻子源
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Jinxin (Hainan) Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Chongqing Renjia Biotechnology Co ltd
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of ecological management, and particularly relates to a method for restoring a biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system. The method comprises the steps of constructing a soil layer and a stiffening cage layer, and comprises the steps of soil preparation, stiffening rib pre-embedding, plant planting, stiffening cage installation, biological habitat building, biological habitat towers, biological shooting frames, plant grafting and the like. The invention can repair places which need ecological repair and are difficult to repair, is not only beneficial to the stability of soil layers and stiffening cages above the soil layers, but also beneficial to the inhabitation of suitable aquatic and terrestrial animals and microorganisms and the growth and natural evolution of suitable plants, can finally form a dynamic composite type functional zone of the land art ecological landscape system, and is suitable for being applied to the construction of ecological composite systematized repair engineering on the two sides of a hydro-fluctuation belt, a wetland, a wasteland, a beach, a desert, a Gobi or a traffic road.

Description

Method for restoring biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of ecological management, and particularly relates to a method for restoring a biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system.
Background
Recently, a new discharge report of the united nations shows that the agricultural land area lost due to too high salinity in the world every day is about 19.9 square kilometers, and farmland with the size equivalent to that of French has been available so that crops cannot be planted any more. Such saline and alkaline land results in annual food production losses of up to 170 billion pounds in some areas including china, india, south america and the united states. If effective treatment is not carried out, the saline-alkali soil is used for luck, a dire land described in interstellar crossing even appears in one day, the soil is seriously degraded due to human activities, the saline-alkali soil is forced to live in a huge drought storm area, and almost no crops can be planted.
The ecological deterioration of saline-alkali soil is only one specific aspect of ecological deterioration. According to the market prospect and investment strategy planning analysis report prospect of the Chinese ecological restoration industry, the ecological environment deterioration is shown as vegetation damage, water and soil loss, desertification and the like. According to the second land erosion remote sensing survey in China, the water and soil loss area in China is 356 million square kilometers, the desertification land is 174 million square kilometers, the total amount of soil lost per year reaches 50 hundred million tons, in 113108 mines in China, the area of a goaf is about 134.9 million hectares, the area of land occupied or damaged by mining activities is 238.3 million hectares, and vegetation is seriously damaged. In recent years, the adverse effect of the deterioration of the ecological environment on human beings is more and more obvious, and the increase of the investment of ecological environment construction to protect the more and more fragile ecological environment is inevitable.
In order to cope with climate change and improve ecological environment, the national forest coverage rate is increased from 20 percent to 23 percent in 2020, and the forest coverage rate reaches and stabilizes to more than 26 percent in 2050. At present, relevant departments begin to put emphasis on homeland improvement work in aspects such as mine ecological restoration, desertification control and the like, wherein the ecological restoration becomes a new ecological environment construction field.
The ecological restoration means stopping artificial interference on an ecological system to reduce load pressure, and evolving in an orderly direction depending on self-regulation capacity and self-organization capacity of the ecological system, or gradually restoring a damaged ecological system or developing the ecological system in a virtuous circle direction by using the self-restoration capacity of the ecological system and assisting artificial measures; mainly aims at the work of restoring and rebuilding a natural ecosystem destroyed under the influence of natural mutation and human activities, restores the original appearance of the ecosystem, such as planting felled forests, returning the forests to cultivation and returning animals to the original living environment. The regional environment comprises a falling zone, a wetland, a wasteland, a sand beach, a desert, a Gobi or two sides of a traffic road and the like.
Regarding ecological care suitable for both sides of a traffic road, for example, chinese patent document CN103866776 discloses an ecological slope protection method for a construction waste gabion wall, which fills construction waste in gabions made of metal wires for ecological protection of side slopes or river banks to form a gabion slope protection wall; the method comprises the steps of spraying cement, clay, river sand, organic matters, improved vegetation concrete greening additives and plant seeds onto a gabion slope protection wall by adopting a dry spraying process to rapidly green the gabion slope protection wall. Although the invention realizes the recycling of the construction waste, the cement spraying mode is adopted to destroy the ecology again, the nutrients on the surface of the gabion wall are limited, the growth power and the maintenance time of plants are also limited, and the gabion wall is gradually collapsed and damaged after long-term natural weathering corrosion due to the lack of an effective fixing means.
