CN109511482B - Compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forest - Google Patents

Compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forest Download PDF

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CN109511482B
CN109511482B CN201811541263.8A CN201811541263A CN109511482B CN 109511482 B CN109511482 B CN 109511482B CN 201811541263 A CN201811541263 A CN 201811541263A CN 109511482 B CN109511482 B CN 109511482B
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moringa
moringa oleifera
soil
planting
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CN109511482A (en
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韦铄星
沙国新
张烨
曾祥艳
蒋燚
黄宁
陈金艳
王家妍
魏国余
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Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Forestry Research Institute
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B17/00Other phosphatic fertilisers, e.g. soft rock phosphates, bone meal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/28Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture specially adapted for farming
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forests, which comprises the following measures: (1) forest land selection, (2) land preparation of forest land, (3) planting, (4) management and protection of forest land, (5) pruning and shaping, and (6) harvesting and processing. The invention aims to create a development idea of agriculture and forestry composite operation industry through innovation in aspects of land selection, land preparation, planting, inter-forest management and protection, pruning and shaping, harvesting, processing and the like, relieves the influence of shortage of land resources on development of moringa oleifera and lemongrass industries, improves utilization efficiency of forest lands, reduces plant diseases and insect pests, increases economic benefits and enriches excellent modes of the composite agriculture and forestry in China.

Description

Compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forest
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of composite agriculture and forestry, and particularly relates to a method for planting lemongrass in a leaf moringa oleifera forest.
Background
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf belongs to Gramineae (Gramineae) and Cymbopogon Spreng, and perennial herbs have thin and weak stalks, clumpy growth, narrow leaves and nearly no hair on both sides and are white in powder. The citronella grass is produced in tropical and subtropical regions, is distributed in south China, but is not easy to spike and fruit, and common varieties comprise citronella grass in West India, citronella grass in east India and citronella grass. The lemongrass is pungent and warm in nature and has the effects of dispelling wind, dredging collaterals, harmonizing stomach, ventilating, restoring consciousness and promoting estrus.
Moringa Oleifera (Moringa Oleifera Lam.), also known as drumstick tree, miraculous tree and the like, belongs to Moringaceae (Moringaceae) Moringa (Moringa Adans.), tropical and subtropical deciduous woody vegetables and oil plants, is originally produced in India and Africa, can be eaten by leaves, flowers, tender buds, tender stems, tender pods and roots, has rich and comprehensive nutrition, is the best source of various nutrients such as plant protein, vitamins, folic acid, pantothenic acid, calcium, iron, selenium and the like, and has the medical health-care effects of treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes, enhancing physical strength, inhibiting germs and the like. The moringa oleifera is a fast-growing tree species, has long main roots, is high-temperature resistant and drought resistant, has the optimal growth temperature of 25-35 ℃, can adapt to various soil types, can normally grow in sandy loam with the pH value of the soil in the range of 4.5-8, and is suitable for being planted in tropical and southern subtropical regions in China with the altitude of below 600 m. In recent years, due to the dramatic increase of the demand of the moringa oleifera, the price of the moringa oleifera raw material is also increased year after year, and the raw material supply is seriously insufficient. The tropical and subtropical regions such as Hainan, Yunnan, Guangxi and the like are the authentic horseradish tree producing regions, the produced horseradish trees have good quality, the horseradish tree industry is developed at a high speed by well spraying with the continuous improvement of the horseradish tree cultivation and management technology, and the development of the horseradish tree industry is seriously hindered by the shortage of land resources.
The agriculture and forestry composite operation can be called composite agriculture and forestry, mixed forestry agriculture or agricultural forestry and the like, and refers to the integration of a land utilization mode and a technical system for artificially arranging perennial woody plants and other cultivated plants or livestock animals together according to a certain time sequence in space on the same land management unit according to the principle of ecological economy. The existing research results at home and abroad show that the forest farm compound operation can improve the utilization rate of resources such as illumination, soil and the like, and can also improve the soil fertility by the aim of cultivating and fostering, thereby promoting the growth of forest trees, having remarkable economic benefit and increasing the income of farmers. Research shows that the moringa oleifera can be subjected to staged, batched and layered leaf collection from the last 5 th month to the last 6 th month, from the last 7 th month to the last 8 th month and from the last 10 th month to the last 11 th month, branches are harvested and dwarfed after the leaves are collected in the 11 th month, the height of tree stumps is kept to be 40 cm-75 cm for new buds to germinate in the next year, so that the moringa oleifera forest is low in forest stand closure degree and full in space illumination in rows during the growth period of the new buds in spring every year, crops are planted in the moringa oleifera forest, the aim of tending by ploughing is achieved, more agricultural products are obtained, and the land use efficiency is improved.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects, the invention provides a composite management method for planting the lemongrass in the leaf moringa oleifera forest, which realizes the efficient and intensive utilization of land, relieves the influence of shortage of land resources on the development of moringa oleifera and lemongrass industries and enriches the excellent modes of composite agriculture and forestry in China.
