CN110122148A - A kind of implantation methods of navel orange - Google Patents

A kind of implantation methods of navel orange Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110122148A
CN110122148A CN201910436670.0A CN201910436670A CN110122148A CN 110122148 A CN110122148 A CN 110122148A CN 201910436670 A CN201910436670 A CN 201910436670A CN 110122148 A CN110122148 A CN 110122148A
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China
Prior art keywords
fertilizer
branch
navel orange
plant
tree
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CN201910436670.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
罗中绪
余治国
舒文平
费文明
刘祥国
罗中平
吴泽平
李小丽
伍为民
陈秋双
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Chongqing Fengjie County Multipurpose Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Chongqing Fengjie County Multipurpose Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201910436670.0A priority Critical patent/CN110122148A/en
Publication of CN110122148A publication Critical patent/CN110122148A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of implantation methods of navel orange, including selection of land, site preparation, digging planting pit, seedling planting, field planting processing, fertilizer and water management, pruning, tree crown management, flower and fruit protecting and prevention and treatment pest and disease damage.The present invention selects fertile soil property, illumination and the good field of irrigation and drainage as planting site first in the equal strict control of links that navel orange is planted, and provides suitable environment for navel orange growth;Secondly, treelet is colonized using homemade planting water, nutrient is provided for its growth, improves the survival rate and rooting efficiency of plant in plantation;Then, field water fertilizer amount is rationally controlled in growth period, regular beta pruning, guarantees that plant and fruit sufficiently grow at fruit thinning, different phase implementation fertilizer and water management is grown to it by following navel orange growth rhythm, beta pruning is modified, the fertilizer supply guarantee nutrition during control plantation, the sturdy health of branch after navel orange trees are mature, it is planted suitable for large scale systemization, can be farmer's increasing both production and income.

Description

A kind of implantation methods of navel orange
Technical field
The present invention relates to planting fruit trees technical field, specially a kind of implantation methods of navel orange.
Background technique
Navel orange quality is excellent, and due to seedless succulence, sweet, meat is crisp, Fu Xiangqi, lovely luster, and navel orange is full of nutrition, contains Vitamin C and carrotene can inhibit the formation of carcinogen, moreover it is possible to and softening and protection blood vessel promote blood circulation, Cholesterol and blood lipid are reduced, the possibility to suffer from a heart complaint is reduced, prevents gallbladder disease, just because of navel orange contains all kinds of of needed by human body Nutrition and in good taste, is well received by consumers, and it is the citrus breeding widely cultivated that economic value is high.
Currently, in navel orange planting process, often will appear as mismanagement and caused by low fruit yields, poor quality The phenomenon that or some farmers determine fertilization type only according to general plantation experience when applying fertilizer, or in order to improve Yield has used a large amount of chemical fertilizer and pesticide, impaired serious so as to cause soil, and the nutrient of navel orange is insufficient, mouthfeel is poor, It is not able to satisfy the needs in market.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of implantation methods of navel orange, to solve mentioned above in the background art ask Topic.
In order to solve the above technical problem, the present invention provides following technical solutions: a kind of implantation methods of navel orange, including with Lower step:
Step 1, selection of land: selection is sunny, and it is convenient to irrigate, 25 gentle slope ゜ or less of the gradient, soil layer depth 1m or more, underground water Position 1.5m hereinafter, it is fertile it is loose, soil layer quality is thinner, upper and lower uniform soil;
Step 2, site preparation: ploughing deeply soil 30-35cm, removes stone in soil, and Chicken dung 170- is then added thereto 190kg, urea 50-60kg, Nanoscale Iron slag powders 4-5kg, granatum powder 20-30kg, attapulgite 80-90kg, bamboo charcoal powder 30- 40kg and modified agricultural crop straw 80-90kg;
Step 3 digs planting pit: centered on field planting point, excavate length and width, it is deep be respectively 0.8-1.0m, 0.5-0.8m, The planting pit of 1.0-1.5m, and the distance between two neighboring planting pit is 2.5m, is filled out in each planting pit as thick fertilizer is (such as green Fertilizer, weeds, straw, cigarette foam etc.) 6-8kg, lime 0.6-1kg, phosphate fertilizer 1-1.5kg, cake fertilizer 2-3kg, decomposed manure 5-8kg, And lime is uniformly filled out in planting pit lowest level, thick fertilizer is filled out on lkd layer, remaining fertilizer, which stirs evenly, to be filled out on thick fertilizer, and fertilizer is filled out After complete, one layer of fine earth of covering on fertilizer, vacant 15-25 days;
Step 4, seedling planting: in late Febuary in spring-mid-March or early October in autumn-early November, selection growth The healthy and strong nursery stock that is out of the garden is transplanted, and with thin mud root dipping portion when outplanting, nursery stock is planted in cave center vertically, and root system is unfolded, Root water is watered with after plant, soil moisture of being subject to is saturated, and makes root system and the close knot of soil, and one layer of upper cover loose covering is protected Moisture in the soil;And the fixed nursery stock of windproof pole is plugged, drench a root water after plant in 5 days daily, then each every plant of water consumption 10-30L is used Straw covering tree disk;After seedling planting, winter before cold wave arriving, with rice straw mulching on branch and with white-out agent brushing tree It does then with rice straw mulching tree disk;