Regarding ecological care suitable for a hydro-fluctuation belt, for example, chinese patent document CN103898870 discloses a construction method of a gabion ecological gabion river course revetment, which is characterized in that after the construction of the gabion revetment, gaps between surface layer stones are backfilled with soil, watering is carried out to fill the gaps of the stones with the soil, a layer of soil for tillage is covered on the stone revetment, aquatic plants are planted under the water surface, and lawns are planted on the river bank. Although the method achieves the purposes of slope protection and ecological greening, the planted plants only depend on the soil with thin surface layer of the gabion for growth, and the growth greening capacity is limited; the long-term flowing water scouring can also take away soil and nutrients on the surface layer part of the gabion, further damage the growth of plants and weaken the greening function more and more; and the gabion layer under the plants can also gradually collapse and damage along with natural weathering corrosion and damage of surface plants due to lack of stabilizing measures.
For another example, chinese patent document CN102561264 discloses an ecological slope protection and a construction method thereof, wherein the ecological slope protection is a set of partitioned areas arranged on a hard slope protection, and each partitioned area is sequentially provided with a matrix soil layer, a gravel layer and a vegetation layer from bottom to top; the construction method comprises the following steps: preparing matrix soil, building a partition area on the hard slope protection, filling the partition area with the matrix soil prepared in the previous step, planting a vegetable layer on a matrix soil layer, and paving a rubble layer on the vegetable layer. In the method, the partition area is composed of a cement partition wall, and the cement partition wall is a damage to the environment. Moreover, after the plant is built, although the plant can grow in a substrate soil layer, the fixing force of the gravels paved on the plant is poor, and for areas with large water erosion, the gravels and the soil layer are easily taken away by running water, so that the function of preventing water and soil loss is weak.
Besides the disadvantages of unstable revetment/gabion, limited plant growth capacity, damage to the original environment and the like in the above documents, the existing ecological restoration method also has the following disadvantages: 1) the universality is poor, and no ecological restoration method which can simultaneously consider various environments such as three gorges reservoir area hydro-fluctuation belts, wetlands, wastelands, sand beaches, deserts, gobi, two sides of traffic roads and the like exists; 2) only the problems of preventing soil erosion and greening are considered, the harmonious coexistence of animals and plants is ignored, and the biodiversity dynamic ecological restoration is not considered and can be systematically completed on the same engineering construction project.
Based on the defects of the prior art, the inventor explores a method for restoring a biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the present invention provides a method for restoring a biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system, which can form a stable slope protection or surface protection, provide sufficient nutrients for the growth of plants, construct a long-term ecological composite system, and have strong adaptability.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
a method for restoring a biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system comprises the construction of a soil layer and a stiffening cage layer, and comprises the following steps:
A. soil preparation and stiffening rib pre-embedding: in a construction site needing to be repaired, original soil is prepared, the original soil layer after the soil preparation is a soil layer, and stiffening ribs are embedded in the soil layer; without original soil, punching or slotting on a natural hard stone or an existing hard layer and pre-burying stiffening ribs, and backfilling soil suitable for plants to grow in the soil layer; one end of the stiffening rib is fixed in the soil layer, and the other end of the stiffening rib extends out of the soil layer;
B. planting plants and installing stiffening cages: planting plants on the soil layer, and mounting stiffening cages on the soil layer; the stiffening cage is a net-shaped cage filled with blocks and is fixed by the stiffening ribs; the plants extend out of the stiffening cage gaps.
