CN105986566B - Multifunctional ecological management method for cavernous body - Google Patents

Multifunctional ecological management method for cavernous body Download PDF

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CN105986566B
CN105986566B CN201510047357.XA CN201510047357A CN105986566B CN 105986566 B CN105986566 B CN 105986566B CN 201510047357 A CN201510047357 A CN 201510047357A CN 105986566 B CN105986566 B CN 105986566B
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stiffening
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cage
plants
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CN105986566A (en
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任立
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Jinxin (Hainan) Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Chongqing Renjia Biotechnology Co ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a multifunctional ecological management method for a cavernous body. The method comprises the construction of a water-retention storage pipe network and an ecological management layer (containing a plant oxygen production layer formed by plants on the water-retention storage pipe network); the water retention storage pipe network collects and stores water from the ground surface and/or the underground, and also conveys the stored water to plants of the ecological management layer to supply water for the growth and evolution of organisms of the ecological management layer. The method combines the reuse of water resource with ecological management engineering, solves the problems of flooding and drought, promotes the formation, development and maintenance of an ecological management system, and helps to promote the great development and revolution of biological oxygen movement. The ecological restoration method is suitable for being applied to the construction fields of cities, towns, new rural areas, constructed wetlands, industrial and mining enterprises and the like, and particularly can be applied to ecological management of areas such as mines, oil fields, geological disaster prone areas, desert lands, saline-alkali soil, desert lands, estuaries, coasts, mudflats, wetlands, hydro-fluctuation belts, traffic roads and the like, and other areas needing ecological restoration in the production and living environment of people.

Description

Multifunctional ecological management method for cavernous body
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of ecological management, and particularly relates to a multifunctional ecological management method for a cavernous body.
Background
The United nations climate congress passed the Kyoto protocol of the climate change framework convention of the United nations in Japan in 1997, which is the first international convention for the world that the environmental and development congress of the United nations passed in order to comprehensively control the emission of greenhouse gases so as to deal with the adverse effects of global warming on human economy and society. The provision of Bali road map, which was passed through in 13 th contracting party conference held in Bali island, Indonesia, in 2007, determined a specific field in which countries around the world could strengthen the implementation of the United nations climate Change framework convention in the future. The "protocol of Copenhagen protocol" passed in the 15 th meeting held in Copenhagen in Denmark in 2009 is another epoch-making global climate protocol following the "protocol of Kyoto protocol", and has no doubt a decisive influence on the future climate change trend of the earth.
The conclusion from the investigation conducted in 95 countries by 1360 experts of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment agency (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) in the united nations was that over the past 50 years the population increased such that two thirds of the Ecosystem, including air and water sources, from which humans live, were contaminated and over-developed. The board of directors that the organization consists of 45 members issues a report indicating: "human activities have put a great strain on the natural laws of the earth, and the ecosystem of the earth is therefore unlikely to be able to live up to the future population. The report also indicates that 10% to 30% of mammals, birds and amphibians are endangered at the extinct of the margins. The largest-scale research work on the earth ecosystem ever before finds that: "in the past 50 years, in order to obtain food, clean water, wood, fiber and fuel, human beings destroy the ecosystem faster than ever before, and the destruction surface is wider than ever. This entails that the biodiversity suffers from untwisting losses. "report supplement road" that, since 1945 to date, the cultivated land area for human cultivation is more than the land cultivated in 18 th century and 19 th century added up. Report that: "surface degradation will have more and more serious consequences in the next 50 years. The expert in the research report explains that future changes of the ecosystem can cause outbreak of diseases, the African lake region can become a hotbed for spreading cholera due to climate change, nitrogen in the fertilizer is accumulated in farmlands and then is washed into the sea, the growth of algae is flourishing, so that fishes die due to oxygen deficiency, and the coastal region is provided with 'dead zones' without oxygen.
According to the declaration of the world meteorological organization, 1998 to 2007 are the warmest 10 years since the record. Nobody knows how much the effects of climate change can be considered as "safe", but we know the disasters that global climate change brings to humans and ecosystems: extreme weather, glacier ablation, permafrost thawing, coral reef death, sea level elevation, ecosystem changes, drought and flood disasters increase, fatal heat waves and the like. Now, rather than scientists predicting these changes, humans have begun to struggle for survival under the influence of global climate changes, from the north pole to the equator. All this is simply the sequence of the effects of climate change, we are experiencing dangerous climate changes, the faster the warming wheel is turning. To prevent this disaster we must act immediately.
From a new discharge report of the united nations, the agricultural land area lost every day due to too high salinity in the world is about 19.9 square kilometers, and at present, farmland with the size equivalent to that of French is available, so that crops cannot be planted any more. Such saline and alkaline land results in annual food production losses of up to 170 billion pounds in some areas including china, india, south america and the united states. If effective treatment is not carried out, the saline-alkali soil is used for luck, a dire land described in interstellar crossing even appears in one day, the soil is seriously degraded due to human activities, the saline-alkali soil is forced to live in a huge drought storm area, and almost no crops can be planted.
The ecological deterioration of saline-alkali soil is only one specific aspect of ecological deterioration. According to the market prospect and investment strategy planning analysis report prospect of the Chinese ecological restoration industry, the ecological environment deterioration is shown as vegetation damage, water and soil loss, desertification and the like. According to the second land erosion remote sensing survey in China, the water and soil loss area in China is 356 million square kilometers, the desertification land is 174 million square kilometers, the total amount of soil lost per year reaches 50 hundred million tons, in 113108 mines in China, the area of a goaf is about 134.9 million hectares, the area of land occupied or damaged by mining activities is 238.3 million hectares, and vegetation is seriously damaged. In recent years, the adverse effect of the deterioration of the ecological environment on human beings is more and more obvious, and the increase of the investment of ecological environment construction to protect the more and more fragile ecological environment is inevitable.
From the plant perspective, the plant's reproduction and growth throughout the earth comes from sunlight awn beyond 1.5 hundred million kilometers, the plant can acquire energy from space to produce food, which is really an exclamation to absorb sunlight and then convert it into life, so that the plant dominates our planet, which is photosynthesis and also the most important natural process on the earth, through which the plant kingdom turns a barren earth into an organism, however, the situation is not always so simple, for the sake of this, it must be traced back to 30 billions ago, at the beginning, our planet is a rough spot, there is almost no air at all, the atmosphere is filled with various gases, while the chief culprit is volcanic eruption, no oxygen on land, because ancient atmosphere cannot block ultraviolet rays of the sun at all, life cannot survive on the earth surface at all, but then has a transition, a major event brings the atmosphere for maintaining life in the early stage to the earth, which occurs about 25 to 30 hundred million years ago and becomes the most great turning point in the life history of the earth, and all the events are associated with the oldest ancestors of plants. When photons of the solar rays strike the chloroplast surface of the plant, the energy of the photons is absorbed by a ring body tissue called a photoreceptor, the energy of two photons in the photoreceptor is used for decomposing a water molecule, the hydrogen element and the oxygen element in the photoreceptor are decomposed again, the hydrogen element is used for the growth of the plant, and the oxygen element which is taken as waste by the plant and is discharged outside the body contributes to the earth; thousands of air holes are formed in the back of each plant leaf, and required carbon dioxide is absorbed through the air holes to discharge unnecessary oxygen; the hydrogen in the plant combines with the absorbed carbon dioxide to form sugar, which is not only a necessary nutrient for plant growth, but also provides a food source for all animals. Plants produce oxygen through photosynthesis, requiring not only light but also a large amount of water, which geologists refer to as "great oxygen movement". Therefore, while serious problems such as water loss and soil erosion and desertification occur, vegetation destruction also causes sudden reduction of oxygen yield and stoppage of water circulation from underground to air, so that accumulation of carbon dioxide is increased, the regulation effect of the nature on the climate and environment is weakened, and extreme abuse disasters such as drought, flood, haze and sandstorm occur frequently.
Another statistic shows that more than 360 cities across the country suffer from inland inundation in 2011-2014, wherein one sixth of single inland inundation time exceeds 12 hours, the inundation depth exceeds half a meter, and even disastrous inland inundation occurs in cities such as beijing, jinan and the like. At the same time, however, there are 1100 cities in the country that are severely short of water. The low standard of urban drainage and the lack of a rainwater utilization system make water, a resource which is scarce in cities, become a cause of disasters.
