CN101422122B - Cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, matrix preparation method and seedling raising method using the same - Google Patents

Cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, matrix preparation method and seedling raising method using the same Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101422122B
CN101422122B CN2008102336755A CN200810233675A CN101422122B CN 101422122 B CN101422122 B CN 101422122B CN 2008102336755 A CN2008102336755 A CN 2008102336755A CN 200810233675 A CN200810233675 A CN 200810233675A CN 101422122 B CN101422122 B CN 101422122B
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China
Prior art keywords
seedling
sand
matrix
cigarette
tobacco
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CN2008102336755A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101422122A (en
Inventor
王文君
李煦征
邓小刚
李春明
张恒
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云南省烟草公司玉溪市公司
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Priority to CN2008102336755A priority Critical patent/CN101422122B/en
Publication of CN101422122A publication Critical patent/CN101422122A/en
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    • Y02P60/216

Abstract

The invention discloses a sand body substrate for culturing tobacco seedlings, a preparation method for the substrate and the application of the preparation method for the substrate, belonging to the technical field of tobacco seedling culturing and aiming at solving the damage to the environment caused by using grass peat in the existing seedling culturing substrate. The invention provides a tobacco seedling culturing sand body substrate which is mixed by sand bodies, vermiculite and perlite. The invention also provides a method for preparing the tobacco seedling culturing substrate, which comprises the steps of screening the sand bodies, sterilization, and mixing the sand bodies, the vermiculite and the perlite. The invention also provides a method for culturing tobacco seedlings. The method comprises the steps of arranging the sand body substrate in a seedling culturing tray, seeding, adding water into a seedling culturing pool, adding nutrition liquid after the tobacco seedlings erupt completely, carrying out thinning, replanting, leaf cutting as well as seedling hardening during the growing period and finally carrying out transplanting. The substrate used for seedling culturing has the advantages of high rate of emergence, high planting percent and low cost; moreover, the grass peat is not used, thus reducing the damage to the ecological environment.

