CN107502578A - A kind of decomposed preparation and its purposes in rice straw also Tanaka - Google Patents

A kind of decomposed preparation and its purposes in rice straw also Tanaka Download PDF

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CN107502578A
CN107502578A CN201710894680.XA CN201710894680A CN107502578A CN 107502578 A CN107502578 A CN 107502578A CN 201710894680 A CN201710894680 A CN 201710894680A CN 107502578 A CN107502578 A CN 107502578A
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decomposed
soil
straw
heap
atcc
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林伟
於生法
严欣澂
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林伟
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING, OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N1/00Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/20Bacteria; Culture media therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F11/00Other organic fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of decomposed preparation, and the decomposed preparation is 3 according to volume ratio by complex micro organism fungicide and carrier:4 are prepared, and the complex micro organism fungicide is by white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus helveticus, bacillus amyloliquefaciens, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing.The decomposed preparation of the present invention not only has powerful decomposed effect to stalk, and a large amount of function bacteriums are also bred during the fermentation and produce a variety of special efficacy metabolites, so as to stimulate crop growth, improve crop disease-resistant, drought resisting, cold tolerance, after function bacterium enters soil, can fixed nitrogen, phosphorus decomposing, potassium decomposing, increase soil nutrient, improved soil structure, improve chemical fertilizer utilization ratio.

Description

A kind of decomposed preparation and its purposes in rice straw also Tanaka
Technical field
The invention belongs to agricultural technology field, and in particular to a kind of decomposed preparation and its in rice straw also Tanaka's purposes.
Background technology
Edaphon and enzyme are the important components of soil biochemistry characteristic, in Soil Nutrient Transformation circulation, are had Machine matter decomposition etc. plays an important role, and is an important indicator of soil fertility, is commonly used for the life for evaluating soil quality Thing characteristic, as one of study hotspot of soil educational circles.Straw-returning provides the carbon source of abundance for edaphon, Promote microorganism growth, breeding, improve biological activity of soil.In recent years many scholars from different perspectives to straw-returning under the conditions of Soil enzyme activities and micro organism quantity have carried out a series of research.Straw-returning can increase soil organic matter content, improve Soil physical and chemical property, improve crop yield, it is considered to be a kind of effective farmland measures for building, and passed through in straw resource utilization Ji and sustainable mode.But because stalk is mainly made up of cellulose, hemicellulose and the major part of lignin 3, it is natural It is difficult to be decomposed by the microorganisms under state, C/N is higher in addition, stalk is decomposed in soil slowly, it is impossible to as this season crop The source of manure, and microbial bacterial agent and chemical fertilizer, which are matched somebody with somebody to apply, can reduce C/N ratios, accelerate crop material to decompose, digest process.
It is reported that nitrogenous 0.48 kilogram in every 100 kilograms of fresh stalks, 0.38 kilogram of phosphorus, 1.67 kilograms of potassium, equivalent to 2.4 kilograms of nitrogenous fertilizer, 3.8 kilograms of phosphate fertilizer, 3.4 kilograms of potash fertilizer.If by 500 kilograms of crops straw returning fields, be equivalent to Soil applies more than 50 kilograms of standard fertilizer, and soil organic matter content can be improved, and reduces the unit weight of soil, thoroughly Water-based, gas permeability, ability of retaining and conserveing soil moisture increase, and the crumb structure of soil can be made to change, rarefaction is kept, it is effectively slow Solve the problem of soil is easily hardened.The straw biological fertilizer produced using stalk, fertilizer efficiency are higher.Therefore, stalk passes through comprehensive utilization Farmland is applied as fertilizer, is supplement and balance soil nutrient, the effective ways of improved soil, for promoting soil production benign The sustainable development of circulation, raising arable land basic topography and agricultural is significant.