Step 5, field planting processing: the second year 1-3 month of transplanted seedling tree, between navel orange trees between plant Yellow Fructus Gardeniae, selection is high Degree is that the Yellow Fructus Gardeniae sapling of 0.5-0.8m is planted between navel orange trees, and plantation 1-2 arranges Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree between adjacent two rows navel orange trees;
Step 6, fertilizer and water management: every plant of sapling foliage top dressing in 30 days imposed until mid-August stops every 10-15 days after planting Primary thin decomposed manure water and instant nitrogenousfertilizer, strain apply 1.5 parts;After plantation survives, rush is applied within 7-10 days before annual young sprout pumping Tip fertilizer;After current year young sprout pumping, one is imposed to tip-promoting fertilizer twice, autumn and winter depth Shi Yici base manure;Mid or late Febuary next year at least 3 The first tenday period of a month moon apply fertilizer before bud, and late June to early July applies autumn growth fruit-promoting fertilizer, winter depth Shi Yici base manure;Apply spring bud fertilizer third year, Base manure is applied together with spring bud fertilizer;Mid-May, the last ten-days period, primary steady fruit fertilizer is imposed, raw material includes: 1-2 parts of nitrogenous fertilizer and combines phosphorus potassium multiple Hefei 1-2 parts;
Step 7, pruning: trimming the thin and delicate branch on major branch after the tip rudiment of First Year spring, to cultivate based on tree crown, Trimming is preferably light, stays branches and leaves more, retains base portion auxiliary support branch, and trunk stays 2-3 major branch, and every major branch stays 2-3 secondary main branch, healthy and strong outer It encloses and stays 2-3 young sprout on branch, remaining is erased, and the young sprout left stays 8-10 piece leaf and timely pinching, is promoted to do sth. in advance maturation, be inspired down Young sprout is sprouted, and guarantees to take out 3 tips every year, is cultivated healthy and strong skeleton, is increased branch series, quickly form high yield tree crown, to the The thin and delicate branch on above-mentioned major branch and major branch extension branch is trimmed after the tip rudiment of 2 year spring, continues to choose the strong branch of growth as master Branch extends branch and width major branch extends branch, and cutting back major branch extends branch when third annual bearing and secondary main branch extends branch, and summer shoot of erasing promotees The healthy and strong autumn growth of hair, the general long tip only stay 5 buds, prune overstocked branch, crossing branch, the branch group that fails off, without leaf inflorescence branch, retain interior thorax Branch;
Step 8, tree crown management: earsh is cultivated into short dry round end tree crown;The high control of tree is at 3 meters hereinafter, greenery thickness degree 1 Rice or so, tree crown coverage rate 75%-85%;
Step 9, flower and fruit protecting: bud stage thanks florescence and young fruit period and respectively sprays 0.3% urea and adds 0.3% biphosphate 3-5L is applied in potassium and 0.2% borax mixed liquor, strain;It thanks and spends 2/3, before and after first time physiological fallen fruit and second of physiological fallen fruit, use Each spraying decoration of 50mg/kg gibberellin and young fruit are primary, and 2-4L is applied in strain;After fruiting, then with 250mg/kg gibberellin, 0.3% urea and It is primary that 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed liquor smears young fruit;Anti- navel Huang shedding is when navel orange thanks and spends 4/5, with 70% thiophanate methyl 800 times of liquid 50mg/kg gibberellin mixed liquor sprinklings are primary, and every plant is applied 2-3L;It is red mould with 50mg/kg parts after second of physiological fallen fruit 800 times of liquid mixed liquors of element and 70% thiophanate methyl spray tree crown, and 2-4L is applied in strain, primary every processing in 10-15 days;Late July is to 8 The middle of the month is primary with 600-800 times of liquid smearing fruit umbilical region of yellow ester is pressed down;
Step 10, prevention and treatment pest and disease damage: in the long 0.5cm of spring bud, with 77% can kill the spray of 800 times of liquid is primary, every 7-10 days It sprays again once, applies 2L for every plant every time;It is sprayed in the rigid lamina of young sprout for the first time, every second of spray in 7-10 days, applies 1L for every plant every time;It opens 100-150 times of liquid of a lime sulfur or 95% machine oil emulsion was sprayed before spring again, every plant is applied 1L;As young sprout pumping 1-1.5cm long, It immediately with Dipel desinsection, sprayed later every 7 days or so, continuous spray two is to three times, each every plant of spray 3L.
Further, modified agricultural crop straw described in step 2 the preparation method is as follows:
3) agricultural crop straw is weighed, is crushed, the sulphur of the ammonium molybdate, 1-2% that are equivalent to agricultural crop straw weight 2-3% is added Sour manganese, the nano-carbon powder of 1-2%, the clay of 30-40%, the turpentine oil of 2-3%, the 1-2 times of water measured, are mixed with beating;Solarization again To 7-8 at doing, it is ground into coarse grain;
4) methyl methacrylate for being equivalent to its weight 10-15%, is added into the coarse grain of preparation, stirs evenly, 50- It is dried at 60 DEG C, is ground into powder to obtain the final product.
Further, root water described in step 4 is by the thiophanate-methyl and phosphorus of self-prepared organic fertilizer, 0.5-1wt% Sour potassium according to mass ratio be 1.8-2.0:0.6-0.8:0.3-0.5 after mixing, the water that 120-130 times of its gross mass is added is dilute It is made after releasing.
Further, the spacing distance in step 5 between adjacent two rows Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree is 0.6-1m, the yellow Cape jasmine in same row The spacing of subtree is 0.8-1.2m.
Further, in step 5 before the plant of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree, 2-3kg is added in the planting pit of each plant Yellow Fructus Gardeniae Farmyard manure will suitably wipe out branches and leaves after the plant of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree, and selection is transplanted in rainy weather.