The invention is realized by adopting the following technical scheme:
a compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forests comprises the following measures:
(1) selecting a forest land:
selecting a forest land with high temperature, rain, sufficient sunlight, good drainage and fertile soil, having no severe frost and cold damage weather all the year round, wherein the annual average rainfall is between 800 and 1800mm, the elevation of the forest land is below 600m, the gradient is less than or equal to 20 degrees, the soil is neutral or weakly acidic, and the content of gravels in the soil is less than or equal to 10 percent;
(2) land preparation of forest land:
when the slope of the forest land is less than 10 degrees, performing full-reclamation land preparation, and when the slope of the forest land is more than or equal to 10 degrees and less than or equal to 20 degrees, performing terrace-type belt land preparation; the soil digging depth is more than or equal to 25cm, ridges form a horizontal ridge surface with the width of 1.5-2 m and the height of 10-15 cm, the ridge surface is finely raked after mixing 1000 kg/mu of organic fertilizer with soil, and drainage channels are smoothly drained at two sides of the ridge; opening a moringa planting ditch with the width of 5-8 cm and the depth of 6-7 cm at the ridge surface which is 10cm away from the upper drainage ditch; digging a lemongrass sowing ditch with the row spacing of 35cm, the width of 3-4 cm and the depth of 2-3 cm in a ridge surface strip-shaped area which is 10cm away from the lower drainage ditch and 50cm away from the moringa oleifera planting ditch;
(3) planting:
sowing and planting moringa oleifera and citronella grass in 3-4 months; dibbling 2-3 moringa seeds subjected to seed treatment in a moringa planting ditch every 50cm, covering soil for 4-6 cm, and compacting; mixing fine soil or plant ash into the lemongrass seeds according to the seed amount of 1.8-2 kg/mu, then sowing the mixture into a lemongrass sowing ditch, and covering 1-2 cm of soil;
(4) forest management and protection:
after the moringa seeds germinate for 15 days, combining ridging to remove weeds and carrying out uniform seeding and replanting; after the moringa seeds germinate for 30 days, spraying a leaching compound fertilizer with the effective nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of more than or equal to 35 percent after raining in combination with weeding, wherein the fertilizing amount is 15 kg/mu; carrying out artificial weeding when weeds grow by 30-50 cm, and topdressing 200kg after each weeding, wherein the fertilizer used for topdressing is obtained by uniformly mixing 500 parts by weight of human and animal manure, 100 parts by weight of fine soil, 35 parts by weight of urea and 10 parts by weight of orange peel water extract and then fermenting for 2 days;
(5) pruning and shaping:
when the height of the moringa oleifera is 50m, cutting off a trunk from a position of 30cm, leaving 3-4 first-level branches after germination, then cutting off from a position of 50cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 70cm, leaving 10-15 second-level branches, then cutting off from a position of 65cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 90cm, and leaving 20-30 third-level branches; supplementing fertilizer in time according to the growth condition of the branches and leaves of the moringa oleifera, and keeping the whole plant height of the moringa oleifera to be 65-70 cm after the leaves are picked for the last time in winter every year;
(6) harvesting and processing:
collecting tender hearts 10-15 cm from the top of the buds of the second-level branches and the third-level branches of the moringa oleifera to be used as vegetables; collecting moringa oleifera mature leaves, namely breaking off the whole branches from the leaf stalks, drying in the air and shaking off the leaves, wherein the collected moringa oleifera mature leaves can be dried to be made into tea or deeply processed; harvesting the cedronella inflorescences after the cedronella inflorescences are half-cooked, spreading, and drying in the sun for later use.
Further, the organic fertilizer in the step (2) is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30-35 parts of pig manure, 20-25 parts of peanut shell, 10-15 parts of phosphorus tailings, 15 parts of cassava residue, 5-8 parts of urea, 6-9 parts of orange peel water extract, 5-7 parts of grape peel water extract, 8-10 parts of bacillus subtilis, 4-5 parts of lactobacillus plantarum and 5-6 parts of bacillus fibrosus; the preparation method of the organic fertilizer comprises the steps of mixing pig manure, peanut shells, phosphorus tailings, manioc wastes and urea, spraying a mixed solution of orange peel water extract, grape peel water extract, bacillus subtilis, lactobacillus plantarum and cellulose bacillus while turning over, putting the mixture into a fermentation tank or a fermentation tank for fermentation after uniformly mixing, controlling the fermentation temperature to be 36-38 ℃, and fermenting for 15 days to obtain the organic fertilizer.
Further, the water extract of orange peel in the step (2) and the step (4) is prepared by mixing and decocting orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5 for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate to obtain the water extract of orange peel; and (3) mixing the grape skin and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate to obtain the grape skin water extract.
Further, the seed treatment in the step (3) is to soak the moringa seeds for 1 hour by using a potassium permanganate solution with the mass concentration of 0.2%, to take out and wash the moringa seeds, to soak the moringa seeds in warm water at 65 ℃, to change water for 1 time every 4 hours, to take out and to prepare for sowing after soaking for 12 hours.