Straw-returning, which has, promotes the soil organism and nitrogen, the increase of phosphorus, potassium equal size, coordinates contradiction out of proportion; Improve guarantor's accumulation of energy power of soil moisture;Straw-returning technology is environmental protection, the strategic choice of carrying for promoting agricultural sustainable development.It is logical Straw-returning is crossed, soil organic matter content can be effectively increased, improved soil, accelerate immature soil into cultivated land, increase soil fertility.Improve and plant Strain character, improves crop yield;Improve soil property, increase crumb structure the advantages that.The getting fat production-increasing function of straw-returning shows Write, can typically increase production 5%~10%, be to promote stable and high agricultural yields, high speed, walk the important channel of sustainable development path.But Reach such effect, not a duck soup.If method is improper, the increase of soil germ is also resulted in, crop disease is aggravated and is short of seedling (Stiff seedling)Etc. bad phenomenon.Therefore rational straw-returning measure is taken, can just plays good field effect.
1st, straw-returning supplements soil nutrient.Crop material contains certain nutrient and cellulose, hemicellulose, wooden Element, protein and ash element, existing more organic matter, there is the nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium again.If stalk is transported from field Walk, then the organic matter remained in soil only has 10% or so, causes soil fertility to decline.So, fertilising or straw are only passed through The approach such as stalk returning to the field can just be supplemented.
2nd, straw-returning promotes microbial activities.Edaphon has in whole Agro-ecological System decomposes soil The important function of organic matter and purification soil.The synthesis of organic matter is usually completed by plant leaf green, and the decomposition of organic matter is then by micro- Biology is completed.Straw-returning adds mass energy material to edaphon, all kinds of micro organism quantities and enzymatic activity also phase It should increase;Microorganism 18.9% can be increased by carrying out straw-returning, and contact enzymatic activity can increase by 33%, and invertase activity can increase by 47%, Urease can increase by 17%.This has speeded up the conversion of the decomposition and mineral matter nutrient to organic substance, make nitrogen in soil, The increase of the elements such as phosphorus, potassium, the validity of soil nutrient also increase.Caused cellulose, wood after microorganism decomposition converts The black colloid substances such as quality, polysaccharide and humic acid, there is the ability for bonding grogs, formed and organic answered with inorganic with clay mineral Zoarium, promote Zinc fractions crumb structure, mitigate volume weight of soils, increase soil reclaimed water, fertilizer, the coordination ability of air and heat, improve Soil water-retaining, fertilizer conservation, the ability of fertilizer, improve soil physical and chemical property.
3rd, straw-returning can reduce fertilizer application amount.Agriculture developed country all focuses on fertilization structure very much, such as american agriculture The amount of application of fertilizer controls within the 1/3 of total dose always, Canada, stalk all returning to the field of U.S.'s major part corn, wheat. Original nitrogen of the nitrogen that crop is absorbed in soil.23%-24% is only accounted for from chemical fertilizer.Even if this explanation using Chemical fertilizer, soil organic matter are still most important to plant growth.So straw-returning is the pole for making up chemical fertilizer long-term use defect Good method.
4th, straw-returning can improve agroecological environment.The stalk in rural area 80% mainly takes burning to handle, and pollutes sky Gas, traffic, upper soll layer coking etc. are influenceed, also cause fire sometimes.In addition, arbitrarily disposal can also influence Agro-ecology ring to stalk Border.So straw-returning is advantageously implemented the comprehensive utilization of agricultural wastes.
China's crop material aboundresources, because Straw Amendment is backward in technique, tell on slow, utilization rate is low, organic fertilizer Proportion and amount of application reduce year by year, and fertilizer amount increases year by year.Stalk is fermented through beneficial microbe, complex equilibrium is applied With chemical fertilizer, respective advantage is played to greatest extent, can obviously improve soil physical chemistry and biological character, to maintaining farmland good Ecological environment system and crop nutrition system, reduce environmental pollution, raise productivity and improve the quality etc. positive effect.It is it is determined that a kind of feasible Beneficial microbe fermentation organic fertilizer formula application technique, can be pollution-less agriculture production development, and standardized production The formulation of technology provides scientific basis.
The content of the invention
The present invention, because stalk C/N is high, is difficult in its natural state in order to solve prior art during straw degradative It is decomposed by the microorganisms, so as to the cycle length for the conversion that causes after straw-returning to be decomposed in soil, it is difficult to as this season crop fertilizer The problem of source.A kind of decomposed preparation and its application in straw-returning are provided, using the present invention decomposed preparation fermentation stalk, Obtain organic fertilizer, decomposition into field.