Further, tip-promoting fertilizer described in step 6, strong tip fertilizer, base manure specific implementation dosage include following raw material: promote the tip 1-1.5 parts of urea, 1-2 parts of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer are applied in fertile strain;Strong tip fertilizer strain applies decomposed cake fertilizer 2-3 part, 1-1.5 parts of urea, phosphorus potassium answers Hefei 1-2 parts;4.5-10 parts of base manure.
Further, short dry round end trunk described in step 8 is the high 20-26cm of trunk, and 40-50 ° of 3-4 opening degree is stayed to exist The branch being evenly distributed on trunk makees major branch, is spaced apart from each other 5cm, other branch pinching promote branch, and major branch is long to away from trunk 30- 40cm stays the first secondary main branch, then selects and remain second and third secondary main branch that direction is staggered every 30-40cm.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects obtained by the present invention are as follows being:
1), the present invention selects fertile soil property, illumination and row in the equal strict control of links of navel orange plantation, first selection Good field is filled as planting site, provides suitable environment for navel orange growth;Secondly, in plantation, using homemade field planting Treelet is colonized by water, provides nutrient for its growth, improves the survival rate and rooting efficiency of plant;Then, it is rationally controlled in growth period Field water fertilizer amount processed, regular beta pruning, fruit thinning guarantee that plant and fruit sufficiently grow, and are given birth to by following navel orange growth rhythm to it Long different phase implements fertilizer and water management, modifies beta pruning, and the fertilizer supply during control plantation guarantees to set after nutrition, navel orange trees are mature The sturdy health of branch.
2), modified agricultural crop straw performance of the adsorbent prepared by the present invention is stablized, organic to heavy metal ion and dyestuff etc. Object has the adsorption capacity of wide spectrum, has preferable economic and social benefit.
3), before navel orange transplanted seedling tree, lime improved soill earth is inserted in planting pit, while thick fertilizer and other fertilizer are added Material, place a period of time carries out transplanted seedling tree again, setting in this way, and various fertilizer can be made to carry out adequately dilution and anti- It answers, is not only more conducive to fertilizer and is absorbed, but also be avoided that fresh fertilizer generates harm to sapling, thick fertilizer is in putrefaction process In, it can not only continue to provide organic fertilizer, and be able to maintain loose suddenly, be conducive to navel orange trees and absorb nutrient and moisture.
4) Yellow Fructus Gardeniae, is planted between adjacent navel orange trees, soil can not only be made full use of, improves the additional production in soil Value improves planting income, increases the income in navel orange planting process, since the interval between navel orange trees is larger, the kind of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae Plant can effectively inhibit weed growth and prevent erosion, and by navel orange and Yellow Fructus Gardeniae mixed planting, can utilize Yellow Fructus Gardeniae Pharmacological property improves the mouthfeel and nutritive value of navel orange.
5), the present invention is handled by carrying out pre- fertilizer to kind of plant hole, is formed the soil environment for being conducive to navel orange growth, is used simultaneously The tip-promoting fertilizer of particular formulation, strong tip fertilizer, base manure carry out top dressing, enter fertilizer nutrient directly by Ye Pin and make object, inhale It is fast to receive speed, the intracorporal nutrient of crop can be made to greatly increase in a short time, alleviates the fertilizer deficiency situation of crop rapidly, plays The maximum benefit of fertilizer, but also can be reduced shedding, promote fruiting, improves yield.
As stated above, the implantation methods of navel orange proposed by the present invention can improve the percentage of fertile fruit of navel orange, save fertilizer, improve and produce Amount, pre- disease prevention improve product nutritive value, are suitable for large scale systemization and plant, can be farmer's increasing both production and income.
Specific embodiment
It is clearly and completely described below in conjunction with the technical solution in the embodiment of the present invention, it is clear that described reality Applying example is only a part of the embodiment of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.Based on the embodiments of the present invention, this field is general Logical technical staff every other embodiment obtained without making creative work belongs to what the present invention protected Range.