"China is a country with moderate water shortage", the department of the original Lidi, water resource, Sichang Wuji Song, is the judgment obtained from the supporting ability of water resources on the development of socioeconomic. According to statistics, the total amount of water shortage in China is estimated to be 400 billion cubic meters at present, the drought area is 200-260 million square kilometers each year, the grain yield is 150-200 million kilograms, the industrial output value is 2000 billions, and 7000 million people in China have difficulty in drinking water. Water shortage has serious influence on the environment and physical and psychological health of people. Just in the Jiujiang county in Jiangxi province of 1 month and 3 days in 2015, the influence of upstream water reduction and long-term drought and little rain is caused, the Poyang lake in the first big fresh water lake in China approaches extremely dry water level, the star pier in the symbolic landscape in the star county is 'water falling gravel out', the star pier can only go to by a ferry in the rich water period, and the people can reach the city by walking.
In addition, the normal production and life of people are endangered by the increasingly severe haze weather in recent years, and the reports of Chinese environmental analysis which is mainly completed by the subsidiary in the early 2013 show that seven polluted cities are in China. In 2013, the emission of carbon dioxide in China is 95.24 hundred million tons, which is increased by 4.2% compared with 2012 and accounts for 27.1% of the emission of carbon dioxide in the world, and China is the largest carbon dioxide emitting country in the world.
In conclusion, the severe climate change directly threatens the survival of human beings, and how to carry out effective ecological management is an urgent problem to be solved. In order to cope with climate change and improve ecological environment, the national forest coverage rate is increased from 20 percent to 23 percent in 2020, and the forest coverage rate reaches and stabilizes to more than 26 percent in 2050. At present, relevant departments begin to put emphasis on homeland improvement work in aspects such as mine ecological restoration, desertification control and the like, wherein the ecological restoration/control becomes a new ecological environment construction field.
The ecological restoration/treatment specifically relates to regions including hydro-fluctuation belts, wetlands, wastelands, sand beaches, deserts, gobi or two sides of traffic roads, and the like, and the restoration/treatment modes include the construction of revetments, greening walls, greening belts, and the like.
For example, chinese patent document CN103866776 discloses an ecological slope protection method for a construction waste gabion wall, which fills construction waste in gabions made of metal wires for ecological protection of side slopes or river banks to form a gabion slope protection wall; the method comprises the steps of spraying cement, clay, river sand, organic matters, improved vegetation concrete greening additives and plant seeds onto a gabion slope protection wall by adopting a dry spraying process to rapidly green the gabion slope protection wall. Although the invention realizes the recycling of the construction waste, the cement spraying mode is adopted to destroy the ecology again, the nutrients on the surface of the gabion wall are limited, the growth power and the maintenance time of plants are also limited, and the gabion wall is gradually collapsed and damaged after long-term natural weathering corrosion due to the lack of an effective fixing means.
Chinese patent document CN103898870 discloses a construction method of a gabion ecological gabion river course revetment, which is characterized in that after the construction of the gabion revetment, soil is used for recharging in gaps among surface layer rock blocks, watering is carried out, the gaps of the rock blocks are filled with soil, a layer of plowing and planting soil is covered on the rock block revetment, aquatic plants are planted under the water surface, and lawns are planted on the river bank. Although the method achieves the purposes of slope protection and ecological greening, the planted plants only depend on the soil with thin surface layer of the gabion for growth, and the growth greening capacity is limited; the long-term flowing water scouring can also take away soil and nutrients on the surface layer part of the gabion, further damage the growth of plants and weaken the greening function more and more; and the gabion layer under the plants can also gradually collapse and damage along with natural weathering corrosion and damage of surface plants due to lack of stabilizing measures.
Chinese patent document CN102561264 discloses an ecological slope protection and its construction method, wherein the ecological slope protection is a group of partitioned areas arranged on a hard slope protection, and each partitioned area is sequentially provided with a matrix soil layer, a rubble layer and a vegetation layer from bottom to top; the construction method comprises the following steps: preparing matrix soil, building a partition area on the hard slope protection, filling the partition area with the matrix soil prepared in the previous step, planting a vegetable layer on a matrix soil layer, and paving a rubble layer on the vegetable layer. In the method, the partition area is composed of a cement partition wall, and the cement partition wall is a damage to the environment; moreover, after the plant is built, although the plant can grow in a substrate soil layer, the fixing force of the gravels paved on the plant is poor, and for areas with large water erosion, the gravels and the soil layer are easily taken away by running water, so that the function of preventing water and soil loss is weak.
Besides the disadvantages of unstable revetment/gabion, limited plant growth capacity, damage to the original environment and the like in the above documents, the existing ecological restoration method also has the following disadvantages: 1) the universality is poor, and no ecological restoration method which can simultaneously consider various environments such as three gorges reservoir area hydro-fluctuation belts, wetlands, wastelands, sand beaches, deserts, gobi, two sides of traffic roads and the like exists; 2) only the problems of preventing soil erosion and greening are considered, the harmonious coexistence of animals and plants is ignored, and the biodiversity dynamic ecological restoration is not considered and can be systematically completed on the same engineering construction project; 3) the water resource in the nature is not fully reused, and the regulation effect of the plant on the environment is not fully exerted.
Based on the defects of the prior art, the inventor explores a method for multifunctional ecological management of cavernous bodies.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the present invention provides a method for multifunctional ecological management of a cavernous body, which combines the reuse of water resources in nature with ecological management, thereby solving the problems of flooding and drought, promoting the formation, development and maintenance of an ecological management system, and expanding the functions of the ecological management system.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
a multifunctional ecological management method for cavernous body comprises building water retention storage pipe network and ecological management layer (containing plant oxygen layer formed by plants thereon); the water retention storage pipe network collects and stores water from the ground surface and/or the underground, and also conveys the stored water to the ecological management layer to supply water for the growth and evolution of organisms in the ecological management layer.
The water-retention storage pipe network of the method collects and stores water resources from the ground surface and/or the underground when the water resources are abundant, and then takes water from the water-retention storage pipe network for recycling when irrigation is needed at any time in a drought period or an ecological management layer. Specifically, the water in the water retention storage pipe network is gathered in one or more of the following ways: extracted ground water, surface gathered rain, and trapped or extracted water from rivers, lakes, or oceans, among others. The water-retention storage pipe network is like a cavernous body, absorbs water when the outside water is abundant, and then 'extrudes' the water when the outside water is exhausted or is needed at any time. The method combines the water in the cavernous body with the maintenance of the ecological management layer, reasonably and fully utilizes water resources, solves the problems of rainwater discharge, flooding and the like, provides rich water sources for the growth and the evolution of organisms in the ecological management layer, and achieves the dual purposes of environmental and ecological comprehensive management.
Further, the water retention storage pipe network comprises a water accumulation part, a water storage part, an incoming water pipe and a water supply pipe; the water accumulation portion includes one or more of: collecting ponds for underground waters, rivers, lakes, oceans and surface waters; the water storage part is arranged underground and communicated with the water accumulation part through a water inlet pipe, and the ecological management layer is irrigated and/or humidified through a water supply pipe.
The construction of the water retention storage pipe network generally comprises the steps of land exploration, land preparation, excavation and installation. The water storage part is generally built underground; the water inlet pipe and the water supply pipe are respectively arranged according to the positions of the water storage part and the area to be watered and/or humidified. In order to facilitate the maintenance, the water retention storage pipe network can be correspondingly provided with a maintenance opening; for the water source with more silt or sundries in the water, a corresponding filtering structure can be arranged at the inlet of a corresponding water supply pipe or a water accumulation part.
Further, the ecological management layer is a slope protection or a surface protection which is built on the ecological management field. The plants planted on the ecological management layer form a plant oxygen generation layer.
Further, the construction of the ecological management layer comprises the step of constructing a stiffening cage layer on the surface of a required management site; the stiffening cage comprises a stiffening cage bottom, a stiffening cage body and a stiffening rib, wherein the stiffening cage bottom, the stiffening cage body and the stiffening cage top are formed by the stiffening net, one end of the stiffening rib is fixed with the stiffening net, and the rest part of the stiffening rib is fixed with the stiffening cage body and/or the stiffening cage top; the stiffening cage comprises filled soil and/or blocks, and plants are planted and/or sowed in the stiffening cage and/or at the top of the stiffening cage; plants planted in the stiffening cages extend out of the stiffening cages, or gaps for planting the plants are reserved in the stiffening cages.