Compared with the prior art, the technical scheme has the following beneficial effects:
1. the organic fertilizer is prepared by fermenting pig manure, peanut shells, phosphate tailings, cassava dregs and the like serving as main raw materials, wherein the content of N, P, Ca in the pig manure is high, 80.1% of dry matters of the pig manure is organic matters, the content of easily degradable organic carbon is 27.3%, the contents of hemicellulose and cellulose are low, the contents of crude fat and lignin are high, and components capable of being utilized by crops in the manure account for about 70%, so that the organic fertilizer has high utilization value as the organic fertilizer. The compound microbial inoculum of bacillus subtilis, lactobacillus plantarum and bacillus fibrosus is used, pig manure, peanut shells, phosphate tailings and cassava residues can be effectively decomposed, a large amount of organic matters and inorganic matters such as carbon elements, nitrogen elements, potassium elements and phosphorus elements can be released, and researches show that the organic matter content in the obtained organic fertilizer can reach 25-34%, the inorganic matter content can reach 20-37%, the quick-acting phosphorus content can reach 3.9-5.1 mg/kg, and the amino acid content can reach more than 26.1%.
2. The added orange peel water extract contains a large amount of oxalic acid, anthocyanin, tartaric acid and other components, the activity of stably activated phosphorus ions can be enhanced, the oxidation resistance is enhanced, the grape peel water extract contains tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid and anthocyanin, the hydroxyl radical scavenging capability is realized, the better oxidation resistance is realized, the combination of the two extracts can achieve the effects of synergy and dual guarantee, and the growth of the lemongrass is promoted.
3. The content of crude fiber in the peanut shell reaches more than 60%, the water absorption is strong, the air permeability is good, and the organic fertilizer prepared by mixing and fermenting the peanut shell and pig manure can make the soil soft and not hardened, so that the soil structure is effectively protected. The prepared organic fertilizer can further ferment soil, so that the soil has the functions of water storage, moisture preservation and fertilizer storage like solid organic fertilizer, more sufficient fertilizer, water and nutrient are provided for normal growth of the moringa oleifera and the lemongrass, and the soil microbial community structure of the soil can be improved.
4. Because the existence of a large amount of gravels in the soil can influence the physical characteristics of the soil, such as the volume weight of the soil, the porosity of the soil, the temperature of the soil, the water content of the soil and the like, and even the infiltration characteristic of the soil, and further influence the root development and the water and fertilizer absorption of plants, the invention selects the forest land with the soil gravel content less than or equal to 10 percent to be suitable for planting the moringa oleifera and the lemongrass when selecting the forest land.
5. In the process of planting the lemongrass in the moringa oleifera forest, the invention can replace and foster the cultivation, and the soil structure is improved, the nutrient content is improved and the growth of the moringa oleifera is obviously improved by taking measures of artificial weeding, soil turning, soil preparation, fertilization and the like. Meanwhile, after the lemongrass is planted, the biological diversity is improved, the forest stand space structure is optimized, the ecological environment of the moringa oleifera pure forest is effectively improved, and the product output and variety are increased. Therefore, the popularization and the application of the technology can effectively improve the ecological economic benefit of the land in unit area.
6. Through measures of tree height control, pruning and shaping, leaf picking and the like of the moringa oleifera, favorable illumination, space and nutrient requirements are provided for growth of the lemongrass in the moringa oleifera forest, the lemongrass can normally grow, and compared with single action of the lemongrass in a field, the yield per unit area has no obvious difference. Therefore, the popularization and the application of the technology can well realize the efficient intensive utilization of the land, relieve the situation of the shortage of land resources at present and help to promote the development of the moringa oleifera and lemongrass industries.
7. Through scientific experimental comparison, the invention selects the lemongrass as the intermediate crop under the moringa oleifera forest, and through innovation in aspects of land selection, land preparation, planting, inter-forest management and maintenance, pruning and shaping, harvesting, processing and the like, aims to innovate the development idea of the agriculture and forestry composite operation industry, relieve the influence of shortage of land resources on the development of the moringa oleifera and lemongrass industry, improve the utilization efficiency of the forest land, reduce plant diseases and insect pests, increase economic benefits and enrich the excellent mode of the composite agriculture and forestry in China.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which are not to be construed as limiting the invention thereto. The specific experimental conditions and methods not indicated in the following examples are generally conventional means well known to those skilled in the art.