The decomposed preparation of the present invention, each strain is in promotion Organic Matter Transformation and participates in soil material circulation and energy friendship In changing, not only with proprietary characteristic, while there is also general character relation.It is in close relations between soil enzyme and edaphon, say The reinforcement of bright microbial life metabolic activity can improve soil enzyme activities, while the raising of enzymatic activity also promotes thing in soil Matter conversion rate, nutrient and good soil microenvironment are provided for microorganism.The decomposed preparation of the present invention is due in processing During material obtain thoroughly it is decomposed, produce a large amount of functional microorganisms and a variety of metabolites such as plant hormone, antibiotic etc., So as to stimulate crop growth, soil nutrient is improved, improved soil structure, improves chemical fertilizer utilization ratio, its is easy to operate, is beneficial to Production.
The present invention adopts the following technical scheme that realization:
A kind of decomposed preparation, the decomposed preparation are 3 according to volume ratio by complex micro organism fungicide and carrier:4 are prepared, institute Complex micro organism fungicide is stated by white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus helveticus, solution starch gemma Bacillus, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium are according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing.
The white wine red streptomyces are(Streptomyces albovinaceus)ATCC 12951;
The azotobacter chroococcum is (Azotobacter chroococcum) ATCC 4412;
The pseudomonas aeruginosa is(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)ATCC 15442;
The Lactobacillus helveticus is(Lactobacillus helveticus)ATCC 15009;
The bacillus amyloliquefaciens are(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)ATCC 23843;
The enterococcus faecalis is(Enterococcus faecalis)ATCC 29212;
The phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium is(Bacillus megaterium)ATCC 14581.
The preparation method of the complex micro organism fungicide is as follows:By white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, verdigris vacation monospore Bacterium, Lactobacillus helveticus, bacillus amyloliquefaciens, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium cultivate respectively to concentration be 2-4 × 109Individual/ml bacterium solution, then according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing, is produced;It is compound in the range of this bacteria concentration Microbial inoculum, meeting quick composting stalk, if bacterium number is smaller, the time of stalk recovery can extend, so one batch of crop under the influence of meeting Sowing, and bacterium number excessively can increase toxigenic capacity.
The carrier is:Chitosan, rice husk are according to weight than 3:5 weight are than preparing;
It is used for the method for straw-returning using above-mentioned decomposed preparation, step is as follows:
Agricultural crop straw is pre-processed, controls moisture 55~60%, decomposed preparation carries the previous day and adds the dilution of 10 times of weight waters(Be advantageous to Recover and the vigor of enhancing strain is with active, the efficiency of raising decomposing agent corruption stalk)Dilution microbial inoculum is obtained, according to stalk weight 20% addition dilution microbial inoculum, turn over smash uniformly;
By trapezoidal, the heap top width 1-1.5 rice of the agricultural crop straw heap pre-processed growth, heap bottom width 2-3 rice, heap high summer and autumn 1.2 ~1.5 meters, 1.5~2.0 meters of winter-spring season, heap length are no less than 5 sides depending on place, per heap volume;
After fermentation starts, kept for 1 day when 20~30 centimetres of depths temperature of charge rise to 55 DEG C, then turn over and smash once, when heap temperature After rising to 55 DEG C again, kept for 1 day, then turn over and smash once;Turn over smashing according to heap tender feeling condition afterwards, temperature upward period does not turn over To smash, temperature stops rising then to turn over smashing, and the step for repetition, until heap temperature is identical with outdoor temperature, moisture is down to less than 30% When, that is, complete fermentation process and obtain straw decomposing thing.
The straw decomposing thing can be uniformly spread fertilizer over the fields straw decomposing thing in field according to the amount of application of 200kg/ mus with direct returning to farmland Use as base manure, field is turned over after spreading fertilizer over the fields.
Stubble is rice before the crop, and lower stubble is wheat;
Preferably, the agricultural crop straw is rice straw.
Strain of the present invention can be from American Type Culture collection warehousing(ATCC)It is commercially available.