Embodiment 1
A kind of implantation methods of navel orange, comprising the following steps:
Step 1, selection of land: selection is sunny, and it is convenient to irrigate, 25 gentle slope ゜ or less of the gradient, soil layer depth 1m or more, underground water Position 1.5m hereinafter, it is fertile it is loose, soil layer quality is thinner, upper and lower uniform soil;
Step 2, site preparation: ploughing deeply soil 30cm, removes stone in soil, and Chicken dung 170kg, urine are then added thereto Plain 50kg, Nanoscale Iron slag powders 4kg, granatum powder 20kg, attapulgite 80kg, bamboo charcoal powder 30kg and modified agricultural crop straw 80kg;
Step 3, digging planting pit: centered on field planting point, the field planting of length and width, deep respectively 0.8m, 0.5m, 1.0m is excavated Cave, and the distance between two neighboring planting pit is 2.5m, filled out in each planting pit as thick fertilizer (such as green manure, weeds, straw, Cigarette foam etc.) 6kg, lime 0.6kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg, cake fertilizer 2kg, decomposed manure 5kg, and lime uniformly fill out it is most lower in planting pit Layer, thick fertilizer are filled out on lkd layer, remaining fertilizer, which stirs evenly, to be filled out on thick fertilizer, and after fertilizer completes, one layer is covered on fertilizer Fine earth, vacant 15 days;
Step 4, seedling planting: in mid-March in spring, the nursery stock that is out of the garden of robust growth is selected to be transplanted, outplanting When with thin mud root dipping portion, nursery stock is planted in cave center vertically, and root system is unfolded, root water is watered with after plant, is saturated with soil moisture Subject to, make root system and the close knot of soil, one layer of upper cover loose covering soil moisture conservation;And the fixed nursery stock of windproof pole is plugged, after plant in 5 days Root water of leaching daily, each every plant of water consumption 10L, then with Straw covering tree disk;After seedling planting, winter comes in cold wave Before facing, with rice straw mulching then with rice straw mulching tree disk on branch and with white-out agent brushing trunk;
Step 5, field planting processing: 2 month of second year of transplanted seedling tree, between navel orange trees between plant Yellow Fructus Gardeniae, selection height It is planted between navel orange trees for the Yellow Fructus Gardeniae sapling of 0.5m, plants 1 row Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree between adjacent two rows navel orange trees;
Step 6, fertilizer and water management: every plant of sapling foliage top dressing in 30 days after planting imposed one every 10 days until mid-August stops Secondary thin decomposed manure water and instant nitrogenousfertilizer, strain apply 1.5 parts;After plantation survives, tip-promoting fertilizer is applied within 4 days before annual young sprout pumping; After current year young sprout pumping, one is imposed to tip-promoting fertilizer twice, autumn and winter depth Shi Yici base manure;Mid or late Febuary next year applies fertilizer before bud, and 6 The last ten-days period moon apply autumn growth fruit-promoting fertilizer, winter depth Shi Yici base manure;Apply spring bud fertilizer third year, base manure is applied together with spring bud fertilizer;In 5 months Ten days, the last ten-days period, primary steady fruit fertilizer is imposed, raw material includes: 1 part of nitrogenous fertilizer and combines 2 parts of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer;
Step 7, pruning: trimming the thin and delicate branch on major branch after the tip rudiment of First Year spring, to cultivate based on tree crown, Trimming is preferably light, stays branches and leaves more, retains base portion auxiliary support branch, and trunk stays 2 major branches, and every major branch stays 2 secondary main branches, healthy and strong peripheral branch On stay 3 young sprouts, remaining is erased, and the young sprout left stays 8 leaves and timely pinching, is promoted to do sth. in advance maturation, is inspired young sprout next time It sprouts, guarantees to take out 3 tips every year, cultivate healthy and strong skeleton, increase branch series, high yield tree crown is quickly formed, to the second year spring tip The thin and delicate branch on above-mentioned major branch and major branch extension branch is trimmed after rudiment, continues to choose the strong branch of growth as major branch extension branch Extend branch with width major branch, cutting back major branch extends branch when third annual bearing and secondary main branch extends branch, and summer shoot of erasing inspires the healthy and strong autumn The tip, the general long tip only stay 5 buds, prune overstocked branch, crossing branch, the branch group that fails off, without leaf inflorescence branch, retain internal branch;
Step 8, tree crown management: earsh is cultivated into short dry round end tree crown;The high control of tree is at 3 meters hereinafter, greenery thickness degree 1 Rice or so, tree crown coverage rate 85%;
Step 9, flower and fruit protecting: bud stage thanks florescence and young fruit period and respectively sprays 0.3% urea and adds 0.3% biphosphate 3L is applied in potassium and 0.2% borax mixed liquor, strain;It thanks and spends 2/3, before and after first time physiological fallen fruit and second of physiological fallen fruit, use 50mg/ Each spraying decoration of kg gibberellin and young fruit are primary, and 2L is applied in strain;After fruiting, then with 250mg/kg gibberellin, 0.3% urea and 0.3% phosphorus It is primary that acid dihydride potassium mixed liquor smears young fruit;Anti- navel Huang shedding is when navel orange thanks and spends 4/5, with 70% thiophanate methyl, 800 times of liquid The sprinkling of 50mg/kg gibberellin mixed liquor is primary, and every plant is applied 2L;50mg/kg parts of gibberellin and 70% are used after second of physiological fallen fruit 800 times of liquid mixed liquors of thiophanate methyl spray tree crown, and 2L is applied in strain, primary every processing in 10 days;Late July suppression 600 times of liquid of yellow ester It is primary to smear fruit umbilical region;
Step 10, prevention and treatment pest and disease damage: in the long 0.5cm of spring bud, with 77% can kill the spray of 800 times of liquid is primary, sprayed again every 7 days Once, 2L is applied for each every plant;It is sprayed in the rigid lamina of young sprout for the first time, every second of spray in 10 days, applies 1L for every plant every time;Before the beginning of spring again 100 times of liquid of a lime sulfur or 95% machine oil emulsion are sprayed, every plant is applied 1L;As young sprout pumping 1cm long, immediately with Su Yunjin bar Bacterium desinsection sprayed every 7 days or so later, and continuous spray two is to three times, each every plant of spray 3L.
Wherein, modified agricultural crop straw described in step 2 the preparation method is as follows:
1) agricultural crop straw, is weighed, is crushed, the sulfuric acid of the ammonium molybdate, 1% that are equivalent to agricultural crop straw weight 3% is added Manganese, 1% nano-carbon powder, 30% clay, 2% turpentine oil, 1 times of water measured, are mixed with beating;Again solarization to 8 one-tenth it is dry, crush At coarse grain;
2) methyl methacrylate for being equivalent to its weight 15%, is added into the coarse grain of preparation, stirs evenly, at 60 DEG C Drying, is ground into powder to obtain the final product.
Wherein, root water described in step 4 be by self-prepared organic fertilizer, the thiophanate-methyl of 0.5wt% and potassium phosphate by According to mass ratio be 1.8:0.8:0.5 after mixing, be added 130 times of its gross mass water dilution after be made.