Example 1:
a compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forests comprises the following measures:
(1) selecting a forest land:
selecting a forest land which is high in temperature and rainy, sufficient in sunlight, good in drainage and fertile in soil, having no severe frost and cold damage weather all the year round, wherein the annual average rainfall is 800-1800 mm, the elevation of the forest land is below 600m, the slope is 5 degrees, the soil is fertile and weakly acidic, and the content of gravels in the soil is 3 percent;
(2) land preparation of forest land:
adopting full-tillage land preparation, ploughing by a tractor to dig a horizontal furrow surface with the depth of 100cm and the width of 1.5m and the height of 10cm, finely raking the furrow surface after mixing 1000 kg/mu of organic fertilizer with soil, and ensuring that drainage ditches drain smoothly on two sides of the furrow; opening a moringa planting ditch with the width of 5-8 cm and the depth of 6-7 cm at the ridge surface which is 10cm away from the upper drainage ditch; digging a lemongrass sowing ditch with the row spacing of 35cm, the width of 3-4 cm and the depth of 2-3 cm in a ridge surface strip-shaped area which is 10cm away from the lower drainage ditch and 50cm away from the moringa oleifera planting ditch; the organic fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 35 parts of pig manure, 20 parts of peanut shell, 15 parts of phosphorus tailings, 15 parts of manioc waste, 8 parts of urea, 6 parts of orange peel water extract, 5 parts of grape peel water extract, 8 parts of bacillus subtilis, 5 parts of lactobacillus plantarum and 6 parts of bacillus fibrosus; the preparation method of the organic fertilizer comprises the steps of mixing pig manure, peanut shells, phosphorus tailings, manioc wastes and urea, spraying a mixed solution of orange peel water extract, grape peel water extract, bacillus subtilis, lactobacillus plantarum and cellulose bacillus while turning over, putting the mixture into a fermentation tank or a fermentation tank for fermentation after uniformly mixing, controlling the fermentation temperature to be 37 ℃, and obtaining the organic fertilizer after fermenting for 15 days; the orange peel water extract is prepared by mixing orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate; the grape skin water extract is prepared by mixing grape skin and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate;
(3) planting:
sowing moringa oleifera and citronella grass in the last ten days of 3 months; dibbling 2-3 moringa seeds subjected to seed treatment in a moringa planting ditch every 50cm, covering soil for 4-6 cm, and compacting; mixing fine soil or plant ash into the lemongrass seeds according to the seed amount of 1.8 kg/mu, then sowing the mixture into the lemongrass sowing trench, and covering 2cm of soil; the seed treatment is to soak the moringa seeds for 1 hour by using a potassium permanganate solution with the mass concentration of 0.2 percent, to take out and wash the moringa seeds, to soak the moringa seeds in warm water at the temperature of 65 ℃, to change water for 1 time every 4 hours, to take out and to prepare for sowing after soaking for 12 hours;
(4) forest management and protection:
after the moringa seeds germinate for 15 days, combining ridging to remove weeds and carrying out uniform seeding and replanting; after the moringa seeds germinate for 30 days, spraying a leaching compound fertilizer with the effective nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 40 percent after raining in combination with weeding, wherein the fertilizing amount is 15 kg/mu; carrying out artificial weeding when weeds grow by 30-50 cm, and topdressing 200kg after each weeding, wherein the fertilizer used for topdressing is obtained by uniformly mixing 500 parts by weight of human and animal manure, 100 parts by weight of fine soil, 35 parts by weight of urea and 10 parts by weight of orange peel water extract and then fermenting for 2 days; the orange peel water extract is prepared by mixing orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate;
(5) pruning and shaping:
when the height of the moringa oleifera is 50m, cutting off a trunk from a position of 30cm, leaving 3-4 first-level branches after germination, then cutting off from a position of 50cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 70cm, leaving 10-15 second-level branches, then cutting off from a position of 65cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 90cm, and leaving 20-30 third-level branches; supplementing fertilizer in time according to the growth condition of the branches and leaves of the moringa oleifera, and keeping the whole plant height of the moringa oleifera to be 65-70 cm after the leaves are picked for the last time in winter every year;
(6) harvesting and processing:
collecting tender hearts 10-15 cm from the top of the buds of the second-level branches and the third-level branches of the moringa oleifera to be used as vegetables; collecting moringa oleifera mature leaves, namely breaking off the whole branches from the leaf stalks, drying in the air and shaking off the leaves, wherein the collected moringa oleifera mature leaves can be dried to be made into tea or deeply processed; harvesting the cedronella inflorescences after the cedronella inflorescences are half-cooked, spreading, and drying in the sun for later use.
Example 2:
a compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forests comprises the following measures:
(1) selecting a forest land:
selecting a forest land which is high in temperature and rainy, sufficient in sunlight, good in drainage and fertile in soil, having no severe frost and cold damage weather all the year round, wherein the annual average rainfall is 800-1800 mm, the elevation of the forest land is below 600m, the slope is 5 degrees, the soil is fertile and weakly acidic, and the content of gravels in the soil is 10 percent;
(2) land preparation of forest land:
adopting full reclamation and land preparation; the machine ploughing digging depth is 25cm, ridges are formed into horizontal ridge surfaces with the width of 2m and the height of 15cm, the ridge surfaces are finely dug and leveled after 1000 kg/mu of organic fertilizer is mixed with soil, and drainage channels are smoothly drained at two sides of the ridges; opening a moringa planting ditch with the width of 5-8 cm and the depth of 6-7 cm at the ridge surface which is 10cm away from the upper drainage ditch; digging a lemongrass sowing ditch with the row spacing of 35cm, the width of 3-4 cm and the depth of 2-3 cm in a ridge surface strip-shaped area which is 10cm away from the lower drainage ditch and 50cm away from the moringa oleifera planting ditch; the organic fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 32 parts of pig manure, 23 parts of peanut shell, 12 parts of phosphorus tailings, 15 parts of manioc waste, 6 parts of urea, 7 parts of orange peel water extract, 5 parts of grape peel water extract, 8 parts of bacillus subtilis, 5 parts of lactobacillus plantarum and 6 parts of bacillus fibrosus; the preparation method of the organic fertilizer comprises the steps of mixing pig manure, peanut shells, phosphorus tailings, manioc wastes and urea, spraying a mixed solution of orange peel water extract, grape peel water extract, bacillus subtilis, lactobacillus plantarum and cellulose bacillus while turning over, putting the mixture into a fermentation tank or a fermentation tank for fermentation after uniformly mixing, controlling the fermentation temperature to be 36 ℃, and obtaining the organic fertilizer after fermenting for 15 days; the orange peel water extract is prepared by mixing orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate; the grape skin water extract is prepared by mixing grape skin and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate;
(3) planting:
sowing moringa oleifera and citronella grass in the middle ten days of 4 months; dibbling 2-3 moringa seeds subjected to seed treatment in a moringa planting ditch every 50cm, covering soil for 4-6 cm, and compacting; mixing fine soil or plant ash into the lemongrass seeds according to the seed amount of 2 kg/mu, then sowing the mixture into the lemongrass sowing trench, and covering soil for 1-2 cm; the seed treatment is to soak the moringa seeds for 1 hour by using a potassium permanganate solution with the mass concentration of 0.2 percent, to take out and wash the moringa seeds, to soak the moringa seeds in warm water at the temperature of 65 ℃, to change water for 1 time every 4 hours, to take out and to prepare for sowing after soaking for 12 hours;
(4) forest management and protection:
after the moringa seeds germinate for 15 days, combining ridging to remove weeds and carrying out uniform seeding and replanting; after the moringa seeds sprout for 30 days, spraying a leaching compound fertilizer with 55 percent of available nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium after raining in combination with weeding, wherein the fertilizing amount is 15 kg/mu; carrying out artificial weeding when weeds grow by 30-50 cm, and topdressing 200kg after each weeding, wherein the fertilizer used for topdressing is obtained by uniformly mixing 500 parts by weight of human and animal manure, 100 parts by weight of fine soil, 35 parts by weight of urea and 10 parts by weight of orange peel water extract and then fermenting for 2 days; the orange peel water extract is prepared by mixing orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate;
(5) pruning and shaping:
when the height of the moringa oleifera is 50m, cutting off a trunk from a position of 30cm, leaving 3-4 first-level branches after germination, then cutting off from a position of 50cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 70cm, leaving 10-15 second-level branches, then cutting off from a position of 65cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 90cm, and leaving 20-30 third-level branches; supplementing fertilizer in time according to the growth condition of the branches and leaves of the moringa oleifera, and keeping the whole plant height of the moringa oleifera to be 65-70 cm after the leaves are picked for the last time in winter every year;
(6) harvesting and processing:
collecting tender hearts 10-15 cm from the top of the buds of the second-level branches and the third-level branches of the moringa oleifera to be used as vegetables; collecting moringa oleifera mature leaves, namely breaking off the whole branches from the leaf stalks, drying in the air and shaking off the leaves, wherein the collected moringa oleifera mature leaves can be dried to be made into tea or deeply processed; harvesting the cedronella inflorescences after the cedronella inflorescences are half-cooked, spreading, and drying in the sun for later use.
Example 3:
a compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forests comprises the following measures:
(1) selecting a forest land:
selecting a forest land which is high in temperature and rainy, sufficient in sunlight, good in drainage and fertile in soil, having no severe frost and cold damage weather all the year round, wherein the annual average rainfall is 800-1800 mm, the elevation of the forest land is below 600m, the slope is 10 degrees, the soil is fertile and neutral, and the content of gravels in the soil is 5 percent;
(2) land preparation of forest land:
adopting terrace type strip soil preparation; the machine ploughing digging depth is 50cm, ridges are formed into horizontal ridge surfaces with the width of 1.6m and the height of 12cm, the ridge surfaces are finely dug and leveled after 1000 kg/mu of organic fertilizer mixed soil, and drainage channels are guaranteed to drain water smoothly at two sides of the ridges; opening a moringa planting ditch with the width of 5-8 cm and the depth of 6-7 cm at the ridge surface which is 10cm away from the upper drainage ditch; digging a lemongrass sowing ditch with the row spacing of 35cm, the width of 3-4 cm and the depth of 2-3 cm in a ridge surface strip-shaped area which is 10cm away from the lower drainage ditch and 50cm away from the moringa oleifera planting ditch; the organic fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30 parts of pig manure, 25 parts of peanut shell, 10 parts of phosphorus tailings, 15 parts of manioc waste, 5 parts of urea, 9 parts of orange peel water extract, 7 parts of grape peel water extract, 10 parts of bacillus subtilis, 4 parts of lactobacillus plantarum and 5 parts of bacillus fibrosus; the preparation method of the organic fertilizer comprises the steps of mixing pig manure, peanut shells, phosphorus tailings, manioc wastes and urea, spraying a mixed solution of orange peel water extract, grape peel water extract, bacillus subtilis, lactobacillus plantarum and cellulose bacillus while turning over, putting the mixture into a fermentation tank or a fermentation tank for fermentation after uniformly mixing, controlling the fermentation temperature to be 37 ℃, and obtaining the organic fertilizer after fermenting for 15 days; the orange peel water extract is prepared by mixing orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate; the grape skin water extract is prepared by mixing grape skin and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate;