The construction of the soil layer and the stiffening cage layer can be constructed into a restoration surface with gradient (suitable for restoring a hydro-fluctuation zone of a river, a lake or a reservoir or other wetlands or coastal beaches, two sides of a traffic road and the like) or without gradient (suitable for restoring deserts, gobi, high and cold areas or desert areas, two sides of a traffic road and the like) according to the specific restored geographic environment. The slope protection or the protective surface built by the method fully utilizes the original resources of the restoration site, and the damage to the original ecological system of the construction site is very small; the soil is not polluted, and sufficient nutrients are provided for the growth of plants; the stiffening cage layer is firmly fixed, and multiple effects of avoiding water loss and soil erosion, promoting biological diversity restoration and serious soil degradation restoration are achieved. More importantly, in the process that the plant grows up gradually, through grafting, winding or binding between plant branches and development of a plant root system, the stiffening net of the stiffening cage can be gradually replaced to achieve the effect of the block in the fixing cage, so that the damage of natural weathering corrosion to the stiffening cage is effectively avoided, and the effect of protecting ecology for a long time is achieved. The development for a long time is beneficial to forming a comprehensive animal and plant harmonious coexistence ecosystem.
Specifically, the soil of the soil layer may be black soil, loess and other cultivated soils, or may be barren soil and sandy soil of saline-alkali soil, desert (saline-alkali soil containing coastal saline-alkali soil, frozen soil of alpine region, sandy soil of desert and desert edge region, silt and tidal mud of river beach, calcareous soil of stony desertification region, etc.), as long as the soil is suitable for the growth of the planted plants due to time, land, climate and vegetation. The thickness of the soil layer is the lowest thickness or thicker which is suitable for the growth of the planted plants.
The stiffening rib can be formed by metal materials, and can be a metal wire or a metal strip which is not easy to rust, corrode or break and is not easy to break for a long time, or a wire, a strip or a sheet formed by other materials. When the stiffening rib is embedded in the soil layer, one end of the stiffening rib embedded in the soil can be connected or bound on a control object which can control the stiffening rib not to be pulled out when the stiffening rib is influenced by external force, so that the stiffening rib is ensured to be fixed in position. The control may be a strip or block of metal or other material, such as a stiffening anchor made from a partially formed bamboo strip. The stiffening ribs extend out of one end of the soil layer and form an included angle of 0-180 degrees with the plane of the soil layer, and the included angle is preferably 90 degrees, so that the stiffening ribs can be fixed with the stiffening cage in the following process. The stiffening rib and the stiffening cage are fixed in a mode that the stiffening rib and the stiffening cage are bound (or welded) and/or penetrate through the stiffening cage, and the stiffening cage can be further fixed through the stiffening rib or the connection of the stiffening rib.
The stiffening cage body can be woven by metal wires, ropes with metal wires contained in plastic on the surface, ropes made of thermoplastic resin, stems or bamboo splints of lianas and the like; the cross section of the stiffening cage is circular, oval, trapezoidal, square and the like; the block filled in the stiffening cage can be specifically stone, gravel cement, cobblestone, construction waste, sand, mud and the like, can be singly filled in the block, can also be mixed and filled in the block, the sand and the mud, and can be selectively utilized according to resources of a restoration site.