Wherein, the spacing distance in step 5 between adjacent two rows Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree is 0.8, the Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree in same row Spacing is 1.2m.
Wherein, in step 5 before the plant of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree, 2kg farmyard manure is added in the planting pit of each plant Yellow Fructus Gardeniae, Branches and leaves are suitably wiped out after the plant of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree, and selection is transplanted in rainy weather.
Wherein, tip-promoting fertilizer described in step 6, strong tip fertilizer, base manure specific implementation dosage include following raw material: tip-promoting fertilizer strain Apply 1.5 parts of urea, 2 parts of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer;2 parts of decomposed cake fertilizer, 1 part of urea, 1 part of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer are applied in strong tip fertilizer strain;Base manure 5 Part.
Wherein, short dry round end trunk described in step 8 is the high 20cm of trunk, and 40 ° of 3 opening degrees is stayed to be distributed on trunk Even branch makees major branch, is spaced apart from each other 5cm, other branch pinching promote branch, and major branch is long extremely to stay the first secondary main branch away from trunk 40cm, Then second and third secondary main branch that direction is staggered is selected and remain every 40cm.
Embodiment 2
A kind of implantation methods of navel orange, comprising the following steps:
Step 1, selection of land: selection is sunny, and it is convenient to irrigate, 25 gentle slope ゜ or less of the gradient, soil layer depth 1m or more, underground water Position 1.5m hereinafter, it is fertile it is loose, soil layer quality is thinner, upper and lower uniform soil;
Step 2, site preparation: ploughing deeply soil 35cm, removes stone in soil, and Chicken dung 190kg, urine are then added thereto Plain 58kg, Nanoscale Iron slag powders 5kg, granatum powder 27kg, attapulgite 85kg, bamboo charcoal powder 38kg and modified agricultural crop straw 85kg;
Step 3, digging planting pit: centered on field planting point, the field planting of length and width, deep respectively 1.0m, 0.8m, 1.5m is excavated Cave, and the distance between two neighboring planting pit is 2.5m, filled out in each planting pit as thick fertilizer (such as green manure, weeds, straw, Cigarette foam etc.) 8kg, lime 1kg, phosphate fertilizer 1.5kg, cake fertilizer 3kg, decomposed manure 8kg, and lime uniformly fill out it is most lower in planting pit Layer, thick fertilizer are filled out on lkd layer, remaining fertilizer, which stirs evenly, to be filled out on thick fertilizer, and after fertilizer completes, one layer is covered on fertilizer Fine earth, vacant 25 days;
Step 4, seedling planting: early October in the fall selects the nursery stock that is out of the garden of robust growth to be transplanted, outplanting When with thin mud root dipping portion, nursery stock is planted in cave center vertically, and root system is unfolded, root water is watered with after plant, is saturated with soil moisture Subject to, make root system and the close knot of soil, one layer of upper cover loose covering soil moisture conservation;And the fixed nursery stock of windproof pole is plugged, after plant in 5 days Root water of leaching daily, each every plant of water consumption 30L, then with Straw covering tree disk;After seedling planting, winter comes in cold wave Before facing, with rice straw mulching then with rice straw mulching tree disk on branch and with white-out agent brushing trunk;
Step 5, field planting processing: second year March of transplanted seedling tree, between navel orange trees between plant Yellow Fructus Gardeniae, selection height It is planted between navel orange trees for the Yellow Fructus Gardeniae sapling of 0.8m, plants 2 row Yellow Fructus Gardeniae trees between adjacent two rows navel orange trees;
Step 6, fertilizer and water management: every plant of sapling foliage top dressing in 30 days after planting imposed one every 15 days until mid-August stops Secondary thin decomposed manure water and instant nitrogenousfertilizer, strain apply 1.5 parts;After plantation survives, tip-promoting fertilizer is applied within 10 days before annual young sprout pumping; After current year young sprout pumping, one is imposed to tip-promoting fertilizer twice, autumn and winter depth Shi Yici base manure;Next year early March applies fertilizer before bud, July The first tenday period of a month apply autumn growth fruit-promoting fertilizer, winter depth Shi Yici base manure;Apply spring bud fertilizer third year, base manure is applied together with spring bud fertilizer;In 5 months Ten days, the last ten-days period, primary steady fruit fertilizer is imposed, raw material includes: 2 parts of nitrogenous fertilizer and combines 2 parts of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer;
Step 7, pruning: trimming the thin and delicate branch on major branch after the tip rudiment of First Year spring, to cultivate based on tree crown, Trimming is preferably light, stays branches and leaves more, retains base portion auxiliary support branch, and trunk stays 3 major branches, and every major branch stays 3 secondary main branches, healthy and strong peripheral branch On stay 3 young sprouts, remaining is erased, and the young sprout left stays 10 leaves and timely pinching, is promoted to do sth. in advance maturation, is inspired young sprout next time It sprouts, guarantees to take out 3 tips every year, cultivate healthy and strong skeleton, increase branch series, high yield tree crown is quickly formed, to the second year spring tip The thin and delicate branch on above-mentioned major branch and major branch extension branch is trimmed after rudiment, continues to choose the strong branch of growth as major branch extension branch Extend branch with width major branch, cutting back major branch extends branch when third annual bearing and secondary main branch extends branch, and summer shoot of erasing inspires the healthy and strong autumn The tip, the general long tip only stay 5 buds, prune overstocked branch, crossing branch, the branch group that fails off, without leaf inflorescence branch, retain internal branch;
Step 8, tree crown management: earsh is cultivated into short dry round end tree crown;The high control of tree is at 3 meters hereinafter, greenery thickness degree 1 Rice or so, tree crown coverage rate 85%;