(3) planting:
sowing and planting moringa oleifera and citronella grass in 3-4 months; dibbling 2-3 moringa seeds subjected to seed treatment in a moringa planting ditch every 50cm, covering soil for 4-6 cm, and compacting; mixing fine soil or plant ash into the lemongrass seeds according to the seed amount of 1.9 kg/mu, then sowing the mixture into the lemongrass sowing trench, and covering soil for 1 cm; the seed treatment is to soak the moringa seeds for 1 hour by using a potassium permanganate solution with the mass concentration of 0.2 percent, to take out and wash the moringa seeds, to soak the moringa seeds in warm water at the temperature of 65 ℃, to change water for 1 time every 4 hours, to take out and to prepare for sowing after soaking for 12 hours;
(4) forest management and protection:
after the moringa seeds germinate for 15 days, combining ridging to remove weeds and carrying out uniform seeding and replanting; after the moringa seeds sprout for 30 days, spraying a leaching compound fertilizer with the effective nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 35 percent after raining in combination with weeding, wherein the fertilizing amount is 15 kg/mu; carrying out artificial weeding when weeds grow by 30-50 cm, and topdressing 200kg after each weeding, wherein the fertilizer used for topdressing is obtained by uniformly mixing 500 parts by weight of human and animal manure, 100 parts by weight of fine soil, 35 parts by weight of urea and 10 parts by weight of orange peel water extract and then fermenting for 2 days; the orange peel water extract is prepared by mixing orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate;
(5) pruning and shaping:
when the height of the moringa oleifera is 50m, cutting off a trunk from a position of 30cm, leaving 3-4 first-level branches after germination, then cutting off from a position of 50cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 70cm, leaving 10-15 second-level branches, then cutting off from a position of 65cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 90cm, and leaving 20-30 third-level branches; supplementing fertilizer in time according to the growth condition of the branches and leaves of the moringa oleifera, and keeping the whole plant height of the moringa oleifera to be 65-70 cm after the leaves are picked for the last time in winter every year;
(6) harvesting and processing:
collecting tender hearts 10-15 cm from the top of the buds of the second-level branches and the third-level branches of the moringa oleifera to be used as vegetables; collecting moringa oleifera mature leaves, namely breaking off the whole branches from the leaf stalks, drying in the air and shaking off the leaves, wherein the collected moringa oleifera mature leaves can be dried to be made into tea or deeply processed; harvesting the cedronella inflorescences after the cedronella inflorescences are half-cooked, spreading, and drying in the sun for later use.
Example 4:
a compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forests comprises the following measures:
(1) selecting a forest land:
selecting a forest land which is high in temperature and rainy, sufficient in sunlight, good in drainage and fertile in soil, having no severe frost and cold damage weather all the year round, wherein the annual average rainfall is 800-1800 mm, the elevation of the forest land is below 600m, the slope is 15 degrees, the soil is fertile and weakly acidic, and the gravel content in the soil is 6 percent;
(2) land preparation of forest land:
adopting terrace type strip soil preparation; the machine ploughing digging depth is 30cm, ridges are formed into horizontal ridge surfaces with the width of 2m and the height of 15cm, the ridge surfaces are finely dug and leveled after 1000 kg/mu of organic fertilizer is mixed with soil, and drainage channels are smoothly drained at two sides of the ridges; opening a moringa planting ditch with the width of 5-8 cm and the depth of 6-7 cm at the ridge surface which is 10cm away from the upper drainage ditch; digging a lemongrass sowing ditch with the row spacing of 35cm, the width of 3-4 cm and the depth of 2-3 cm in a ridge surface strip-shaped area which is 10cm away from the lower drainage ditch and 50cm away from the moringa oleifera planting ditch; the organic fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 33 parts of pig manure, 22 parts of peanut shell, 13 parts of phosphorus tailings, 15 parts of manioc waste, 7 parts of urea, 8 parts of orange peel water extract, 6 parts of grape peel water extract, 9 parts of bacillus subtilis, 5 parts of lactobacillus plantarum and 5 parts of bacillus fibrosus; the preparation method of the organic fertilizer comprises the steps of mixing pig manure, peanut shells, phosphorus tailings, manioc wastes and urea, spraying a mixed solution of orange peel water extract, grape peel water extract, bacillus subtilis, lactobacillus plantarum and cellulose bacillus while turning over, putting the mixture into a fermentation tank or a fermentation tank for fermentation after uniformly mixing, controlling the fermentation temperature to be 38 ℃, and obtaining the organic fertilizer after fermenting for 15 days; the orange peel water extract is prepared by mixing orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate; the grape skin water extract is prepared by mixing grape skin and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate;
(3) planting:
sowing moringa oleifera and citronella grass in the last ten days of 3 months; dibbling 2-3 moringa seeds subjected to seed treatment in a moringa planting ditch every 50cm, covering soil for 4-6 cm, and compacting; mixing fine soil or plant ash into the lemongrass seeds according to the seed amount of 2 kg/mu, then sowing the mixture into the lemongrass sowing trench, and covering soil for 2 cm; the seed treatment is to soak the moringa seeds for 1 hour by using a potassium permanganate solution with the mass concentration of 0.2 percent, to take out and wash the moringa seeds, to soak the moringa seeds in warm water at the temperature of 65 ℃, to change water for 1 time every 4 hours, to take out and to prepare for sowing after soaking for 12 hours;