The length of the stiffening rib and the thickness of the stiffening cage layer can be specifically set according to the environment of the restoration ground. Specifically, the length of the stiffening rib is 140cm, the thickness of the stiffening cage layer is 30cm, during construction, the stiffening rib with the length of 100cm is buried in a soil layer, the stiffening rib with the length of 30cm penetrates through the stiffening cage layer, and the stiffening rib with the length of 10cm is bent back to be bound with the stiffening cage. The setting density of the stiffening ribs is preferably 4/m2
The planting plants can be planted with suitable plants from any position of the soil layer, and a proper gap is left for the installation of the subsequent stiffening cage. Specifically, the plants to be planted are amphibious plants such as arbor, shrub, grass and the like which are suitable for growing in a restored area and can symbiotically and harmoniously grow with other plants in the microenvironment, such as birch, sequoia, weeping willow, alder jiannanensis, sapium sebiferum, mulberry, salix cacumen, Chinese mosla, kenaf, siberian iris, evergreen windmill grass, bermuda kokiana, bluegrass, sedge, vetiver, mangrove, Chinese olive, oleander, kandelia, sea mulberry, tung tree, water violet, virginia oak, hibiscus syriacus, majoram, shrubalthea, red willow, fusiform, oleaster, salix fortunei, weeping willow, rose blotch, rhinoceros horn, green bell, cactus and the like. Preferably, the height of the plant after growing is larger than or equal to that of the installed gabion, so as to ensure that the plant branches and the plant branches above, below, left and right are grafted into a net-shaped plant cage by a conventional grafting method (preferably grafting by a congeneric plant) on the surface layer of the cage in the next year, namely, the permanently fixed cage and the landscape type ecological green wall are formed.
Further, the method also comprises the construction of a biological habitat; the biological inhabitation pond is a pond with an opening at the top, and is embedded in the stiffening cage layer or embedded in the soil layer and the stiffening cage layer. The biological inhabitation pond can be built by near stone, waste building slag, waste slag, soil or sandy soil, and is a pond or a shallow pond with the top lower than the stiffening cage layer. The biological habitat can provide free habitat or space for the land and water living organisms in the environment, so that the restoration, formation and development of a comprehensive ecological system are facilitated.
Further, the bottom and the four walls of the biological habitat are formed by stiffening cages, blocks and soil are filled in the stiffening cages in a mixed mode, and a layer of soil is paved at the bottom of the biological habitat. The mud of cubic and earth presss from both sides stone structure and the earth of laying of bottom can provide the nutrition for the land and water plant and store, do benefit to retaining and dynamic ecosystem's formation. Besides soil, sand soil, fine stones and the like can be paved at the bottom, and any mixture of the soil, the sand and the stones can be paved at the bottom.
Furthermore, a waterproof soil erosion layer is arranged between the soil layer and the stiffening cage layer; and/or the inner wall of the biological habitat is provided with a water and soil loss prevention layer. The waterproof soil erosion layer is paved by permeable, breathable and perishable materials, and can be specifically made of geotextile, chemical fabric, nylon fabric and cloth materials synthesized by other materials. The laying mode is that after the plants are planted, the plants can be laid on the soil layer in a single layer or multiple layers. It helps in soil and water conservation and ensures the free growth and movement of the soil's habitat and the habitat on the surface of the earth under the cover of the soil loss prevention layer.
Further, the method also comprises the construction of a biological habitat; the biological inhabitation tower is a tower-shaped structure built on a stiffening cage layer. The biological inhabitation tower can be built by using local materials, each layer of tower uses different materials alternately, the growth or inhabitation of various organisms is facilitated, if a five-layer tower is built, the materials adopted from bottom to top are as follows: soil-sandwiched stone, soil-sandwiched slag, soil-sandwiched sawdust, waste brick and soil, waste wood strip and soil. Further, a water supply pipe is arranged in the biological inhabitation tower, and water can be supplied to the inhabitation tower in the arid period so as to maintain the growth of plants and the life of animals on the inhabitation tower.
Further, the method also comprises the construction of a biological observation system; the biological observation system is a wired or wireless automatic photographing or camera system built on the stiffening cage layer. Specifically, the biological shooting rack can be a wired or wireless biological shooting rack capable of automatically shooting or shooting, is built by materials with good stability and resistance to storm wind, cold and high temperature like a fixed electric wire pile, and is provided with an automatic shooting device to record the change and activity states of various animals, plants and natural environments in the environment, so that real, scientific and accurate first-hand data are provided for scientific research and scientific investigation.
Further, in the step A, a leakage water pipe is also pre-buried in the soil layer. The water leakage pipe is mainly arranged in a soil layer with abundant or suddenly enriched underground water to ensure normal leakage of the underground water, is beneficial to maintaining the soil layer, and can specifically adopt hollow bamboo or other artificial hollow pipelines.