Step 9, flower and fruit protecting: bud stage thanks florescence and young fruit period and respectively sprays 0.3% urea and adds 0.3% biphosphate 5L is applied in potassium and 0.2% borax mixed liquor, strain;It thanks and spends 2/3, before and after first time physiological fallen fruit and second of physiological fallen fruit, use 50mg/ Each spraying decoration of kg gibberellin and young fruit are primary, and 4L is applied in strain;After fruiting, then with 250mg/kg gibberellin, 0.3% urea and 0.3% phosphorus It is primary that acid dihydride potassium mixed liquor smears young fruit;Anti- navel Huang shedding is when navel orange thanks and spends 4/5, with 70% thiophanate methyl, 800 times of liquid The sprinkling of 50mg/kg gibberellin mixed liquor is primary, and every plant is applied 3L;50mg/kg parts of gibberellin and 70% are used after second of physiological fallen fruit 800 times of liquid mixed liquors of thiophanate methyl spray tree crown, and 2L is applied in strain, primary every processing in 15 days;Late July to mid-August is yellow with suppression It is primary that 800 times of liquid of ester smear fruit umbilical region;
Step 10, prevention and treatment pest and disease damage: in the long 0.5cm of spring bud, with 77% can kill the spray of 800 times of liquid is primary, again every 10 days Spray is primary, applies 2L for every plant every time;It is sprayed in the rigid lamina of young sprout for the first time, every second of spray in 7 days, applies 1L for every plant every time;Before the beginning of spring 150 times of liquid of a lime sulfur or 95% machine oil emulsion are sprayed again, and every plant is applied 1L;As young sprout pumping 1.5cm long, immediately with Su Yun Golden bacillus desinsection sprayed every 7 days or so later, and continuous spray two is to three times, each every plant of spray 3L.
Wherein, modified agricultural crop straw described in step 2 the preparation method is as follows:
1) agricultural crop straw, is weighed, is crushed, the sulfuric acid of the ammonium molybdate, 1% that are equivalent to agricultural crop straw weight 3% is added Manganese, 2% nano-carbon powder, 35% clay, 3% turpentine oil, 2 times of water measured, are mixed with beating;Again solarization to 7 one-tenth it is dry, crush At coarse grain;
2) methyl methacrylate for being equivalent to its weight 15%, is added into the coarse grain of preparation, stirs evenly, at 50 DEG C Drying, is ground into powder to obtain the final product.
Wherein, root water described in step 4 is by the thiophanate-methyl of self-prepared organic fertilizer 1wt% and potassium phosphate according to matter Amount after the water dilution of 120 times of its gross mass after mixing, is added for 2.0:0.8:0.5 than being made.
Wherein, the spacing distance in step 5 between adjacent two rows Yellow Fructus Gardeniae trees is 1m, between the Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree in same row Away from for 0.8m.
Wherein, in step 5 before the plant of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree, 3kg farmyard manure is added in the planting pit of each plant Yellow Fructus Gardeniae, Branches and leaves are suitably wiped out after the plant of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree, and selection is transplanted in rainy weather.
Wherein, tip-promoting fertilizer described in step 6, strong tip fertilizer, base manure specific implementation dosage include following raw material: tip-promoting fertilizer strain Apply 1 part of urea, 2 parts of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer;3 parts of decomposed cake fertilizer, 1.5 parts of urea, 1 part of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer are applied in strong tip fertilizer strain;Base manure 10 Part.
Wherein, short dry round end trunk described in step 8 is the high 26cm of trunk, and 50 ° of 4 opening degrees is stayed to be distributed on trunk Even branch makees major branch, is spaced apart from each other 5cm, other branch pinching promote branch, and major branch is long extremely to stay the first secondary main branch away from trunk 40cm, Then second and third secondary main branch that direction is staggered is selected and remain every 30cm.
The present invention selects fertile soil property, illumination and irrigation and drainage in the equal strict control of links that navel orange is planted, first selection Good field provides suitable environment as planting site, for navel orange growth;Secondly, in plantation, using homemade planting water Treelet is colonized, nutrient is provided for its growth, improves the survival rate and rooting efficiency of plant;Then, it is rationally controlled in growth period Field water fertilizer amount, regular beta pruning, fruit thinning guarantee that plant and fruit sufficiently grow, and are grown by following navel orange growth rhythm to it Different phase implements fertilizer and water management, finishing beta pruning, and the fertilizer supply during control plantation guarantees nutrition, branch after navel orange trees maturation Sturdy health;The modification agricultural crop straw performance of the adsorbent of preparation is stablized, and has to organic matters such as heavy metal ion and dyestuffs wide The adsorption capacity of spectrum has preferable economic and social benefit;Before navel orange transplanted seedling tree, lime is inserted in planting pit and is changed Kind soil, while the thick fertilizer of addition and other fertilizer, place and carry out transplanted seedling tree again for a period of time, setting in this way can make Various fertilizer are adequately diluted and are reacted, and are not only more conducive to fertilizer and are absorbed, but also are avoided that fresh fertilizer to tree Seedling generates harm, and thick fertilizer can not only continue to provide organic fertilizer in putrefaction process, and is able to maintain loose suddenly, is conducive to Navel orange trees absorb nutrient and moisture;Yellow Fructus Gardeniae is planted between adjacent navel orange trees, soil can not only be made full use of, improves soil The additional output value, improve planting income, increase the income in navel orange planting process, it is yellow since the interval between navel orange trees is larger The plantation of cape jasmine can effectively inhibit weed growth and prevent erosion, and by navel orange and Yellow Fructus Gardeniae mixed planting, can utilize The pharmacological property of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae improves the mouthfeel and nutritive value of navel orange;It is handled simultaneously by carrying out pre- fertilizer to kind of plant hole, is formed and be conducive to navel The soil environment of orange growth, while top dressing is carried out using the tip-promoting fertilizer of particular formulation, strong tip fertilizer, base manure, support fertilizer Divide directly to be entered by Ye Pin and make object, infiltration rate is fast, and the intracorporal nutrient of crop can be made to greatly increase in a short time, fast Speed alleviates the fertilizer deficiency situation of crop, plays the maximum benefit of fertilizer, but also can be reduced shedding, promotes fruiting, improves yield.