The invention gradually encloses a stiffening cage through the stiffening net, so that the stiffening ribs and the stiffening cage are firmly fixed, soil and/or blocks are filled in the stiffening cage, and a firm stiffening cage layer which is suitable for plant growth is obtained through plant planting. The construction significance of the stiffening cage layer is significant, namely, when the roots of the plants do not grow to firmly stabilize the water and soil loss and the external force erosion of the engineering section within a certain period after the whole engineering is built, the engineering technology of the layer is used for protecting and preventing the engineering section from water and soil loss and the external force erosion in a staged manner. The deeper the stiffening cage bottom layer is, the denser the stiffening ribs are, the more stable the layer is. Moreover, the plant grows gradually later, through grafting, winding or binding between the plant branches and development of the plant root system, the stiffening net of the stiffening cage can be gradually replaced to achieve the effect of the block in the fixing cage, so that the natural weathering corrosion is effectively avoided from damaging the stiffening cage, and the effect of protecting the ecology for a long time is achieved. The development for a long time is beneficial to forming a comprehensive ecological system with animals and plants coexisting in harmony. The whole stiffening cage layer is mainly used for the growth of plant roots and the inhabitation of other organisms, is a core area for ecological management, and is beneficial to the formation of biological polymorphism, the full utilization of water resources and the generation of oxygen.
Further, the construction of the stiffening cage layer specifically comprises the following steps:
A. land preparation: arranging the construction site to be treated to form a required plane or slope;
B. laying a stiffening net and fixing stiffening ribs: laying a stiffening net on the soil-prepared surface to be used as the bottom of the stiffening cage; fixing one end of a stiffening rib on the stiffening net;
C. backfilling and planting plants: taking backfill above the bottom layer of the stiffening cage as a soil layer, and backfilling blocks as block layers; during the backfilling process, the stiffening net is rolled and folded to form a stiffening cage body and a stiffening cage top, and finally the stiffening net is closed to form the stiffening cage; during backfilling, the stiffening ribs connected with the bottom of the stiffening cage are continuously combed out, the stiffening ribs are fixed with the cage body and/or the cage top of the stiffening cage, and plants are planted and/or sown or gaps for planting the plants are reserved in the backfilling process.
Furthermore, a soil layer and a block body layer are sequentially filled in the stiffening cage from bottom to top.
Specifically, the stiffening cage can be woven by metal wires, ropes with metal wires contained in plastic on the surface, ropes made of thermoplastic resin, stems or bamboo splints of lianas and the like; the cross section of the stiffening cage is circular, oval, trapezoidal, rhombic, square and the like; the block filled in the stiffening cage can be specifically stone, gravel cement, cobblestone, construction waste, sand, mud and the like, can be singly filled in the block, can also be mixed and filled in the block, the sand and the mud, and can be selectively utilized according to resources of a restoration site.
The stiffening ribs can be made of metal materials, and can also be wires, strips and sheets formed by other materials, and the wires or the metal strips which are difficult to rust, corrode, break and break for a long time are preferred. The stiffening rib can be connected or bound on the stiffening net of the stiffening cage bottom layer which is not pulled out when the stiffening rib is influenced by external force, so as to ensure that the stiffening rib is not moved in situ. The stiffening ribs extend out of one end of the soil layer and form an included angle of 0-180 degrees with the plane of the soil layer, and the included angle is preferably 90 degrees, so that the stability of the stiffening cage is facilitated. The stainless steel wire is preferably corrosion-resistant, breakage-resistant, tensile-resistant and easy to weave for more than 10 years.
The core function of the stiffening webs and stiffeners is the pre-stage replacement function when the roots of the plants of the method have not grown sufficiently to stabilize the soil structure of the mini-environment. The size, length and other specifications of the stiffening ribs and the thickness of the stiffening cage layer can be specifically set according to the environment and engineering requirements of the restoration ground. Specifically, for example, the total length of the stiffening rib is 280cm, during construction, the stiffening rib with the length of 20cm is pre-buried and tied on the stiffening net of the stiffening cage bottom, the stiffening rib with the length of 200cm passes through the soil layer to the waterproof soil loss layer from the stiffening net pre-buried at the stiffening cage bottom, the stiffening rib with the length of 40cm passes through the block layer from the waterproof soil loss layer to the stiffening net at the stiffening cage top layer, and the stiffening rib with the length of 20cm is bent back and is tied and fixed with the stiffening net at the stiffening cage top layer. The arrangement density of the stiffening ribs is preferably 1/30 cm for each transverse rib arrangement and 1/50 cm for each longitudinal rib arrangement, a group of ribs are arranged between the ribs in the same direction, the distance between each group of transverse rib arrangement and an adjacent group of transverse rib arrangement is 100cm, and the distance between each group of longitudinal rib arrangement and an adjacent group of longitudinal rib arrangement is 100 cm.
The stiffening rib and the stiffening cage are fixed in a mode that the stiffening rib and the stiffening cage are bound (or welded) and/or penetrate through the stiffening cage, and the stiffening cage can be further fixed through the stiffening rib or the connection of the stiffening rib. For example, the top surface layer of the stiffening cage is connected with the ribs for locking and fixing, specifically, in the process of installing the stiffening cage, if the stiffening cage is not integrally installed at one time, the stiffening cage is composed of a plurality of single bodies or a plurality of stiffening cages with different sizes and installed by manpower and/or machines, and each stiffening cage and the stiffening cage are bound by the stiffening ribs to form a stable integral body, so that the stiffening cage can be installed in a hoisting mode by manpower and machines under the possible condition of construction environment, and the top surface layer of the stiffening cage is locked and fixed by the stiffening ribs in a chain mode. The interlinked locking connection of the top of the stiffening cage is equivalent to the use of connecting ribs.
The soil layer is a soil-containing layer and is formed by soil or mud-sandwiched blocky objects. The soil can be black soil, loess and other cultivated soil, and can also be barren soil and sandy soil of saline-alkali soil and desert lands (saline-alkali soil of coastal saline-alkali soil, frozen soil of alpine regions, sandy soil of deserts and desert edge regions, silt and tidal mud of river beach lands, calcareous soil of stony desertification lands and the like), as long as the soil is suitable for the growth of planted plants due to time, land, climate and vegetation. The thickness of the soil layer is the minimum thickness suitable for the growth of the planted plants or more, and is preferably more than 1 m.
The block layer can be a filling layer of stones, stone cements, cobblestones, construction wastes, sand, mud and the like, can be singly filled with blocks, can also be mixed and filled with the sand and the mud, and can be selectively utilized according to resources of a restoration site. The setting of the block layer mainly deals with the scouring and erosion of external force such as possible heavy water, heavy waves, storm wind and the like, and only backfilling soil can be carried out on regions with weak scouring and erosion force without backfilling the blocks.
The reserved gaps for planting the plants are that when the stiffening cage is constructed, if the plants are not planted for the time, appropriate gaps can be reserved between the soil layer and the block-shaped layer, and space is provided for planting the plants in the future. Specifically, for example, temporary substitutes of plant planting holes are pre-buried in the stiffening cages, that is, temporary substitutes (such as bamboo tubes, plastic tubes and the like) larger than the specifications of plant root systems or soil balls are pre-buried according to the specifications of the plant root systems or the soil balls to be planted, and the temporary substitutes are buried to the depth of a soil layer in which the plant to be planted is needed and extend to the top layer of the stiffening cage.