Further, in the step A, after the soil layer is arranged, a stiffening net is laid on the soil layer; the stiffening net and the stiffening ribs are woven to form a stiffening cage. Therefore, the stiffening ribs can sequentially penetrate through the stiffening net or the surface of the stiffening cage from the soil layer to the outside, so that the stiffening cage is stably fixed.
Further, in the step B, a micro water accumulator is embedded near the root of the planted plant. The miniature water accumulator is a water storage container made of a perishable paper cup or other synthetic material cup or a non-perishable waste plastic cup, a waste glass cup and the like, which can store a certain amount of water for the planted plants in advance or afterwards. Which is a reservoir when no water source is available for a long period of time.
The method for restoring the biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system is applicable to the restored field, whether soil exists or not, whether slope exists or not, and whether the original layer of the restored field is mud, sand, hard stone or cement. Therefore, the method is suitable for ecological restoration of the two sides of a falling zone, a wetland, a wasteland, a sand beach, a desert, a Gobi or a traffic road.
The beneficial technical effects of the invention are as follows:
the invention relates to a method for restoring a biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system, which can restore places which need ecological restoration and are difficult to restore no matter whether slope exists or not or soil exists in a construction site which needs restoration. The reasonable arrangement of the soil layer, the stiffening cage layer and the stiffening ribs and the arrangement of the biological inhabiting pool, the biological inhabiting tower and the biological observation system (shooting frame) are beneficial to the stability of the stiffening cage above the soil layer and the soil layer, and are also beneficial to the inhabitation of aquatic animals and microorganisms as well as the growth and natural evolution of plants. Therefore, through the method, a dynamic combined type function zone of the earth art ecological landscape system can be finally formed, wherein a vegetation restoration system with three-dimensional symbiosis of trees and shrubs, a multi-pond with harmonious symbiosis of animals and plants, a multi-tower base with harmonious symbiosis of animals and plants, natural dynamic change of leaves and stems of plants along with four seasons and the like exist, a solid foundation is laid for sustainable ecological restoration of the small environment, and a new intelligent marker post is established for similar ecological restoration at home and abroad and research and development and application of human and natural harmonious engineering technology.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a main structure of a first ecological composite system according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a second ecological composite system main body structure according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a main structure of a third ecological composite system according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of a stiffener and a stiffening anchor connected thereto;
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural view of a stiffening cage of three different specifications and shapes;
FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a reinforcing rib and a reinforcing cage during construction;
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a structure of a biological habitat;
FIG. 8 is a schematic view of a structure of a bio-habitat tower.
Detailed Description
The invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which fig. 1-3 show three different ecological composite systems with different main structures built by the invention: the first and the second are structures with gradient, the third is a structure with 0 degree, namely horizontal, wherein, a biological inhabiting pool, a biological inhabiting tower and a biological observation system are arranged. FIG. 4 is a schematic view of one embodiment of a stiffener and its attached stiffening anchor. Fig. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of a stiffening cage with three different specifications and shapes, which can be used singly or in any combination for the construction of the three ecological composite systems. FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a reinforcing rib fixed on the soil layer and a reinforcing cage layer during construction. FIG. 7 is a schematic structural diagram of a specific composition of a biological habitat. FIG. 8 is a schematic structural diagram of a specific composition of a bio-habitat tower.
Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail, and steps not described in detail in the preferred embodiments are performed according to a conventional method.