Description

Cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, this matrix preparation method and with this substrate seedling method
Technical field
The invention belongs to the tobacco seedling technical field, the matrix that particularly a kind of tobacco seedling is used, the preparation method of this matrix and the method for cultivating the flue-cured tobacco seedling with this matrix.
Background technology
Be a kind of seedling medium that mainly mixes with the approaching technology of the present invention in the existing levitating seed-cultivating interstitial substance by perlite, vermiculite and the peat composed of rotten mosses.In this matrix formulations, peat composed of rotten mosses composition is indispensable primary raw material, and general ratio in matrix formulations can account for about 30%-50%, and the peat composed of rotten mosses generally derives from wetland, reserves are limited, can damage the wetlands ecosystems balance the exhaustive exploitation of the peat composed of rotten mosses.Peat composed of rotten mosses economic worth is higher relatively, uses the peat composed of rotten mosses can increase the cost of growing seedlings greatly in seedling medium.
Summary of the invention
For solve use in the existing seedling medium that the peat composed of rotten mosses brought ecotope is damaged and cultivates the problem of cost up, the invention provides a kind of cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, its embodiment is as follows:
A kind of cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, this matrix is mixed by sand body, vermiculite, perlite, and wherein the ratio of sand body dry matter, vermiculite dry matter, perlite dry mass volume is 1: 0.8: 0.8 to 1: 1.2: 1.2.
As the priority scheme of such scheme, the ratio of described sand body dry matter, vermiculite dry matter, perlite dry mass volume is 1: 1: 1.
As the priority scheme of such scheme, described sand body particle diameter is between 0.5 millimeter to 2.5 millimeters, and the perlite expansion multiple is greater than 10.
In the above-mentioned prescription, sand body and vermiculite play the effect of water-absorbing-retaining after adding entry, the moisture that cigarette seedling abundance can be provided in seedling raising process is for its growth needs, expanded perlite has the effect of setting off of supporting to sand body, avoid sand body to run off along the seedling-cultivating tray bottom outlet, simultaneously micro-hole can make also that seedling medium is ventilative, good water permeability in the perlite, and imitate in the gap of seedling cultivation and rooting in the matrix, promotes that the effect of cigarette shoot root portion growth is obvious.
Grow seedlings with cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix of the present invention, its emergence rate, spiral root rate, planting percent, strong sprout, rate can reach the nursery effect of existing levitating seed-cultivating interstitial substance, but because cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix formulations of the present invention is grown seedlings and is only adopted sand body, two kinds of components of perlite are made raw material, and these two kinds of component raw material sources are extensive, cheap, therefore adopt the peat composed of rotten mosses to compare with prior art as a kind of formula material of growing seedlings wherein, seedling-raising sand body matrix of the present invention has not only been avoided the destruction to ecotope, its nursery effect can reach the nursery effect of existing matrix formulations simultaneously, thereby has greatly reduced production cost.
Prepare the method for a kind of cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix of the present invention, form by following steps successively:
(1) screening uniform particles, pure sand body;
(2) sand body that screening is obtained carries out disinfection;
(3) sand body after will sterilizing evenly mixed than 1: 1: 1 by dry mass volume with vermiculite, perlite, promptly made required cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix.
Above steps is all carried out at normal temperatures and pressures.
Sand body can be paved under daylight in the step (2) and be shone foot and be no less than seven and carry out disinfection.
During use, the above-mentioned cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix for preparing is spilt wet with clear water, do and wetly will accompany evenly, moistening degree is agglomerating to hold, after the relieving gently moving can scattering be advisable.
The present invention also provides a kind of method of cultivating the cigarette seedling with cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, may further comprise the steps:
(1), seedling medium is placed in the hole of seedling-cultivating tray, seedling-cultivating tray is placed in the nursery pond in the seedling growth greenhouse, seedling medium is mixed by sand body, vermiculite, perlite, and wherein the ratio of sand body, vermiculite, perlitic dry mass volume is 1: 0.8: 0.8 to 1: 1.2: 1.2;
(2), in seedling-cultivating tray, broadcast into cigarette seed;
(3), in nursery pond, add water, seedling-cultivating tray is soaked swims in the nursery pond;
(4), the cigarette seedling all sprout the back in nursery pond, add nutrient solution, later every certain interval of time adds nutrient solution in nursery pond;
(5), tobacco seedling growth carries out thinning, fills the gaps with seedlings in the phase, leaf-cutting, hardening, at last the cigarette seedling is transplanted;
As the priority scheme of such scheme, the ratio of described sand body, vermiculite, perlitic dry mass volume is 1: 1: 1.
As the priority scheme of such scheme, described sand body particle diameter is between 0.5~2.5 millimeter.
Embodiment
Embodiment one: a kind of cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, and this matrix is mixed by sand body, perlite, and the perlite expansion multiple is greater than 10, and wherein the sand body dry mass volume is 1: 1 with the ratio of perlite dry mass volume, and the sand body particle diameter is between 0.5~2.5 millimeter.The sand body of selecting is must permeability good, good water absorption, have no side effect, uniform particles, pollution-free, contain few, the free from admixture of mud.Perlite is from the raw material of industry.
The preparation method of above-mentioned cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, at normal temperatures and pressures, good, the good water absorption of screening permeability, uniform particles, pure sand body, the sand body particle diameter is between 0.5 millimeter to 2.5 millimeters, sand body is placed on paves airing under the daylight and carried out disinfection in 7th, sand body and perlite are that 1: 1 ratio is evenly mixed in the dry mass volume ratio then, can make required cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix.