Strain of the present invention can obtain the bacterium solution of required concentration by the cultural method of routine, as space is limited, and Do not repeat one by one.
The present invention use rice husk as adsorbing agent carrier, and the rice husk adsorptivity is strong, can adsorber acid to greatest extent, in effective With the alkalescence of nursery soil, the adsorbent that rice husk and chitosan are mixed with according to a certain percentage is easily facilitated into crop and normally given birth to It is long.
There is good cooperative effect between decomposed preparation microorganism provided by the invention;To corn, the rice for being difficult to degrade There is efficient degradation property Deng stalk, the microbial inoculum is mainly used in crop material decomposition into field in agricultural planting, is converted For efficient, safe and environment-friendly biological organic fertilizer.Can be decomposed rapidly by field straw at one week or so, relative to prior art Microbial inoculum greatly reduces the decomposed time, solves the problems, such as decomposed slow, returning to the field difficulty in crops straw returning field be present, improves soil The earth content of organic matter, the effect of " land used is increased soil fertility " is served, cracked government's encouragement, agriculture in straw-returning problem for a long time The quagmire that the people slack off.
Microbe species collocation of the present invention is reasonable, and it is false single to employ white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, verdigris Spore bacterium, the combination of Lactobacillus helveticus, bacillus amyloliquefaciens, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium, pass through several different bacterium The synergy of kind, with strong complementarity, composite bacteria agent can rapidly be bred after use, form dominant population, and can be rapid Heating, promote the decomposition of stalk, and the nutrient content such as organic matter is high after heap corruption;Dominant bacteria can be utilized to destroy the cell knot of stalk Structure, the dissolution of the active ingredients such as starch, protein, cellulose, lignin is effectively facilitated, so that the albumen of most of difficult degradation The oxidation Decompositions such as matter, cellulose, lignin, to mitigate the pressure of subsequent degradation, and, produce more than 60 DEG C of high temperature and accelerate water Rice straw degraded speed, overcome the Straw decomposing transformation period it is long the problem of;
The mutual not antagonism of the decomposed preparation of the present invention, synergy, not only there is powerful decomposed effect to stalk, and during the fermentation Also breed a large amount of function bacteriums and produce a variety of special efficacy metabolites, so as to stimulate crop growth, improve crop disease-resistant, resist Drought, cold tolerance, function bacterium enter soil after, can fixed nitrogen, phosphorus decomposing, potassium decomposing, increase soil nutrient, improved soil structure, carry High chemical fertilizer utilization ratio.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1:
A kind of decomposed preparation, the decomposed preparation are 3 according to volume ratio by complex micro organism fungicide and carrier:4 are prepared, institute Complex micro organism fungicide is stated by white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus helveticus, solution starch gemma Bacillus, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium are according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing.
The white wine red streptomyces are(Streptomyces albovinaceus)ATCC 12951;
The azotobacter chroococcum is (Azotobacter chroococcum) ATCC 4412;
The pseudomonas aeruginosa is(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)ATCC 15442;
The Lactobacillus helveticus is(Lactobacillus helveticus)ATCC 15009;
The bacillus amyloliquefaciens are(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)ATCC 23843;
The enterococcus faecalis is(Enterococcus faecalis)ATCC 29212;
The phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium is(Bacillus megaterium)ATCC 14581.
The preparation method of the complex micro organism fungicide is as follows:By white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, verdigris vacation monospore It is 2 × 10 that bacterium, Lactobacillus helveticus, bacillus amyloliquefaciens, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium are cultivated to concentration respectively9 Individual/ml bacterium solution, then according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing, is produced;Compound bacteria in the range of this bacteria concentration Agent, can quick composting stalk, if bacterium number is smaller, the time of stalk recovery can extend, one batch of crop under the influence of so Sowing, and bacterium number excessively can increase toxigenic capacity.