Example 1 biological diversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system remediation in hydro-fluctuation belt of Yangtze river three gorges reservoir area
The ecological restoration structure shown in figure 1 is built, and the restoration process is as follows:
1) in a construction site needing to be repaired, original soil is firstly arranged to a soil layer with required thickness and gradient, and then stiffening ribs and water leakage pipes are embedded in the soil layer; without original soil, punching or slotting on natural hard stone or existing hard layer and pre-burying stiffening ribs, and backfilling soil suitable for plant growth in the soil layer. The total length of the stiffening ribs is 140cm, the length of the stiffening ribs extending into the soil layer is 100cm, and the extending ends are fixed through stiffening anchors. The stiffening anchor is a structure which has the length of 30cm and is connected with the stiffening rib by 90 degrees, and the stiffening anchor is embedded into the soil layer and is tamped and fixed. The length of the stiffening ribs extending out of the soil layer is 40cm, and the stiffening ribs are embedded in the horizontal direction from inside to outside, namely the 0-degree direction, and penetrate through the geotextile and the stiffening cage layer.
2) Planting plants on a soil layer, planting trees and small trees with the row spacing of 300cm multiplied by 300cm, planting shrubs with the row spacing of 100cm multiplied by 100cm, planting annual or perennial grass seedlings with the row spacing of 30cm multiplied by 30cm, and sowing other herbaceous plants.
3) After the plants are planted, the geotextile is laid on the soil layer, and the stiffening net is laid on the geotextile in a tiled mode, so that the stiffening ribs penetrate through the geotextile and the stiffening net. The stiffening nets are connected together and filled with cobblestones to form stiffening cages, stiffening ribs penetrate into or penetrate out of the stiffening cages to be fixed with the top layers of the stiffening cages, and the stiffening cages are fixed by drawing wires. The planted plants extend out of the gap of the stiffening cage.
4) Arranging a biological inhabiting pool at intervals of 10m, wherein the depth of the biological inhabiting pool is about 80cm, the bottom and the four walls of the biological inhabiting pool are formed by stiffening cages, cobbles and soil are mixed and filled in the stiffening cages, and the thickness of the stiffening cages is about 30 cm; a layer of geotextile is laid on the inner wall of the biological inhabitation pond, and a layer of soil with the thickness of 20cm is laid on the bottom of the biological inhabitation pond. Every interval 30m sets up a biological perching tower, the tower is five layers of structures, and the material that from the bottom up adopted in proper order is: soil-sandwiched stone, soil-sandwiched slag, soil-sandwiched sawdust, waste brick and soil, waste wood strip and soil, and a water supply pipe is also arranged in the biological habitat. One biological shooting frame is arranged at intervals of 300 m.
5) And (3) carrying out maintenance operations such as fertilization, watering and the like on the planted plants, grafting the plant branches and the upper, lower, left and right plant branches into a net-shaped permeable plant cage body after the plant branches grow to a certain degree. The biological shooting frame records the biological sign conditions of animals and plants, water level fluctuation of a water-level fluctuation zone, water and soil loss and the like.
Example 2 biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system remediation along coast beach
The ecological restoration structure shown in fig. 2 is built, and the restoration process is as follows:
(1) in a construction site needing to be repaired, the original sandy soil is firstly arranged to a sandy soil layer (namely the soil layer of the invention) with required thickness and gradient, and then stiffening ribs and water leakage pipes are embedded in the sandy soil layer; without original sand, punching or slotting on natural stone or existing hard layer, embedding stiffening ribs, and backfilling sand or sand suitable for plant growth. The total length of the stiffening ribs is 200cm, the length of the stiffening ribs extending into the sand layer is 150cm, and the extending ends are fixed through stiffening anchors. The stiffening anchor is 35cm in length and is 90-degree connected with the stiffening rib, and the stiffening anchor is embedded into the soil layer and is tamped and fixed. The length of the stiffening ribs extending out of the sandy soil layer is 50cm, and the stiffening ribs are embedded in the direction perpendicular to the top layer of the stiffening cage from inside to outside and penetrate through the geotextile and the stiffening cage layer.
(2) Planting plants on the sandy soil layer, planting trees and small trees with the row spacing of 200cm multiplied by 300cm, planting shrubs with the row spacing of 50cm multiplied by 50cm, planting annual or perennial grass seedlings with the row spacing of 20cm multiplied by 30cm, and sowing other herbaceous plants. 1-3 micro water reservoirs are also pre-buried near the roots of the plants.