(4) forest management and protection:
after the moringa seeds germinate for 15 days, combining ridging to remove weeds and carrying out uniform seeding and replanting; after the moringa seeds germinate for 30 days, spraying a leaching compound fertilizer with the effective nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 40 percent after raining in combination with weeding, wherein the fertilizing amount is 15 kg/mu; carrying out artificial weeding when weeds grow by 30-50 cm, and topdressing 200kg after each weeding, wherein the fertilizer used for topdressing is obtained by uniformly mixing 500 parts by weight of human and animal manure, 100 parts by weight of fine soil, 35 parts by weight of urea and 10 parts by weight of orange peel water extract and then fermenting for 2 days; the orange peel water extract is prepared by mixing orange peel and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate;
(5) pruning and shaping:
when the height of the moringa oleifera is 50m, cutting off a trunk from a position of 30cm, leaving 3-4 first-level branches after germination, then cutting off from a position of 50cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 70cm, leaving 10-15 second-level branches, then cutting off from a position of 65cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 90cm, and leaving 20-30 third-level branches; supplementing fertilizer in time according to the growth condition of the branches and leaves of the moringa oleifera, and keeping the whole plant height of the moringa oleifera to be 65-70 cm after the leaves are picked for the last time in winter every year;
(6) harvesting and processing:
collecting tender hearts 10-15 cm from the top of the buds of the second-level branches and the third-level branches of the moringa oleifera to be used as vegetables; collecting moringa oleifera mature leaves, namely breaking off the whole branches from the leaf stalks, drying in the air and shaking off the leaves, wherein the collected moringa oleifera mature leaves can be dried to be made into tea or deeply processed; harvesting the cedronella inflorescences after the cedronella inflorescences are half-cooked, spreading, and drying in the sun for later use.
Comparative example 1:
a small plot of the same plot as in example 1 was a control plot of moringa oleifera plain, which was separately divided. The comparative example is consistent with the example 1 in the same land preparation and moringa planting density, and is different from the following point: the base fertilizer is a mixed fertilizer used in conventional planting, and is used for picking normal branches and leaves of the moringa oleifera without fine pruning and shaping.
Comparative example 2:
plots were prepared for the same plot as in example 4, for the individual lots of lemongrass. The comparative example shows the same manner as that of example 4 in the preparation of the lemongrass plot and the planting manner of the lemongrass, and is different from that of example 4 in that: the base fertilizer is a mixed fertilizer used in conventional planting.
The inventor conducts the combined management method for planting the lemongrass under the moringa oleifera forest and the planting method for the moringa oleifera and the lemongrass in the comparative example from 2016, 3 months to the Tan village and the Shang Zhen village in Tan Luo town in the western village region of Guangxi Nanning city, and the related data results are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 Table of the change of soil nutrient content in the annual average yield and point of application of Moringa oleifera and Cymbopogon citratus for 2 years
As can be seen from table 1, by applying the technology of the present invention, after 2 years of planting, the moringa oleifera and the lemongrass in examples 1, 2, 3 and 4 grow vigorously, the plants are healthy, no plant diseases and insect pests are caused, considerable moringa oleifera leaf yield and lemongrass harvest yield are obtained after harvesting, and good economic benefits are achieved; meanwhile, the diversity of plants is increased through compound operation, the land utilization efficiency is greatly improved, particularly, the effective N, P, K content of soil nutrients is greatly improved compared with that before compound operation, the soil structure is improved, and good ecological benefits are embodied.
Comparing the embodiments 1-3 with the comparative example 1, it is found that under the same soil climate and other conditions, the organic fertilizer used in the technology of the invention is lacked in the moringa planting process in the comparative example 1, the soil fertility is attenuated, even the effective P content is increased negatively, the moringa grows in the later period and is weak, and the branch and leaf growth amount is obviously reduced due to the lack of scientific pruning and shaping, and the yield of the tender cabbage and the mature fresh leaves is only about 1/2 of that of the embodiments 1-4. This shows that examples 1 to 3 using the technology of the present invention have a better eco-economic benefit than comparative example 1.
Comparing the example 4 with the comparative example 2, the results show that under the same soil climate and other conditions, the yields of the cedronella in the comparative example and the example are not obviously different, but the yield of the moringa oleifera planting in the comparative example 2 is lacked, and the economic benefit is obviously lagged behind that of the example 4; meanwhile, the content of soil nutrients in example 4 is improved well compared with that in comparative example 2, and the content of alkaline hydrolysis N, the content of available P and the content of available K are obviously improved. This shows that example 4 using the technology of the present invention has a much better eco-economic efficiency than comparative example 2.
Furthermore, it should be understood that although the present description refers to embodiments, not every embodiment may contain only a single embodiment, and such description is for clarity only, and those skilled in the art should integrate the description, and the embodiments may be combined as appropriate to form other embodiments understood by those skilled in the art.