The carrier is:Chitosan, rice husk are according to weight than 3:5 weight are than preparing;
It is used for the method for straw-returning using above-mentioned decomposed preparation, step is as follows:
Agricultural crop straw is pre-processed, controls moisture 55%, decomposed preparation carries the previous day and adds the dilution of 10 times of weight waters(Be advantageous to recover With the vigor and activity of enhancing strain, the efficiency that decomposing agent degenerates stalk is improved)Dilution microbial inoculum is obtained, according to stalk weight 20% addition dilution microbial inoculum, turns over and smashes uniformly;
By trapezoidal, 1 meter of the heap top width of the agricultural crop straw heap pre-processed growth, 2 meters of heap bottom width, 1.2 meters of heap high summer and autumn, Winter-Spring 1.5 meters of season, heap length are no less than 5 sides depending on place, per heap volume;
After fermentation starts, kept for 1 day when 20~30 centimetres of depths temperature of charge rise to 55 DEG C, then turn over and smash once, when heap temperature After rising to 55 DEG C again, kept for 1 day, then turn over and smash once;Turn over smashing according to heap tender feeling condition afterwards, temperature upward period does not turn over To smash, temperature stops rising then to turn over smashing, and the step for repetition, until heap temperature is identical with outdoor temperature, moisture is down to less than 30% When, that is, complete fermentation process and obtain straw decomposing thing.
The straw decomposing thing can uniformly be spread fertilizer over the fields straw decomposing thing according to the amount of application of 200kg/ mus with direct returning to farmland Field is used as base manure, and field is turned over after spreading fertilizer over the fields.
Stubble is rice before the crop, and lower stubble is wheat;
The agricultural crop straw is rice straw.
Embodiment 2:
A kind of decomposed preparation, the decomposed preparation are 3 according to volume ratio by complex micro organism fungicide and carrier:4 are prepared, institute Complex micro organism fungicide is stated by white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus helveticus, solution starch gemma Bacillus, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium are according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing.
The white wine red streptomyces are(Streptomyces albovinaceus)ATCC 12951;
The azotobacter chroococcum is (Azotobacter chroococcum) ATCC 4412;
The pseudomonas aeruginosa is(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)ATCC 15442;
The Lactobacillus helveticus is(Lactobacillus helveticus)ATCC 15009;
The bacillus amyloliquefaciens are(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)ATCC 23843;
The enterococcus faecalis is(Enterococcus faecalis)ATCC 29212;
The phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium is(Bacillus megaterium)ATCC 14581.
The preparation method of the complex micro organism fungicide is as follows:By white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, verdigris vacation monospore It is 4 × 10 that bacterium, Lactobacillus helveticus, bacillus amyloliquefaciens, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium are cultivated to concentration respectively9 Individual/ml bacterium solution, then according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing, is produced;Compound bacteria in the range of this bacteria concentration Agent, can quick composting stalk, if bacterium number is smaller, the time of stalk recovery can extend, one batch of crop under the influence of so Sowing, and bacterium number excessively can increase toxigenic capacity.
The carrier is:Chitosan, rice husk are according to weight than 3:5 weight are than preparing;
It is used for the method for straw-returning using above-mentioned decomposed preparation, step is as follows:
Agricultural crop straw is pre-processed, controls moisture 60%, decomposed preparation carries the previous day and adds the dilution of 10 times of weight waters(Be advantageous to recover With the vigor and activity of enhancing strain, the efficiency that decomposing agent degenerates stalk is improved)Dilution microbial inoculum is obtained, according to stalk weight 20% addition dilution microbial inoculum, turns over and smashes uniformly;
By trapezoidal, 1.5 meters of the heap top width of the agricultural crop straw heap pre-processed growth, 3 meters of heap bottom width, 1.5 meters of heap high summer and autumn, winter 2.0 meters of spring, heap length are no less than 5 sides depending on place, per heap volume;
After fermentation starts, kept for 1 day when 20~30 centimetres of depths temperature of charge rise to 55 DEG C, then turn over and smash once, when heap temperature After rising to 55 DEG C again, kept for 1 day, then turn over and smash once;Turn over smashing according to heap tender feeling condition afterwards, temperature upward period does not turn over To smash, temperature stops rising then to turn over smashing, and the step for repetition, until heap temperature is identical with outdoor temperature, moisture is down to less than 30% When, that is, complete fermentation process and obtain straw decomposing thing.