(3) After the plants are planted, the geotextile is laid on the sand layer, and the stiffening net is laid on the geotextile in a tiled mode, so that the stiffening ribs penetrate through the geotextile and the stiffening net. The stiffening nets are connected together and filled with cobblestones to form stiffening cages, stiffening ribs penetrate into or penetrate out of the stiffening cages to be fixed with the top layers of the stiffening cages, and the stiffening cages are fixed by drawing wires. The planted plants extend out of the gap of the stiffening cage.
(4) Arranging a biological inhabiting pond at intervals of 30m, wherein the depth of the biological inhabiting pond is about 1m, the bottom and the four walls of the biological inhabiting pond are formed by stiffening cages, cobblestones and sandy soil are mixed and filled in the stiffening cages, and the thickness of the stiffening cages is about 40 cm; a layer of geotextile is laid on the inner wall of the biological inhabitation pond, and a layer of sandy soil with the thickness of 20cm is laid at the bottom of the biological inhabitation pond. Every interval 80m sets up a biological perching tower, the tower is three layer construction, and the material that up adopted in proper order down is: cobblestones and waste stone, waste bricks and wood strips, waste wood strips and waste bamboo strips. One biological shooting frame is arranged at intervals of 500 m.
(5) And (3) carrying out maintenance operations such as fertilization, watering and the like on the planted plants, and grafting the plant branches and the upper, lower, left and right plant branches into a net-shaped plant cage body after the plant branches grow to a certain extent. The biological inhabitation tower and the biological inhabitation pond are maintained properly, and the biological observation system (namely the shooting frame) records the biological sign conditions of animals and plants, the tide rise and fall of seawater and the working luck condition of saline-alkali soil.
Example 3 remediation of Biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite System on both sides of a desert land and road
The ecological restoration structure shown in fig. 3 is built, and the restoration process is as follows:
(1) in a construction site needing to be repaired, the original sandy soil is firstly arranged to a sandy soil layer (namely the soil layer of the invention) with the required thickness, the sandy soil layer is made to be a certain horizontal plane, and then stiffening ribs are embedded in the sandy soil layer; without original sand, punching or slotting on natural stone or existing hard layer, embedding stiffening ribs, and backfilling the sand suitable for plant growth to form a soil layer with a certain horizontal plane. The total length of the stiffening ribs is 230cm, the length of the stiffening ribs extending into the sand layer is 170cm, and the extending ends are fixed through stiffening anchors. The stiffening anchor is 35cm in length and is 90-degree connected with the stiffening rib, and the stiffening anchor is embedded into the sandy soil layer and is tamped and fixed. The length of the stiffening ribs extending out of the sandy soil layer is 60cm, and the stiffening ribs are embedded in the direction perpendicular to the top layer of the stiffening cage from inside to outside and penetrate through the geotextile and the stiffening cage layer.
(2) Planting plants on the sandy soil layer, planting trees and small trees with the row spacing of 200cm multiplied by 200cm, planting shrubs with the row spacing of 100cm multiplied by 100cm, planting annual or perennial grass seedlings and sowing other herbaceous plants with the row spacing of 20cm multiplied by 20 cm. 1-5 micro water reservoirs are also pre-buried near the roots of the plants.
(3) After the plants are planted, the geotextile is laid on the sand layer, and the stiffening net is laid on the geotextile in a tiled mode, so that the stiffening ribs penetrate through the geotextile and the stiffening net. Filling stone blocks and connecting the stiffening nets to form stiffening cages, and fixing the stiffening ribs into or out of the stiffening cages and drawing wires between the stiffening cages for fixing. The planted plants extend out of the gap of the stiffening cage.