The planted plants can be planted from any position of the backfill soil layer. The planted plant is suitable for land restoration and can be symbiotic with other organisms in the small environment, such as land and water plants of arbor, shrub, grass and the like, such as roxburgh rose, millennium, ligustrum quihoui, evergreen, pyracantha, orchid, azalea, red currant, Chinese mosquitos, water buffalo, water purple, birch, Chinese fir, weeping willow, bamboo willow, cottonrose hibiscus, south alnus, Chinese tallow tree, mulberry, salix cacumen, orchid, Siberian iris, evergreen windmill grass, green dog tooth root, blue grass, sedge, vetiver, fern, red tree, olive, acanthus ilicifolius, olive, quanlia, kangara, kandelia, sea mulberry, tung tree, oak, sea harry, hibiscus syriacus, pittosporum, vine, rose willow, rose, pricklyash bark, pricklyash peel, cactus, horn of red clover, rhinoceros, and the like. The plant to be planted is preferably shrub. The plant-row distance of the planted plants of the same family is preferably 50cm multiplied by 50cm, and the plants of different configurations are preferably planted in a 'Ping' shape. The sowed plant seeds are sowed in the soil layer or the top layer of the stiffening cage where soil is reserved or the top layer of the stiffening cage is reserved. When the plant grows to a proper size, the branches of the homologous plant to be grafted and the upper, lower, left and right plant branches can be grafted and/or woven into a net-shaped plant cage body by using a conventional grafting method and/or weaving method, namely the permanently fixed cage body and the landscape type ecological green wall are formed.
By planting or sowing the plants, the special functions of the plants can be scientifically utilized, namely, root hair cells of the plants can absorb nutrient substances such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and the like in soil, so that a large amount of overloaded substances such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and the like discharged in production and life of people are absorbed, and the rapid growth of plant roots is promoted. And the roots grow rapidly along with the time extension, so that the soil in the region is more and more stable, and the soil is stable as Taishan mountain even if natural disasters such as storm, flood, heat wave and the like happen suddenly in severe weather.
The stiffening cage can provide nutrient support for the plants for a long time through reasonable arrangement of the stiffening cage. And the problem of the stability of the stone or soil filled with stones on the ground surface can be continuously and long-term solved by reasonably utilizing the root system of the plant and grafting and/or weaving the branches of the plant, thereby forming a natural 'biological net' structure. The biological net under the ground builds a natural, sustainable and reusable underground clean water storage reservoir for human beings. The biological net on the surface of the earth constructs a living environment for various animals, microorganisms and other plants under the environment, and the living environment can quickly form and promote the great restoration of the biological diversity in the area. Chloroplasts in leaves on the biological net on the ground and water molecules absorb a great amount of reduced carbon dioxide and release sufficient oxygen through photosynthesis; plants in this process also undergo organic synthesis, providing a large source of energy for animals, microorganisms and plants that live in this environment.
Furthermore, a miniature water storage device is also pre-embedded near the root of the planted plant. Specifically, waste or specially-made micro-vessels capable of storing certain water are pre-embedded around roots of plants to be planted, and the micro-vessels are mainly used for providing water sources for the plants when water resources are possibly exhausted. Furthermore, the miniature water storage device can be connected with a water retention storage pipe network to guide underground water and surface water to the roots of the plants, and the effects of retaining water and supplying water to the roots of the plants in the natural evaporation process of the container are automatically or artificially exerted. Or, further, the micro water reservoir is a water reservoir made of a perishable paper cup or other synthetic material cup or a non-perishable waste plastic cup, waste glass cup, etc. which can store a certain amount of water for a planted plant in advance or afterward, and is a water reservoir when no water source is supplied for a long time. Specifically, the miniature water storage device can be various discarded or artificial synthetic vessels such as bottles, tanks, jars, barrels and the like in production and life, and is preferably a manually-perforated bamboo tube.
Further, the construction of the ecological management layer also comprises the construction of a biological inhabitation tower; the biological inhabiting tower is a tower-shaped structure built on the stiffening cage layer, and plants are planted and/or sowed on the biological inhabiting tower. The biological inhabitation tower can be built by using local materials, and preferably, different materials are alternately used for each layer of tower, so that the growth or inhabitation of various organisms is facilitated. If a five-layer tower is built, the materials adopted from bottom to top are as follows: soil-sandwiched stone, soil-sandwiched slag, soil-sandwiched sawdust, waste brick and soil, waste wood strip and soil. Further, a water supply pipe is arranged in the biological inhabitation tower, and water can be supplied to the inhabitation tower in the arid period so as to maintain the growth of plants and the life of animals on the inhabitation tower. Further, the biological inhabitation tower is provided with a hollow pipe or cylinder, the pipe or cylinder can be made of clinker materials, wood, bamboo, metal and the like, and is preferably a hollow bamboo tube processed by manpower or machines. The ends of the hollow tube or drum are exposed to the surface layer of the tower for the inhabitation of animals and microorganisms, as in their "amusement park".
Further, the construction of the ecological management layer also comprises the construction of a biological inhabitation pond; the biological inhabiting pond is a pond with an opening at the top and is embedded in the stiffening cage layer, and plants are planted and/or sowed in the biological inhabiting pond. The biological inhabitation pond is a pond or a shallow pond with the top lower than the stiffening cage layer and can be built by nearby stones, waste building slag, waste furnace slag, soil or sandy soil and the like. The biological habitat can provide free habitat or space for the land and water living organisms in the environment, so that the restoration, formation and development of a comprehensive ecological system are facilitated.
Further, the bottom and the four walls of the biological habitat are formed by stiffening cages, the stiffening cages are filled with blocks and soil in a mixed mode, and a layer of soil or sand or a mixture of the soil and the sand is paved at the bottom of the biological habitat. The mud of cubic and earth presss from both sides stone structure and the earth of laying of bottom can provide the nutrition for land and water plant, animal, microorganism and store, do benefit to the formation of biodiversity system. Besides soil, sand soil, fine stones and the like can be paved at the bottom, and any mixture of the soil, the sand and the stones can be paved at the bottom.
Further, the water storage part is a water retention storage pipe and/or a pool arranged below the ecological management layer; the water accumulation part is a biological inhabitation pond, and/or a water accumulation pond arranged on the ecological management layer or near the ecological management layer, and/or a gully arranged on the bank side of a river, a lake or the ocean and surrounded by water blocking ridges. The structure makes full use of the space and natural resources near the ecological management layer, fully collects and recycles possible water resources, can relieve the shortage of water resources and reduce the future management and maintenance cost.
Specifically, the water retention storage pipe and/or the water retention storage pool are mainly arranged in a low-water-level soil layer with abundant underground water or suddenly enriched underground water, so that collection, storage, retention and the like under normal leakage of the underground water are ensured, and harmonious survival of organisms in the soil layer and the soil layer is facilitated. Further, specifically, a hole is reserved or perforated at the top of the underground water retention pipe or tank so that the underground water can automatically flow into the pipe or tank, and only the pumping pipe network is installed to the bottom layer of the stiffening net.
And meanwhile, the biological habitat with the function of the water accumulation part is provided with a water supply and drainage pipe network, water is introduced into the water retention and storage pipe network through the water supply and drainage pipe network, or water is led out from the water retention and storage pipe network to irrigate the biological habitat. The water inlet of the pipeline for leading away the water in the biological inhabitation pond is higher than the soil layer in the biological inhabitation pond, and a dust screen for preventing soil or sand from flowing into the pipeline is arranged. Specifically, the construction of the water supply and drainage pipes is performed synchronously with the construction of the surface water retention storage pipe network. The biological inhabitation pond is a water quality purification pond of the small-environment surface runoff and is also a water quality monitoring sampling pond of the small-environment surface runoff.
The water accumulation tank can be a filtering tank arranged on the stiffening cage layer. The filter tank is constructed by referring to a biological inhabitation tank, but the surface of a soil layer in the tank is provided with a block, so that plants can not be planted; and a soil loss preventing material, preferably geotextile, can be laid between the soil layer and the block layer. In the filtering tank, the pipe orifice of the pipeline for introducing water into the surface water retention storage pipe or the tank is higher than the soil layer in the filtering tank, and the pipe orifice is provided with a slag-proof or dust-proof cover.