Claims (3)

1. A composite management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera forests is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a forest land:
selecting a forest land with high temperature, rain, sufficient sunlight, good drainage and fertile soil, having no severe frost and cold damage weather all the year round, wherein the annual average rainfall is between 800 and 1800mm, the elevation of the forest land is below 600m, the gradient is less than or equal to 20 degrees, the soil is neutral or weakly acidic, and the content of gravels in the soil is less than or equal to 10 percent;
(2) land preparation of forest land:
when the slope of the forest land is less than 10 degrees, performing full-reclamation land preparation, and when the slope of the forest land is more than or equal to 10 degrees and less than or equal to 20 degrees, performing terrace-type belt land preparation; the soil digging depth is more than or equal to 25cm, ridges form a horizontal ridge surface with the width of 1.5-2 m and the height of 10-15 cm, the ridge surface is finely raked after mixing 1000 kg/mu of organic fertilizer with soil, and drainage channels are smoothly drained at two sides of the ridge; opening a moringa planting ditch with the width of 5-8 cm and the depth of 6-7 cm at the ridge surface which is 10cm away from the upper drainage ditch; digging a lemongrass sowing ditch with the row spacing of 35cm, the width of 3-4 cm and the depth of 2-3 cm in a ridge surface strip-shaped area which is 10cm away from the lower drainage ditch and 50cm away from the moringa oleifera planting ditch;
the organic fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30-35 parts of pig manure, 20-25 parts of peanut shell, 10-15 parts of phosphorus tailings, 15 parts of cassava residue, 5-8 parts of urea, 6-9 parts of orange peel water extract, 5-7 parts of grape peel water extract, 8-10 parts of bacillus subtilis, 4-5 parts of lactobacillus plantarum and 5-6 parts of bacillus fibrosus; the preparation method of the organic fertilizer comprises the steps of mixing pig manure, peanut shells, phosphorus tailings, manioc wastes and urea, spraying a mixed solution of orange peel water extract, grape peel water extract, bacillus subtilis, lactobacillus plantarum and cellulose bacillus while turning over, putting the mixture into a fermentation tank or a fermentation tank for fermentation after uniformly mixing, controlling the fermentation temperature to be 36-38 ℃, and fermenting for 15 days to obtain the organic fertilizer;
(3) planting:
sowing and planting moringa oleifera and citronella grass in 3-4 months; dibbling 2-3 moringa seeds subjected to seed treatment in a moringa planting ditch every 50cm, covering soil for 4-6 cm, and compacting; mixing fine soil or plant ash into the lemongrass seeds according to the seed amount of 1.8-2 kg/mu, then sowing the mixture into a lemongrass sowing ditch, and covering 1-2 cm of soil;
(4) forest management and protection:
after the moringa seeds germinate for 15 days, combining ridging to remove weeds and carrying out uniform seeding and replanting; after the moringa seeds germinate for 30 days, spraying a leaching compound fertilizer with the effective nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of more than or equal to 35 percent after raining in combination with weeding, wherein the fertilizing amount is 15 kg/mu; carrying out artificial weeding when weeds grow by 30-50 cm, and topdressing 200kg after each weeding, wherein the fertilizer used for topdressing is obtained by uniformly mixing 500 parts by weight of human and animal manure, 100 parts by weight of fine soil, 35 parts by weight of urea and 10 parts by weight of orange peel water extract and then fermenting for 2 days;
(5) pruning and shaping:
when the height of the moringa oleifera is 50m, cutting off a trunk from a position of 30cm, leaving 3-4 first-level branches after germination, then cutting off from a position of 50cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 70cm, leaving 10-15 second-level branches, then cutting off from a position of 65cm when the moringa oleifera grows to 90cm, and leaving 20-30 third-level branches; supplementing fertilizer in time according to the growth condition of the branches and leaves of the moringa oleifera, and keeping the whole plant height of the moringa oleifera to be 65-70 cm after the leaves are picked for the last time in winter every year;
(6) harvesting and processing:
collecting tender hearts 10-15 cm from the top of the buds of the second-level branches and the third-level branches of the moringa oleifera to be used as vegetables; collecting moringa oleifera mature leaves, namely breaking off the whole branches from the leaf stalks, drying in the air and shaking off the leaves, wherein the collected moringa oleifera mature leaves can be dried to be made into tea or deeply processed; harvesting the cedronella inflorescences after the cedronella inflorescences are half-cooked, spreading, and drying in the sun for later use.
2. The compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera trees according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the orange peel water extract in the step (2) and the step (4) is prepared by mixing and decocting orange peel and water for 1 hour according to the mass ratio of 1:5, and filtering to obtain filtrate; and (3) mixing the grape skin and water according to the mass ratio of 1:5, decocting for 1 hour, and filtering to obtain filtrate to obtain the grape skin water extract.
3. The compound management method for planting lemongrass in leaf moringa oleifera trees according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: and (3) the seed treatment refers to soaking the moringa seeds for 1 hour by using a potassium permanganate solution with the mass concentration of 0.2%, fishing out and washing, soaking in warm water at 65 ℃, changing water for 1 time every 4 hours, and fishing out for later sowing after soaking for 12 hours.
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