During use, the above-mentioned cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix for preparing is spilt wet with clear water, do and wetly will accompany evenly, moistening degree is agglomerating to hold, after the relieving gently moving can scattering be advisable.
The method of cultivating the cigarette seedling with above-mentioned cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix:
(1), material and specification
Seedling-cultivating tray: length * wide * height is (66.5 * 34 * 6.5) centimetre, 162 hole foam discs.
Pond film: polyethylene film, thick 0.12 millimeter.
The canopy film: the long-lived nothing of polyethylene is dripped a film, thickness (0.1 ± 0.02) millimeter.
Fly net: agricultural nylon wire, the door and window of booth will install 40 order fly nets additional.
Sunshade net: shading rate 〉=80%.
Seed: varieties of plant capsuled seed.
(2), water management
(1) water quality requirement: add the water in floating seedlings pond, require good, the free of contamination underground water of water quality, well water, reservoir water or river, pH value is (6.0~7.0) scope.Forbid to use Ba Tangshui, to prevent balck shank, root black rot etc.
(2) add water for the first time and after planting carrying out, will guarantee sufficient moisture from being seeded into to emerge, favourable emerging neatly.
(3), fertilizer management
(1) between nursery stage, nutrient solution adds with the side of plastic flexible pipe from nursery pond, nutrient solution is in nutrition liquid pool (moistening stage) or nursery pond (flotation stage) preparation, nutrient solution should shift to an earlier date 1 day water dissolves tobacco special fertilizer for seedling culture, this special fertilizer for seedling culture composition is nitric acid ammonia, phosphorus pentoxide and potassium sulphate, wherein nitric acid ammonia, phosphorus pentoxide and potassium sulphate are 18:9:18 by weight ratio, and the nutrient solution configuration concentration is pure N240ppm.Fully by plastic tube the nutrient input that configures is delivered to nursery pond behind the mixing, supply with the cigarette seedling.
(2) after the cigarette seedling all sprouts, just add nutrient solution for the first time, applied fertilizer later on every 20 days, keep 10 centimetres of the pond depth of waters with amount.
(4), temperature and humidity management
(1) temperature: temperature range (25~28) ℃.Little cross is before the phase, and temperature is elevated to 30~35 ℃, and tobacco seedling growth is suppressed, a small amount of burning seedling that occurs of beginning; Little cross after date, temperature is elevated to 35 ℃, though do not burn seedling, the excessive growth of cigarette seedling, strong sprout, rate descended, and was elevated to more than 35 ℃ a large amount of seedlings that burn of beginning as temperature.Temperature controlled principle is: promoted to emerge neatly based on the control temperature at preceding 15 days of the whole stage of growing seedlings, in 25 days based on the short root of regulating and controlling temperature, back 25 days based on the regulating and controlling temperature restraining the growth of seedlings.Concrete grammar is: will suitably shade afternoon after planting, guarantees to emerge;
(2) relative moisture: after planting to the seeding stage, relative moisture remains on about 85% in the canopy; The little cross phase, relative moisture remains on about 75% in the canopy; Relative moisture remains on (55~65) % in the grand cross after date canopy.
(5),, fill the gaps with seedlings
Tobacco seedling growth to three must in time carry out thinning during to four true leaves, fill the gaps with seedlings, and requires every cave one seedling, and heels in polishing and do not have the seedling cave.
(6), leaf-cutting
Leaf-cutting (3~4) is inferior.Leaf-cutting is for the first time grown to 6cm at the cigarette seedling and is carried out when high, after the leaf-cutting for the first time every (5~7) day leaf-cutting once.The principle of " preceding short, in steady, back control " is adhered in leaf-cutting.
(7), hardening
(7~10) day hardening before transplanting, booth is opened door and window, hut canopy film is all opened, and does not add water, does not add fertilizer, and the solid carbon dioxide layer that falls naturally maintenance sand body and root system are moistening.
Result of study:
1, use formulation media of the present invention to grow seedlings, its emergence rate, spiral root rate, planting percent, strong sprout, rate was respectively 94.3%, 2.7%, 97.2%, 95.6%.And the emergence rate of existing levitating seed-cultivating interstitial substance, spiral root rate, planting percent, strong sprout, rate was respectively 94.6%, 2.1%, 95.6%, 94.5%.Seedling stage 60d~70d.The all a little higher than existing floating seedlings level of the fresh and dried ratio of the overground part of this cigarette seedling and underground part.Well developed root system, the cigarette seedling is delicate and pretty anosis.Total radical in 70d seedling stage can reach 366, and wherein economical character such as stem girth, main root length, one-level lateral root number, effective blade number, maximum leaf length, maximum width of blade, overground part fresh weight, underground part fresh weight and conventional floating seedlings are not remarkable difference.
2, seedling cost: supporting 100 mu of lands for growing field crops, the cost of new formulation media is 469.38 yuan, supporting 100 mu of lands for growing field crops, existing levitating seed-cultivating interstitial substance cost is 1602.13 yuan.Every mu of needed raw material expense of this formulation media reduces 11.32 yuan/mu than conventional seedbed system needed raw material expense.
Two outstanding advantages of formulation media of the present invention:
1, remarkable in economical benefits: after using new formulation media, can greatly reduce seedling cost.
2, ecological benefits and social benefit are obvious: can effectively reduce the destruction to ecotope.In the former levitating seed-cultivating interstitial substance prescription, the peat composed of rotten mosses is indispensable primary raw material, general ratio in matrix formulations can account for about 30%~50%, the peat composed of rotten mosses is as natural non-renewable resources, reserves are limited, and the peat composed of rotten mosses generally derives from wetland, will certainly cause irreversible destruction to the wetlands ecosystems balance to the exhaustive exploitation of the peat composed of rotten mosses.The present invention need not to use the peat composed of rotten mosses, helps the protection of ecotope.