The multi-pond system can be built at any position of the ecological management layer, and the lowest position is preferred. The construction can be carried out by referring to the construction methods of a biological habitat pool, a filtering pool, a rice field, a shallow pond and the like. Preferably, more than 3 ponds or ponds are built, suitable plants are planted in the ponds or ponds and animals are put in the ponds or ponds, preferably, shrubs, aquatic flowers and plants, aquatic vegetables, fish and shellfish are favored to be symbiotic, and the ecological value is improved. The glass cover like a cylinder and a cone is directly arranged in the multi-pond system, and the mouth of the glass cover faces downwards, so that a water supply system and a spray head are not required to be arranged. When the leaves of the plants are in photosynthesis with sunlight, water in the multi-pond system automatically evaporates water vapor at the same time, and the water is supplemented for photosynthesis of the green leaves in the leaves of the plants and the sunlight. In order to conveniently manage the plants, the glass cover which can be hoisted at any time or lifted at any time can be installed.
Further, a water and soil loss prevention layer is arranged between the soil layer and the block material layer; and/or the inner wall of the biological habitat is provided with a water and soil loss prevention layer. The waterproof soil erosion layer is paved by water-permeable, air-permeable and perishable materials, specifically can be water-permeable and air-permeable materials formed by synthetic fibers of high polymer polymers such as terylene, polypropylene fiber, acrylic fiber, nylon and the like or other composites, and most preferably geotextile commonly used in engineering. The laying mode is that after the plants are planted, the plants can be laid on the soil layer in a single layer or multiple layers. The soil at the position can be protected from being naturally washed by water, wind and the like, the stability of the position is ensured, and the free growth and activity of the living organisms in the soil and the living organisms on the ground surface are ensured under the covering of the soil loss prevention layer.
Further, the construction of the ecological management layer also comprises the construction of a biological observation system; the biological observation system is a wired or wireless automatic photographing or camera system built on the stiffening cage layer. Specifically, the biological shooting rack can be a wired or wireless biological shooting rack capable of automatically shooting or shooting, is built by materials with good stability and resistance to storm wind, cold and high temperature like a fixed electric wire pile, and is provided with an automatic shooting device to record changes and activity states of various animals, microorganisms, plants and natural environments in the environment, so that real, scientific and accurate first-hand data are provided for scientific research and scientific investigation.
Furthermore, a leakage water pipe is pre-buried in the ecological management layer. The water leakage pipe is mainly arranged in a soil layer with abundant or suddenly enriched underground water to ensure normal leakage of the underground water, is beneficial to maintaining the soil layer, and can specifically adopt hollow bamboo or other artificial hollow pipelines. The leaked water can also be introduced into a water retention storage pipe network for storage and use.
Further, ecological improvement layer still is equipped with watering humidification system, watering humidification system and water stagnation hold the pipe network and be connected, hold the pipe network by water stagnation and supply water, and/or connect urban water supply system and supply water. The water supply system is connected with a city water supply system, and can be supplemented when the water retention storage pipe network is short of water supply. Furthermore, watering humidification system is including stretching out the atomising head on the cage layer of putting more energy into, the atomising head communicates with the feed pipe of stagnant water pipe network of holding, the atomising head is to plant water spray humidification, both helps vegetation and moisturizing and make a large amount of oxygen when the plant photosynthesis, preferably installs the atomising head in the top of plant top blade.
Furthermore, the ecological management layer is also provided with a plant oxygen bar in an auxiliary way; the plant oxygen bar comprises an oxygen receiving greenhouse, an oxygen delivery pipeline and an oxygen uptake experience room; the oxygen collecting greenhouse is covered above the ecological management layer and is communicated with the oxygen absorption experience room through an oxygen transmission pipeline. The oxygen source of the plant oxygen bar comprises photosynthesis of all plants planted in the stiffening cage and the cage top, the biological inhabiting tower and the biological inhabiting pool (the plants are equivalent to a biological oxygen producing layer). The invention also combines the use of a sprinkling irrigation humidifying system to irrigate or humidify the plants at proper time, and particularly, when the sun comes out and the plants are cultivated at 8-10 am and 4-6 pm, the generation amount of oxygen is greatly improved by supplying proper water to cooperate with the photosynthesis of the plants.
Furthermore, a Tai Chi protection dike is additionally arranged on the ecological management layer; the Tai Chi protection dike is a curved wall and/or a deposit built in a windward area, a water-ward area or a wave-ward area of the ecological management layer, and the Tai Chi concept curved wall is preferably selected. For example, a taiji protection wall or dike is built at a certain distance outside a main project, so that the project area is automatically adjusted to be a leeward area, a backwater area, a wave returning area and the like, and the project which is just completed is prevented from being damaged due to the attack of external forces such as strong storm wind, flood, wave and the like in a short period.
The beneficial technical effects of the invention are as follows:
the invention realizes a sponge engineering system with the reasonable layout of water collection resource full utilization and ecological management by the construction of a water retention storage pipe network, the construction of a stiffening cage layer, a biological inhabitation pool, a biological inhabitation tower, a biological observation system, a plant oxygen bar, a Taiji protection wall and the like of an ecological management layer, the planting of a cage top, the biological inhabitation pool and the biological inhabitation tower plants in the stiffening cage, the construction of a spray irrigation humidification system and the like.
The invention can gradually restore the places needing to deal with the climate change without the concrete engineering technology, is beneficial to the stability of the stiffening cage layer and the biocoenosis evolution layer, and is also beneficial to various benefits provided by the sponge-type flexible ecological restoration system for people, including: firstly, through the construction of the accumulation layer, reasonable recycling of rare underground water and surface water can be provided for people, and the benefits of effectively improving drainage quality, alleviating flood disasters, reducing water supply management and protection cost and the like are achieved; secondly, through the construction of the stiffening cage layer, a stable natural ecological environment can be provided for the smooth realization of the originality of the invention within a certain period; thirdly, through the construction of a biological community evolution layer and a biological oxygen generation layer, sufficient conditions can be provided for the natural evolution of suitable plants, animals and microorganisms, oxygen can be produced for people, clean water can be provided, biological genetic resources can be provided, the air quality can be improved, the local climate can be adjusted, haze can be prevented and controlled, water sources can be purified, high-quality soil can be formed, and the like, so that the effects of controlling erosion and human diseases can be achieved; and fourthly, after the building is well established, people can obtain non-material benefits through the ways of enriching the spiritual life, developing cognition, leisure entertainment, aesthetic appreciation and the like voluntarily or involuntarily.
The method innovatively invents a sponge body type ecological management engineering method under the era background of vigorously promoting energy conservation and emission reduction to cope with climate change in globalization, is particularly suitable for being applied to the construction fields of cities, towns, new rural areas, artificial wetlands, industrial and mining enterprises and the like, and can be particularly applied to ecological management of areas such as mines, oil fields, geological disaster prone areas, desert lands, saline-alkali lands, desert lands, river mouths, seacoasts, mudflats, wetlands, hydro-fluctuation belts, traffic roads and the like, and other areas needing ecological restoration in the production and living environment of people.
Looking back at the severe climate change, the climate changes well only after the damaged ecosystem around the body is repaired. And the ecological restoration is necessary to restore a natural ecological system through an artificial method according to a natural rule. "ecological restoration" means much more than planting trees with the goal of stabilizing water and soil loss areas, and not just planting diverse local plants, and "ecological restoration" is an attempt to recreate, guide or accelerate the natural evolution process. Human beings have no ability to recover a real natural system, but can help nature, like a sponge body, and can absorb, store, permeate and purify rainwater on site or nearby when raining, supplement underground water and regulate water circulation; the stored water is released in a conditioned way during drought and water shortage and is scientifically and reasonably reused, so that the water can migrate more naturally in the living life of people. With the presence of water, basic plants, animals and microorganisms required by a region can be introduced or brought together to provide conditions for basic community habitation and then allowed to naturally evolve to promote a community developing into a complete ecosystem consisting of these species.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic overview of an ecological remediation system with alternating platforms and grade ecological remediation layers;
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a first graded ecological remediation system of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the stagnant pipe network of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a second graded ecological remediation layer of the present invention forming an ecological remediation system;
FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a third graded ecological remediation system of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged view of the dam of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an ecological remediation system of the present invention with the ecological remediation layer formed without a grade;
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a structure of a biological habitat;
FIG. 9 is a view of a biological habitat having a leisure tread area at the edge;
FIG. 10 is a schematic view of a structure of a bio-habitat;
FIG. 11 is a schematic structural diagram of a Tai Chi protective bank;
FIG. 12 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an ecological management system with a plant oxygen bar of the present invention;
FIG. 13 is another schematic view of the structure of the biotope.