(4) Arranging a biological inhabiting pool at intervals of 20m, wherein the depth of the biological inhabiting pool is about 81m, the bottom and the four walls of the biological inhabiting pool are formed by stiffening cages, stones and sandy soil are mixed and filled in the stiffening cages, and the thickness of the stiffening cages is about 41 cm; and a layer of geotextile is laid on the inner wall of the biological inhabiting pool, and a sand layer with the thickness of 20cm is laid at the bottom of the biological inhabiting pool. Every interval 50m sets up a biological perching tower, the tower is three layer construction, and the material that up adopted in proper order down is: stones in gobi, stones and waste stones in gobi, waste bricks and waste battens. One biological shooting frame is arranged at intervals of 1000 m.
(5) And (3) carrying out maintenance operations such as fertilization and watering on the plants, grafting the plant branches and the upper, lower, left and right plant branches into a net-shaped plant cage body after the plants grow to a certain extent. The biological inhabiting tower and the biological inhabiting pool are maintained properly, and the biological shooting frame records the biological sign conditions of animals and plants and the erosion condition of desert.
Finally, the above embodiments are only for illustrating the technical solutions of the present invention and not for limiting, although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the preferred embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that modifications or equivalent substitutions may be made to the technical solutions of the present invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the technical solutions of the present invention, and all of them should be covered in the claims of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. A method for restoring a biodiversity dynamic landscape ecological composite system is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the construction of a soil layer, a stiffening cage layer, a biological inhabiting pool, a biological inhabiting tower and a biological observation system, and comprises the following steps:
A. soil preparation and stiffening rib pre-embedding: in a construction site needing to be repaired, original soil is prepared, the original soil layer after the soil preparation is a soil layer, and stiffening ribs are embedded in the soil layer; without original soil, punching or slotting on a natural hard stone or an existing hard layer and pre-burying stiffening ribs, and backfilling soil suitable for plants to grow in the soil layer; one end of the stiffening rib is fixed in the soil layer, and the other end of the stiffening rib extends out of the soil layer and forms an included angle of 90 degrees with the plane of the soil layer;
B. planting plants and installing stiffening cages: planting plants in the soil layer, and paving a stiffening net on the soil layer after the soil layer is arranged; the stiffening net and the stiffening ribs are woven to form a stiffening cage, and the stiffening cage is fixed through the stiffening ribs; the plants extend out of the stiffening cage gaps; a miniature water accumulator is also embedded near the root of the planted plant; a leakage water pipe is also embedded in the soil layer;
the biological inhabitation pond is a pond with an opening at the top and is embedded in the stiffening cage layer or the soil layer and the stiffening cage layer; the biological inhabiting tower is a tower-shaped structure built on the stiffening cage layer; the biological observation system is a wired or wireless automatic photographing or shooting system built on the stiffening cage layer;
the biological inhabitation tower is built into a five-layer tower, and the materials adopted from bottom to top are as follows: soil-sandwiched stone, soil-sandwiched slag, soil-sandwiched sawdust, waste brick and soil, waste wood strip and soil; further, a water supply pipe is arranged in the biological inhabitation tower, and water can be supplied to the inhabitation tower in the arid period so as to maintain the growth of plants and the life of animals on the inhabitation tower.
2. The method of biodiversity dynamic landscape ecosystem restoration according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises: the bottom and the four walls of the biological habitat are formed by stiffening cages, blocks and soil are filled in the stiffening cages in a mixed mode, and one layer of soil is paved at the bottom of the biological habitat.
3. The method of biodiversity dynamic landscape ecosystem restoration according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises: a waterproof soil erosion layer is also arranged between the soil layer and the stiffening cage layer; and/or the inner wall of the biological habitat is provided with a water and soil loss prevention layer.
4. Use of the method of biodiversity dynamic landscape ecosystem restoration according to any one of claims 1 to 3 for the ecological restoration of a hydro-fluctuation zone, wetland, wasteland, beach, desert, Gobi or both sides of a traffic road.
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CN107409720A (en) * 2017-08-25 2017-12-01 重庆市风景园林科学研究院 A kind of falling zone ecological restoring method
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