Claims (4)

1. method of cultivating the cigarette seedling with cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix may further comprise the steps:
(1), seedling medium is placed in the hole of seedling-cultivating tray, seedling-cultivating tray is placed in the nursery pond in the seedling growth greenhouse;
(2), in seedling-cultivating tray matrix, broadcast into cigarette seed;
(3), in nursery pond, add water, seedling-cultivating tray is soaked swims in the nursery pond; The water ph value scope that adds in the nursery pond is 6.0 to 7.0, adds water for the first time and is after planting carrying out, and will guarantee sufficient moisture from being seeded into to emerge, favourable emerging neatly;
(4), the cigarette seedling all sprout the back in nursery pond, add nutrient solution, later every certain interval of time adds nutrient solution in nursery pond; The method of Ensure Liquid liquid is in nursery pond: the method for preparation nutrient solution is a water dissolves tobacco special fertilizer for seedling culture, this special fertilizer for seedling culture component is nitric acid ammonia, phosphorus pentoxide and potassium sulphate, wherein nitric acid ammonia, phosphorus pentoxide and potassium sulphate are 18: 9: 18 by weight ratio, the nutrient solution configuration concentration is pure N240mg/kg, fully by plastic tube the nutrient solution that configures is added with the side of plastic flexible pipe from nursery pond behind the mixing, supply with the cigarette seedling; After the cigarette seedling all sprouts, just add nutrient solution for the first time, applied fertilizer later on every 20 days, keep 10 centimetres of the pond depth of waters with amount;
(5), tobacco seedling growth carries out thinning, fills the gaps with seedlings in the phase, leaf-cutting, hardening, at last the cigarette seedling is transplanted; Tobacco seedling growth in the phase temperature in 25~28 ℃ of scopes; After planting to the seeding stage, relative moisture remains on about 85% in the canopy; The little cross phase, relative moisture remains on about 75% in the canopy; Relative moisture remains on 55% to 65% in the grand cross after date canopy;
It is characterized in that: the seedling medium in the above-mentioned steps (1) is mixed by sand body, vermiculite, perlite, and wherein the ratio of sand body, vermiculite, perlitic dry mass volume is 1: 0.8: 0.8 to 1: 1.2: 1.2.
2. a kind of method of cultivating the cigarette seedling with cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the ratio of described sand body, vermiculite, perlitic dry mass volume is 1: 1: 1.
3. a kind of method of cultivating the cigarette seedling with cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix according to claim 2 is characterized in that: described sand body particle size range is between 0.5 millimeter to 2.5 millimeters.
4. a kind of method of cultivating the cigarette seedling with cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix according to claim 3 is characterized in that:
Seedling-cultivating tray in the described step (1) is a foam disc, and 162 holes are arranged, long 66.5 centimetres, wide 34 centimetres, high 6.5 centimetres of seedling-cultivating tray; Be equipped with the pond film in the described nursery pond, 0.12 millimeter of pond thickness; The canopy film is that the long-lived nothing of polyethylene is dripped a film, and thickness is 0.1 ± 0.02 millimeter; Be coated with the canopy film on the described seedling growth greenhouse, be provided with fly net in the canopy film, the canopy film is coated with the sunshade net outward, and fly net is agricultural nylon wire; The shading rate of sunshade net is removed the sunshade net after the cigarette seedling is emerged tri-leaf period greater than 80%; Seed is the varieties of plant capsuled seed;
Thinning in the described step (5), the method for filling the gaps with seedlings are: tobacco seedling growth to three must in time carry out thinning during to four true leaves, fill the gaps with seedlings, and requires every cave one seedling, and heels in polishing and do not have the seedling cave; Leaf shearing method is: leaf-cutting is 3 to 4 times in the tobacco seedling growth phase, and leaf-cutting is for the first time grown to 6cm at the cigarette seedling and carried out when high, after the leaf-cutting for the first time every leaf-cutting in 5 to 7 days once; Hardening off method is for transplanting preceding 7 to 10 days hardenings, and booth is opened door and window, hut canopy film is all opened, and does not add water, does not add fertilizer, and the solid carbon dioxide layer that falls naturally maintenance sand body and root system are moistening.
CN2008102336755A 2008-11-28 2008-11-28 Cured tobacco seedling-raising sand body matrix, matrix preparation method and seedling raising method using the same CN101422122B (en)

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CN101663989B (en) * 2009-09-23 2012-04-18 四川省烟草公司宜宾市公司 Sand body matrix material of sand cultivated flue-cured tobacco seedlings
CN101779593B (en) * 2010-04-06 2011-05-11 贵州省烟草科学研究所 Organic tobacco seedling culture method
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CN102106249A (en) * 2010-11-26 2011-06-29 云南省烟草公司楚雄州公司 Flue-cured tobacco floating seedling culture inorganic matrix
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CN103828699B (en) * 2014-03-12 2016-03-23 中国烟草总公司福建省公司 A kind of improvement method of cigarette seedling floating seedlings
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CN105594340A (en) * 2016-01-11 2016-05-25 河南省农业科学院烟草研究所 Tobacco seed germination bed and production method thereof
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CN106665306A (en) * 2016-12-13 2017-05-17 江苏徐淮地区徐州农业科学研究所(江苏徐州甘薯研究中心) Winter tobacco indoor generation adding breeding method
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