Detailed Description
The invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, as shown in fig. 1-12:
FIG. 1 is an overview of an ecological remediation system with a graded ecological remediation layer. The ecological management layer is provided with a water retention storage pipe network, and a Taiji protection dike is arranged beside the ecological management layer.
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an ecological remediation system formed from a first sloped ecological remediation layer of the present invention. As can be seen from the figure, a water retention storage pipe network is arranged in the slope surface of the ecological restoration, and the water retention storage pipe network can collect water resources from a filtering pond and a biological inhabitation pond of an ecological management layer; the ecological management layer mainly comprises a stiffening cage layer, wherein a soil layer and a block-shaped material layer are sequentially filled in the stiffening cage, and the stiffening cage is fixed through stiffening ribs; in addition, a biological observation frame, a biological inhabiting tower, a biological inhabiting pool and the like are also built in the ecological management layer; the plants are omitted from the figure, but the micro water reservoirs provided for the plants can be seen.
Fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of the retention pipe network in fig. 2. As can be seen from the figure, the water retention storage pipe network is provided with a special slag pool for preventing the pipeline from being blocked and preventing sediment from being deposited; a special access hole is designed for convenient maintenance; and a corresponding water supply and drainage pipe is also designed to be connected with the surface water retention storage pipe so as to collect surface water.
FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a second graded ecological remediation layer of the present invention. The ecological management layer is mainly composed of a stiffening cage layer, wherein a soil layer and a block-shaped material layer are sequentially filled in the stiffening cage, and the stiffening cage is fixed through stiffening ribs; in addition, the ecological management layer is also provided with a biological observation frame, a biological inhabiting tower, a biological inhabiting pool, a filtering pool, a multi-pond system and the like. The underground water retention pipe network is omitted in the figure, but a water supply pipe and a spray head arranged on the stiffening cage layer can be seen; the plants are omitted but the micro water reservoirs provided for the plants can be seen.
FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a third graded ecological remediation layer of the present invention. As can be seen from the figure, a water retention storage pipe network is arranged in the slope surface of the ecological restoration, the water retention storage pipe network can collect water resources from a filtering pool, a biological inhabitation pool, a water blocking ridge and the like of the ecological management layer, and the water retention storage pipe network is provided with an access hole and the like. The ecological management layer mainly comprises a stiffening cage layer, wherein a soil layer and a block-shaped material layer are sequentially filled in the stiffening cage, and the stiffening cage is fixed through stiffening ribs; in addition, a biological observation frame, a biological inhabiting tower, a biological inhabiting pool and the like are also built in the ecological management layer; the plants are omitted from the figure, but the micro water reservoirs provided for the plants can be seen.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged schematic view of the water blocking ridge in fig. 5. And part of water can be intercepted when water rises in rivers, lakes or seacoasts or collected when the water falls into the gullies formed by the water blocking ridges, and then the part of water is transferred to the water storage part of the water retention storage pipe network for storage and standby.
FIG. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an ecological remediation system of the present invention with an ecological remediation layer formed without a slope. As can be seen from the figure, the basis of the ecological management system is a sand layer (such as the basis during ecological restoration of deserts or other desert regions), and the water retention storage pipe network is arranged below the stiffening cage layer, so that the surface water can be collected, and meanwhile, the underground water can be pumped for storage and use. The ecological management layer is provided with a filter tank, a biological inhabitation tower, a biological inhabitation tank (sand and soil are paved at the bottom), a micro water storage device and the like.
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a structure of a biological habitat. The biological inhabitation pond is surrounded by the stiffening cage, the inner wall of the biological inhabitation pond is provided with geotextile for preventing water and soil loss, a mud, sand and stone filling layer is paved at the bottom of the pond, and plants are planted in the pond.
FIG. 9 is a view of a living organism habitat having a leisure tread area provided at the edge. The leisure step area is arranged around the biological inhabitation pond, for example, the leisure step area can be specifically set into a footpath paved with cobblestones, and people can walk on the footpath, thereby having the functions of leisure, body building and entertainment.
FIG. 10 is a schematic view of a structure of a bio-habitat tower. The biological inhabitation tower is a five-layer tower, and the materials adopted from bottom to top in sequence are as follows: soil-sandwiched stones, soil-sandwiched furnace slag, soil-sandwiched sawdust, soil added in the middle of waste bricks, and soil added in the middle of waste wood bamboo splints around (whether plants are planted or not and whether soil is used or not can be adjusted according to actual conditions) are added in each layer; in addition, in order to deal with drought, a water supply pipe (which can be connected with a water retention pipe network) is also arranged in the tower, so that the plants growing on the tower can be watered timely. Fig. 13 is another schematic structural view of the biological habitat tower, in which a biological habitat tube is provided in the tower, and both ends of the biological habitat tube are exposed out of a surface layer of the tower so that animals and microorganisms inhabit as in their "amusement park".
Fig. 11 is a schematic structural diagram of a tai chi embankment, which is a curved wall.
FIG. 12 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an ecological management system with a plant oxygen bar of the present invention. As can be seen from the figure, an oxygen collecting greenhouse is arranged above the ecological treatment layer for collecting oxygen generated by plants in the ecological treatment layer or serving as a channel for visitors and the like to experience fresh oxygen; the oxygen gathered by the oxygen collecting greenhouse is conveyed to the oxygen absorption experience room through the oxygen transmission pipeline, and people can enjoy the oxygen. In addition, the provided methane tank, wind energy and solar energy utilization device, a ground gas pipe and the like are also shown in the figure, and the purpose is that in a proper environment, after the comprehensive repair by the method, the problem of producing and living water can be solved without water supply of a tap water company, the problem of fuel can be solved without gas supply of a natural gas company, and the problem of illumination can be solved without power supply of a power supply company, so that a self-sufficient modern ecological rural type livable environment is provided, and the integrated utilization of various energy sources is fully realized. The ecological management systems shown in fig. 2, 4, 5 and 7 can be combined with the plant oxygen bars shown in the figures to maximize the benefits of the ecological management system of the present invention.
Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail, and steps not described in detail in the preferred embodiments are performed according to a conventional method.
Examples
1) Initial construction of water retention storage pipe network
And (4) surveying the earth, preparing the earth, excavating, and installing a water retention storage pipe network system of underground water and surface water. In order to facilitate the maintenance, the water retention storage pipe network is correspondingly provided with a maintenance opening; for the water source mixed with more silt or sundries in the water, a corresponding filtering structure is arranged at the inlet of a corresponding water supply pipe or the water accumulation part. And (6) backfilling soil.
2) Construction of ecological management layer
(1) Soil preparation
And (3) arranging the backfilled field to a plane or an inclined plane required by the engineering in a manual or machine tool mode so that the next working procedure can be normally carried out by the manual or machine tool.
(2) Installing stiffening cage bottom layer and connecting stiffening rib
The stiffening net woven by the stiffening ribs is used as the bottom layer of the stiffening cage and is flatly installed on the leveled ground or slope of a construction site, one end of each stiffening rib is firmly bound on the stiffening net on the bottom layer of the stiffening cage, and the other end of each stiffening rib extends outwards. The deeper the stiffening cage bottom layer is, the denser the stiffening ribs are, and the more stable the layer is.
And one end of the stiffening rib, which extends out of the soil layer, forms an included angle of 0-180 degrees with the plane of the soil layer, and preferably 90 degrees, so that the stability of the stiffening cage is facilitated. For example, in a specific construction, the length of the stiffening rib is 280cm, during construction, a stiffening rib with the length of 20cm is pre-embedded and bound on the stiffening net at the bottom layer of the stiffening cage, a stiffening rib with the length of 200cm passes through the soil layer to the waterproof soil loss layer from the stiffening net pre-embedded at the bottom layer of the stiffening cage, a stiffening rib with the length of 40cm passes through the block layer to the stiffening net at the top layer of the stiffening cage from the waterproof soil loss layer, and a stiffening rib with the length of 20cm is bent back to be bound and fixed with the stiffening net at the top layer of the stiffening cage. The setting density of the stiffening ribs is as follows: every transverse rib arrangement is 1/30 cm, every longitudinal rib arrangement is 1/50 cm, every rib is in the same direction is every group of ribs, the distance between every group of inclined plane or plane transverse rib arrangement and an adjacent group of transverse rib arrangement is 100cm, and the distance between every group of longitudinal rib arrangement and an adjacent group of longitudinal rib arrangement is 100 cm.