The straw decomposing thing can uniformly be spread fertilizer over the fields straw decomposing thing according to the amount of application of 200kg/ mus with direct returning to farmland Field is used as base manure, and field is turned over after spreading fertilizer over the fields.
Stubble is rice before the crop, and lower stubble is wheat;
The agricultural crop straw is rice straw.
Embodiment 3:Influence of the rice straw returning to the field to topsoil soils
The soil weight is an important Testing index of soil physico-chemical property, refer in its natural state unit volume dry ground with it is same The mass ratio of volume of water, it reflects the integrated status such as the structure of soil, the content of organic matter, the height meeting of soil weight index Soil porosity and pore size distribution, the fertility of the penetration power of soil and soil are directly influenced, the soil of root system of plant is worn Saturating power and root activity, further have impact on the growth and development of plant.Change the soil weight of salinized soil, become the soil weight Small, soil becomes loose, has good porosity, and water content amount increase is only the important goal in saline-alkali soil soil improvement.
Soil porosity, it refers to the very rate of soil solid particle, its size and the gas permeability of soil, permeable Property, moisture storage capacity, hold fertile ability, and the workability of soil of soil has an inseparable relation, also grown with crop Situation has direct relation.The granular size of the soil of salinized soil, the porousness of soil, the content of organic matter and the soil texture The porosity of soil is all directly determined, therefore the soil porosity for calculating salinized soil also provides important number for soil improvement According to support.
Water-stable aggregate is the scattered soil mass of water resistant power, and soil water stability structure is acted on particularly regulation soil fertility Significantly.Water-stable aggregate content is determined, is contributed to soil fertility, the evaluation of soil texture.
Test group is:The straw decomposing preparation that embodiment 1-2 is respectively adopted is increase soil fertility, then long-term cropping, is made Thing developmental process Routine Management fertilizer and moisture;
Control group is produced for routinely operation, by stalk returning to the field on the spot after harvest, does not apply decomposed preparation, and then plantation is made Thing, crop developmental process Routine Management fertilizer and moisture.
Experiment concrete outcome is shown in Table 1:
The decomposed preparation of the application of table 1 is by the influence after straw-returning to soil
Group Unit weight g/cm Water content % Soil water stability performance percentage Total porosity(%)
Control group 1.44 9.54 8.31 30.23
Embodiment 1 1.27 11.23 10.56 38.12
Embodiment 2 1.25 12.08 11.13 40.45
As it can be seen from table 1 after carrying out straw-returning using embodiment 1-2 decomposed preparation, the physicochemical property of soil obtains Very big change, the soil weight are reduced, and add soil porosity, improve water content and soil water stability Aggregate percentage, the overall physical properties of soil are improved.
Embodiment 4
Act synergistically white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Switzerland between the decomposed formulation ingredients of the application Lactobacillus, bacillus amyloliquefaciens, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium.
Using decomposed preparation made from embodiment one as experimental group;
Compare one group:White wine red streptomyces are not added, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
Compare two groups:Azotobacter chroococcum is not added, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
Compare three groups:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is not added, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
Compare four groups:Lactobacillus helveticus is not added, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
Compare five groups:Bacillus amyloliquefaciens are not added, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
Compare six groups:Enterococcus faecalis is not added, remaining is the same as embodiment 1.
Compare seven groups:Phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium is not added, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1.
Blank control group:Decomposed preparation is not added, only adds the blank control group of water,
9 experimental groups altogether, 2 repetitions are tested.Take fresh stalk to be intercepted, ensure that the stalk of every group of experiment is suitable, keep Apply that water, temperature, humidity, sunlight sunshine condition are consistent, and other conditions are also essentially identical.
Respectively by nine experimental group composite bacteria liquids(Blank group only water)Carrying the previous day adds the dilution of 10 times of water to obtain dilution activation Liquid, activating solution is diluted according to 20% addition of stalk weight,
All experimental groups are placed in identical environment and daily Timing measurement temperature, humidity change, and the decomposed degree of stalk.