As stated above, the implantation methods of navel orange proposed by the present invention can improve the percentage of fertile fruit of navel orange, save fertilizer, improve and produce Amount, pre- disease prevention improve product nutritive value, are suitable for large scale systemization and plant, can be farmer's increasing both production and income.
The implantation methods of the navel orange, through present inventor for many years repeatedly planting experiment, test, adjust raw material each component Ratio achieves effect of the present invention.
Finally, it should be noted that the foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is not intended to restrict the invention, Although the present invention is described in detail referring to the foregoing embodiments, for those skilled in the art, still may be used To modify the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments or equivalent replacement of some of the technical features. All within the spirits and principles of the present invention, any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement and so on should be included in of the invention Within protection scope.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of implantation methods of navel orange, which comprises the following steps:
Step 1, selection of land: selection is sunny, and it is convenient to irrigate, 25 gentle slope ゜ or less of the gradient, soil layer depth 1m or more, level of ground water 1.5m hereinafter, it is fertile it is loose, soil layer quality is thinner, upper and lower uniform soil;
Step 2, site preparation: ploughing deeply soil 30-35cm, removes stone in soil, and Chicken dung 170- is then added thereto 190kg, urea 50-60kg, Nanoscale Iron slag powders 4-5kg, granatum powder 20-30kg, attapulgite 80-90kg, bamboo charcoal powder 30- 40kg and modified agricultural crop straw 80-90kg;
Step 3 digs planting pit: centered on field planting point, excavating length and width, is deeply respectively 0.8-1.0m, 0.5-0.8m, 1.0- The planting pit of 1.5m, and the distance between two neighboring planting pit is 2.5m, filled out in each planting pit as thick fertilizer (such as green manure, Weeds, straw, cigarette foam etc.) 6-8kg, lime 0.6-1kg, phosphate fertilizer 1-1.5kg, cake fertilizer 2-3kg, decomposed manure 5-8kg, and stone Ash is uniformly filled out in planting pit lowest level, and thick fertilizer is filled out on lkd layer, remaining fertilizer, which stirs evenly, to be filled out on thick fertilizer, and fertilizer completes it Afterwards, one layer of fine earth of covering on fertilizer, vacant 15-25 days;
Step 4, seedling planting: in late Febuary in spring-mid-March or early October in autumn-early November, robust growth is selected The nursery stock that is out of the garden transplanted, with thin mud root dipping portion when outplanting, nursery stock is planted in cave center vertically, and root system is unfolded, and is transplanted After be watered with root water, soil moisture of being subject to is saturated, and makes root system and the close knot of soil, one layer of upper cover loose covering soil moisture conservation;And The fixed nursery stock of windproof pole is plugged, drenches a root water after plant in 5 days daily, then each every plant of water consumption 10-30L uses wheat straw Overlay tree disk;After seedling planting, winter is on branch and right with white-out agent brushing trunk with rice straw mulching before cold wave arriving Afterwards with rice straw mulching tree disk;
Step 5, field planting processing: the second year 1-3 month of transplanted seedling tree, between navel orange trees between plant Yellow Fructus Gardeniae, select highly for The Yellow Fructus Gardeniae sapling of 0.5-0.8m is planted between navel orange trees, and plantation 1-2 arranges Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree between adjacent two rows navel orange trees;
Step 6, fertilizer and water management: every plant of sapling foliage top dressing in 30 days after planting imposed primary until mid-August stops every 10-15 days Thin decomposed manure water and instant nitrogenousfertilizer, strain apply 1.5 parts;After plantation survives, tip-promoting fertilizer is applied within 7-10 days before annual young sprout pumping; After current year young sprout pumping, one is imposed to tip-promoting fertilizer twice, autumn and winter depth Shi Yici base manure;Mid or late Febuary next year at least early March It applies fertilizer, late June to early July before bud and applies autumn growth fruit-promoting fertilizer, winter depth Shi Yici base manure;Apply in third year the spring bud fertilizer, base manure with Spring bud fertilizer is applied together;Mid-May, the last ten-days period, primary steady fruit fertilizer is imposed, raw material includes: 1-2 parts of nitrogenous fertilizer and combines phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer 1- 2 parts;
Step 7, pruning: the thin and delicate branch on major branch, to cultivate based on tree crown, trimming are trimmed after the tip rudiment of First Year spring It is preferably light, it stays branches and leaves more, retains base portion auxiliary support branch, trunk stays 2-3 major branch, and every major branch stays 2-3 secondary main branch, healthy and strong peripheral branch On stay 2-3 young sprout, remaining is erased, and the young sprout left stays 8-10 piece leaf and timely pinching, is promoted to do sth. in advance maturation, be inspired next time Young sprout is sprouted, and guarantees to take out 3 tips every year, is cultivated healthy and strong skeleton, is increased branch series, high yield tree crown is quickly formed, to second year The thin and delicate branch on above-mentioned major branch and major branch extension branch is trimmed after spring tip rudiment, is continued the strong branch of selection growth and is prolonged as major branch Long shoot and width major branch extend branch, and cutting back major branch extends branch when third annual bearing and secondary main branch extends branch, and summer shoot of erasing inspires strong Strong autumn growth, the general long tip only stay 5 buds, prune overstocked branch, crossing branch, the branch group that fails off, without leaf inflorescence branch, retain internal branch;