The stiffening rib and the stiffening cage are fixed in a mode that the stiffening rib and the stiffening cage are bound (or welded) and/or penetrate through the stiffening cage, and the stiffening cage can be further fixed through the stiffening rib or the connection of the stiffening rib. Preferably, stainless steel wire is used which is corrosion resistant, fracture resistant, tensile resistant and easy to weave for more than 10 years.
(3) Backfilling soil and blocks, planting plants, sewing and fixing stiffening cage
Backfilling soil or soil-filled stones above the bottom layer of the stiffening cage by manpower or machines, combing stiffening ribs connected with the bottom layer of the stiffening cage while backfilling, and tamping, wherein the thickness of the soil layer is the lowest thickness suitable for the growth of the planted plants or thicker, but the installed stagnant storage official net system is not damaged.
After the soil layer is backfilled, before the block is backfilled, the top of the soil layer is paved with a water-permeable and air-permeable material capable of preventing water and soil loss in a flat and orderly manner, so that the soil at the position is protected from being naturally washed by water, wind and the like, and the stability of the position is ensured. The waterproof soil erosion layer laid here is a single or multi-layer geotextile, and is determined according to the natural climate environment of the site.
Planting plants: the suitable plants can be planted from any position of the backfill soil layer, and a proper gap is left. The plant to be planted is preferably shrub, the plant-line distance of the plant to be planted in the same family is preferably 50cm multiplied by 50cm, and the plant to be planted in the same family is preferably arranged in a mode of 'Ping'. The planted plant is suitable for land restoration and can be symbiotic with other organisms in the small environment, such as land and water plants of arbor, shrub, grass and the like, such as Rosa roxburghii, Japanese apricot, Ligustrum quihoui, Rohdea japonica, pyracantha fortuneana, cape jasmine, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Chinese mosla, water buffalo, water purple, birch, China fir, weeping willow, Ficus benaria, Alnus japonica, Sapium sebiferum, mulberry, Kazuki, orchid, Siberian Iris tectorum, evergreen windmill grass, Bermuda grass, Poa pratensis, sedge, vetiver, red tree, radix tinosporae, Acanthus trifoliata, Olive, Kurana tree, Kandelia candel, Hibiscus syriacus, Mallotus, Salix ramosissima longifolia, Salix fusca, Sasa, sago sargentodoxa orella, Alnus angustifolia, Hosta, Aleuropa Sedum, rose, Missia indica, Sedum horn, rhinocercus, and the like. Seeds of plants can be sown in the stiffening cage and the place with soil or reserved openings on the top of the cage.
And in the process of backfilling and planting plants, the sewing and fixing of the stiffening cage are completed at the same time. When sewing up and fixing the stiffening cage, when the restoration face is domatic, can first select the one end that extends out along the basis with the one end of the stiffening net of stiffening cage bottom, from low to high direction, level orderly place and install at the top of the cubic or the soil layer of having backfilled, comb out the stiffening rib simultaneously and with the stiffening rib ligature on the stiffening net of this position, make the stiffening cage bottom form firm stiffening cage through the ligature of this stiffening rib and stiffening cage bottom. In the process of installing the stiffening cage, if the stiffening cage is not integrally installed at one time, the stiffening cage is formed by installing a plurality of single bodies or a plurality of stiffening cages with different sizes by manpower and/or machines, thereby each stiffening cage and the stiffening cage are bound by stiffening ribs to form a stable unified body, and the stiffening cage can be installed in a hoisting mode by manpower and machines under the possible condition of the construction environment, and is fixedly connected with the top surface layer of the stiffening cage in a chain mode by the stiffening ribs. The interlinked locking connection of the top of the stiffening cage is equivalent to the use of connecting ribs.
When backfilling or installing, the stiffening ribs extending out of the bottom are combed, the installed water retention pipe network is paid attention to, and various planted plants are protected.
(4) Embedding a miniature water storage device: in the backfilling process, waste or customized micro-vessels capable of storing certain water are pre-embedded around the roots of the plants to be planted, and the method is mainly used for replenishing underground water and surface water to the roots of the plants in arid environments with possibly exhausted water resources.
(5) Temporary substitute for pre-buried plant planting hole: in the backfilling process, according to the specification of the root system or the soil ball of the plant to be planted, temporary substitutes (such as a bamboo tube, a plastic tube and the like) which are larger than the specification of the root system or the soil ball of the plant are pre-buried. The substitute is buried to the depth of the soil layer where the required plants are planted, and the height of the substitute is extended to the top layer of the stiffening cage.
(6) Building a biological habitat: the biological inhabitation pond is embedded in a stiffening cage layer, and is formed by a pond with an opening at the top, a bottom and four walls which are formed by stiffening cages and provided with a water supply and drainage pipe network. Plants are planted and/or sown in the pond.
The biological habitat is mainly built by using nearby stones, waste building slag, waste furnace slag, soil or sandy soil. The bottom and the four walls of the biological inhabitation pond are formed by stiffening cages, blocks and soil are filled in the stiffening cages in a mixed mode, and a layer of soil is paved at the bottom of the biological inhabitation pond. The mud of cubic and earth presss from both sides the stone structure and the earth of laying of bottom can provide the nutrition for land and water living plant and store, do benefit to retaining and dynamic ecosystem's formation. Besides soil, sand soil, fine stones and the like can be paved at the bottom, and any mixture of the soil, the sand and the stones can be paved at the bottom. The inner wall of the biological inhabitation pond is also paved with a water and soil loss prevention layer, namely geotextile.
And meanwhile, the biological inhabitation pond with the function of the water accumulation part is provided with a water supply and drainage pipe network (which is the continuation of the construction of the water retention pipe network), water is introduced into the water retention pipe network through the water supply and drainage pipe network, or water is led out from the water retention pipe network to irrigate the biological inhabitation pond. The water inlet of the pipeline for leading away the water in the biological inhabitation pond is higher than the soil layer in the biological inhabitation pond, and a dust screen for preventing soil or sand from flowing into the pipeline is arranged. Specifically, the construction of the water supply and drainage pipes is performed synchronously with the construction of the surface water retention storage pipe network. The biological inhabitation pond is a water quality purification pond of the small-environment surface runoff and is also a water quality monitoring sampling pond of the small-environment surface runoff.
(7) Building biological inhabitation tower
The biological inhabitation tower is built on the stiffening cage layer, plants, preferably plants attracting birds, butterflies, dragonflies, fireflies and the like are planted and/or sown on the tower. The biological inhabitation tower is built by using local materials, preferably, different materials are alternately used for each layer of tower, and a plurality of hollow plastic pipes and bamboo tubes with two exposed ends are arranged on the tower, so that the biological inhabitation tower is beneficial to the growth or inhabitation of various organisms. Furthermore, a water supply pipe (which is the continuation of the construction of a water retention storage pipe network) is arranged in the biological inhabiting tower, and water can be supplied to the inhabiting tower in the arid period so as to maintain the growth of plants and the life of animals on the inhabiting tower.
(8) Construction of biological observation system
The biological observation system is built on a stiffening cage layer, in particular to a wired or wireless biological shooting frame capable of automatically shooting or shooting, which is built by materials with good stability and high storm wind resistance, cold resistance and high temperature resistance like a fixed electric wire pile, and an automatic shooting device is installed on the frame to record the change and the activity state of various animals, plants and natural environments in the environment, thereby providing real, scientific and accurate first-hand data for scientific research and scientific investigation.
(9) Construction of irrigation humidification system (which is the continuation of water retention pipe network construction)
And (5) building an irrigation and humidification system on the stiffening cage layer. Specifically, watering humidification system includes the feed pipe and stretches out the atomising head on stiffening cage layer, the atomising head holds the feed pipe intercommunication of pipe network with the water stagnation, the atomising head is to the plant humidification of spraying water.
3) Further construction of water retention pipe network
And (3) building a surface water filtering tank, a multi-pond system and a water blocking ridge on the stiffening cage layer, and installing a pipeline to introduce water in the surface water filtering tank, the multi-pond system and the water blocking ridge into a water retention pipe network.
Specifically, the filtering tank is built at the highest position on the ecological management layer, rainwater and other scattered water generated and used by life enter the first area of the ecological management layer, and the highest point of the filtering tank is lower than the lowest point of the ground outside the ecological management layer, so that the incoming water can smoothly enter the ecological management layer without any influence. The filter tank is constructed by referring to a biological inhabitation tank, but the surface of a soil layer in the tank is provided with blocks, so that plants can not be planted; and a soil loss preventing material, preferably geotextile, can be laid between the soil layer and the block layer. In the filtering tank, the pipe orifice of the pipeline for introducing water into the surface water retention storage pipe or the tank is higher than the soil layer in the filtering tank, and the pipe orifice is provided with a slag-proof or dust-proof cover. The filter tank solves the direct reason of the current urban flood disaster problem, namely, the road in the current urban construction is almost lower than the green belt beside the road, and is provided with mud blocking stones or bricks, so that after rainstorm comes, the limited sewer can not discharge flood rapidly and stays in the streets and alleys of the city.
The multi-pond system can be built at any position of the ecological management layer, and the lowest position is preferred. The construction can be carried out by referring to the construction methods of a biological habitat pool, a filtering pool, a rice field, a shallow pond and the like. Preferably, more than 3 ponds or ponds are built, suitable plants are planted in the ponds or ponds and animals, preferably aquatic flowers, vegetables and fish are bred for symbiosis, so that the ecological value is improved.
4) Building Tai Ji protective dike
A Taiji protection wall or dike is built at a certain distance outside a main engineering to prevent the completed engineering from being attacked by external forces such as strong storm, flood, wave and the like in a short period. Namely, a Taiji protective wall or dike is built in the windward area, the water-ward area, the wave-ward area and the like of the ecological management layer, so that the engineering area is automatically adjusted into a leeward area, a backwater area, a wave-returning area and the like.
5) Plant oxygen bar
And an oxygen collecting greenhouse is built above the ecological management layer, an oxygen conveying pipeline is installed, and oxygen generated by the stiffening cage, the biological habitat and the plants growing on the biological habitat is conveyed to the oxygen absorption experience room.
6) Daily maintenance and record
And (3) carrying out maintenance operations such as fertilization, watering and the like on the planted plants, grafting the branches among the same family plants and the plant branches at the upper, lower, left and right sides into a net-shaped permeable plant cage body after the plants grow to a certain degree. The biological shooting frame records the biological sign conditions of animals and plants, water level fluctuation of a water-level fluctuation zone, water and soil loss and the like.
Finally, the above embodiments are only for illustrating the technical solutions of the present invention and not for limiting, although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the preferred embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that modifications or equivalent substitutions may be made to the technical solutions of the present invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the technical solutions of the present invention, and all of them should be covered in the claims of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A method for multifunctional ecological management of cavernous bodies is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the construction of a water retention storage pipe network and an ecological management layer; the water retention storage pipe network collects and stores water from the ground surface and/or the underground, and also conveys the stored water to the ecological management layer to supply water for the growth and evolution of organisms in the ecological management layer;
the construction of the ecological management layer comprises the steps of constructing a stiffening cage layer on the surface of a field needing to be managed; the stiffening cage comprises a stiffening cage bottom, a stiffening cage body and a stiffening rib, wherein the stiffening cage bottom, the stiffening cage body and the stiffening cage top are formed by the stiffening net, one end of the stiffening rib is fixed with the stiffening net, and the rest part of the stiffening rib is fixed with the stiffening cage body and/or the stiffening cage top; the stiffening cage comprises filled soil and/or blocks, and plants are planted and/or sowed in the stiffening cage and/or at the top of the stiffening cage; plants planted in the stiffening cages extend out of the stiffening cages, or gaps for planting the plants are reserved in the stiffening cages;
the construction of the ecological management layer also comprises the construction of a biological inhabitation pool; the biological inhabiting pool is a pool with an opening at the top and is embedded in the stiffening cage layer, and plants are planted and/or sowed in the biological inhabiting pool;
the miniature water storage device is also embedded near the root of the plant planted in the stiffening cage, and the embedding method comprises the following steps: embedding waste or specially-made micro-vessels capable of storing certain water around roots of plants to be planted, and providing water sources for the plants when water resources are possibly exhausted;
the miniature water storage device is connected with the water retention storage pipe network, underground water and surface water are introduced to the roots of the plants, and the effects of retention and water supply to the roots of the plants in the natural evaporation process of the container are automatically or artificially exerted;
the construction of the ecological management layer also comprises the construction of a biological inhabitation tower; the biological inhabiting tower is a tower-shaped structure built on the stiffening cage layer, and plants are planted and/or sown on the biological inhabiting tower;
if the biological inhabiting tower is built into a five-layer tower, the materials adopted from bottom to top are as follows: soil-sandwiched stone, soil-sandwiched slag, soil-sandwiched sawdust, waste brick and soil, waste wood strip and soil;
a water supply pipe is arranged in the biological inhabiting tower and is used for supplying water to the biological inhabiting tower in an arid period so as to maintain the growth of plants and the life of animals on the biological inhabiting tower;
the biological inhabitation tower is internally provided with a hollow pipe or cylinder, and the two ends of the hollow pipe or cylinder are exposed out of the surface layer of the biological inhabitation tower so as to facilitate the inhabitation of animals and microorganisms.
2. The method for multifunctional ecological management of cavernous bodies as claimed in claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the water stagnation storage pipe network comprises a water accumulation part, a water storage part, an incoming water pipe and a water supply pipe; the water accumulation portion includes one or more of: collecting ponds for underground waters, rivers, lakes, oceans and surface waters; the water storage part is arranged underground and communicated with the water accumulation part through a water inlet pipe, and the ecological management layer is irrigated and/or humidified through a water supply pipe.
3. The method for multifunctional ecological management of cavernous bodies as claimed in claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the construction of the stiffening cage layer specifically comprises the following steps:
A. land preparation: arranging the construction site to be treated to form a required plane or slope;
B. laying a stiffening net and fixing stiffening ribs: laying a stiffening net on the soil-prepared surface to be used as the bottom of the stiffening cage; fixing one end of a stiffening rib on the stiffening net;
C. backfilling and planting plants: backfilling soil above the bottom layer of the stiffening cage to form a soil layer, and then backfilling blocks to form block layers; during the backfilling process, the stiffening net is rolled and folded to form a stiffening cage body and a stiffening cage top, and finally the stiffening net is closed to form the stiffening cage; during backfilling, the stiffening ribs connected with the bottom of the stiffening cage are continuously combed out, the stiffening ribs are fixed with the cage body and/or the cage top of the stiffening cage, and plants are planted and/or sown or gaps for planting the plants are reserved in the backfilling process.
4. The multifunctional ecological cavernous body treatment method of claim 2, which is characterized in that: the water storage part is a water retention storage pipe and/or a pool arranged below the ecological management layer; the water accumulation part is a biological inhabitation pond, and/or a water accumulation pond arranged on the ecological management layer or near the ecological management layer, and/or a gully arranged on the bank side of a river, a lake or the ocean and surrounded by water blocking ridges.
5. The method for multifunctional ecological management of cavernous bodies according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that: ecological improvement layer still is equipped with watering humidification system, watering humidification system's water supply mode is one of them or two kinds combine:
the irrigation humidification system is connected with the water retention storage pipe network and is supplied with water by the water retention storage pipe network;
the irrigation humidification system is connected with a city water supply system to supply water.
6. The method for multifunctional ecological management of cavernous bodies according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that: the ecological management layer is also provided with a plant oxygen bar in an auxiliary way; the plant oxygen bar comprises an oxygen receiving greenhouse, an oxygen delivery pipeline and an oxygen uptake experience room; the oxygen collecting greenhouse is covered above the ecological management layer and is communicated with the oxygen absorption experience room through an oxygen transmission pipeline.
7. The method for multifunctional ecological management of cavernous bodies according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that: a Tai Chi protection dike is arranged near the ecological management layer in an auxiliary manner; the Tai Chi protection embankment is a curved wall and/or a deposit built in a windward area, a water-ward area or a wave-ward area of the ecological management layer.
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