Step 8, tree crown management: earsh is cultivated into short dry round end tree crown;The high control of tree is at 3 meters hereinafter, 1 meter of left side of greenery thickness degree The right side, tree crown coverage rate 75%-85%;
Step 9, flower and fruit protecting: bud stage, thank florescence and young fruit period respectively spray 0.3% urea add 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 3-5L is applied in 0.2% borax mixed liquor, strain;It thanks and spends 2/3, before and after first time physiological fallen fruit and second of physiological fallen fruit, use 50mg/kg Each spraying decoration of gibberellin and young fruit are primary, and 2-4L is applied in strain;After fruiting, then with 250mg/kg gibberellin, 0.3% urea and 0.3% phosphorus It is primary that acid dihydride potassium mixed liquor smears young fruit;Anti- navel Huang shedding is when navel orange thanks and spends 4/5, with 70% thiophanate methyl, 800 times of liquid The sprinkling of 50mg/kg gibberellin mixed liquor is primary, and every plant is applied 2-3L;After second of physiological fallen fruit with 50mg/kg part gibberellin with 70% 800 times of thiophanate methyl liquid mixed liquor sprays tree crown, and 2-4L is applied in strain, primary every processing in 10-15 days;Late July is into August Ten days is primary with 600-800 times of liquid smearing fruit umbilical region of yellow ester is pressed down;
Step 10, prevention and treatment pest and disease damage: in the long 0.5cm of spring bud, with 77% can kill the spray of 800 times of liquid is primary, sprayed again every 7-10 days Once, 2L is applied for each every plant;It is sprayed in the rigid lamina of young sprout for the first time, every second of spray in 7-10 days, applies 1L for every plant every time;Before the beginning of spring 100-150 times of liquid of a lime sulfur or 95% machine oil emulsion is sprayed again, and every plant is applied 1L;As young sprout pumping 1-1.5cm long, immediately It with Dipel desinsection, sprayed later every 7 days or so, continuous spray two is to three times, each every plant of spray 3L.
2. a kind of implantation methods of navel orange according to claim 1, which is characterized in that modified crops described in step 2 Stalk the preparation method is as follows:
1) agricultural crop straw is weighed, is crushed, the sulfuric acid of the ammonium molybdate, 1-2% that are equivalent to agricultural crop straw weight 2-3% is added Manganese, the nano-carbon powder of 1-2%, the clay of 30-40%, the turpentine oil of 2-3%, the 1-2 times of water measured, are mixed with beating;Solarization is extremely again 7-8 is ground into coarse grain at doing;
2) methyl methacrylate for being equivalent to its weight 10-15%, is added into the coarse grain of preparation, stirs evenly, 50-60 DEG C Lower drying, is ground into powder to obtain the final product.
3. a kind of implantation methods of navel orange according to claim 1, which is characterized in that root water described in step 4 be by Self-prepared organic fertilizer, the thiophanate-methyl of 0.5-1wt% and potassium phosphate are 1.8-2.0:0.6-0.8:0.3-0.5 according to mass ratio After mixing, it is made after the water dilution of 120-130 times of its gross mass is added.
4. a kind of implantation methods of navel orange according to claim 1, which is characterized in that adjacent two rows Yellow Fructus Gardeniae in step 5 Spacing distance between tree is 0.6-1m, and the spacing of the Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree in same row is 0.8-1.2m.
5. a kind of implantation methods of navel orange according to claim 1, which is characterized in that Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree plant in step 5 Before, 2-3kg farmyard manure is added in the planting pit of each plant Yellow Fructus Gardeniae, suitably to wipe out a undershoot after the plant of Yellow Fructus Gardeniae tree Leaf, and selection is transplanted in rainy weather.
6. a kind of implantation methods of navel orange according to claim 1, which is characterized in that tip-promoting fertilizer described in step 6, the strong tip Fertile, base manure specific implementation dosage includes following raw material: 1-1.5 parts of urea, 1-2 parts of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer are applied in tip-promoting fertilizer strain;The strong tip Decomposed cake fertilizer 2-3 parts, 1-1.5 parts of urea, 1-2 parts of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer are applied in fertile strain;4.5-10 parts of base manure.
7. a kind of implantation methods of navel orange according to claim 1, which is characterized in that short dry round end tree described in step 8 Dry is the high 20-26cm of trunk, and the branch for staying 40-50 ° of 3-4 opening degree to be evenly distributed on trunk is made major branch, is spaced apart from each other 5cm, other branch pinching promote branch, and major branch is long to the first secondary main branch is stayed away from trunk 30-40cm, then selects and remain every 30-40cm Second and third secondary main branch that direction is staggered.
CN201910436670.0A 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 A kind of implantation methods of navel orange Pending CN110122148A (en)

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Application publication date: 20190816