The calculation formula of resolution ratio is:
Rate of corrosion (part)=(weight of the decomposed preceding stalk of weight/carry out of stalk after decomposed) × 100%
After 7 days, the decomposition that the stalk in eight test groups is compared in terms of color, feel and stretching resistance becomes fermentation maturity at the same time Change situation is referring to table 2;
The straw degradative contrast test of table 2
Embodiment one Control one Control two Control three Control four Control five Control six Control seven Blank control
Cellulose degradation rate 92.6% 71.5% 56.4% 56.3% 34.5% 53.2% 56.3% 44.5% 9.7%
Hemicellulose degradation rate 91.7% 50.6% 52.7% 51.4% 42.1% 51.7% 51.4% 42.5% 10.3%
Lignin degradation rate 93.4% 56.4% 56.3% 49.6% 43.2% 49.6% 49.3% 41.2% 8.9%
Influence of the 5 direct decomposition into field of embodiment to crop yield.
Stubble is the plot of rice before selection, and plot is divided into three equal parts, in the case of other cultivation condition identicals, Do following three kinds of processing:
Test 1 group:By preceding stubble rice decomposition into field, using the decomposed preparation of embodiment 1, then rice straw returning to the field is planted Wheat, during wheat growth, Routine Management moisture, fertilizer applies according to the half of conventional fertilizer application;
Test 2 groups:By preceding stubble rice decomposition into field, using the decomposed preparation of embodiment 2, by rice straw returning to the field on the spot, then Wheat is planted, during wheat growth, Routine Management moisture, fertilizer applies according to the half of conventional fertilizer application;
Control group:Then preceding stubble rice plants wheat, conventional fertilizer application in wheat growth;
Under three kinds of dispositions, the wheat per mu yield situation in each plot is as shown in table 3.
Each plot wheat per mu yield situation of table 3
Area(Mu) Yield(Kg/ mus)
Test 1 group 2 621.5
Test 2 groups 2 633.7
Control group 2 544.2
As can be seen from the above table, after rice straw being utilized into the decomposed preparation decomposition into field of the application, applied in the succession crop amount of halving While adding fertilizer, wheat still increases production 14.2% and 16.4% respectively than Routine control group, it can be seen that, of the invention is decomposed Preparation can improve soil physico-chemical property, increase soil fertility, and reduce the administration of chemical fertilizer, and improve crop yield.
Although above detailed explanation is made to this case with generality explanation and embodiment, in the present invention On the basis of, it can be made some modifications or improvements, this will be apparent to those skilled in the art.Therefore, not Deviate the modification or improvement made on the basis of present invention spirit, belong to the scope of protection of present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of decomposed preparation, the decomposed preparation is 3 according to volume ratio by complex micro organism fungicide and carrier:4 are prepared.
2. decomposed preparation according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the carrier is by chitosan, rice husk according to weight ratio 3:5 prepare.
3. decomposed preparation according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the complex micro organism fungicide is by the red strepto- of white wine Bacterium, azotobacter chroococcum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus helveticus, bacillus amyloliquefaciens, enterococcus faecalis, the huge gemma bar of phosphorus decomposing Bacterium is according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing.
4. the method for carrying out straw decomposing using decomposed preparation described in claim 1, it is characterised in that step is as follows:
(1)Agricultural crop straw is pre-processed, controls moisture 55~60%, decomposed preparation carries the previous day and adds the dilution of 10 times of weight waters to obtain Microbial inoculum is diluted, according to 20% addition dilution microbial inoculum of stalk weight, turns over and smashes uniformly;
(2)By trapezoidal, the heap top width 1-1.5 rice of the agricultural crop straw heap pre-processed growth, heap bottom width 2-3 rice, heap high summer and autumn 1.2~1.5 meters, 1.5~2.0 meters of winter-spring season, heap length is depending on place;
(3)After fermentation starts, kept for 1 day when 20~30 centimetres of depths temperature of charge rise to 55 DEG C, then turn over and smash once, work as heap After temperature rises to 55 DEG C again, kept for 1 day, then turn over and smash once;Turn over smashing according to heap tender feeling condition afterwards, temperature upward period is not To turn over and smash, temperature stops rising then to turn over smashing, and the step for repetition, until heap temperature is identical with outdoor temperature, moisture is down to less than 30% When, that is, complete fermentation process and obtain straw decomposing thing.
5. the decomposed preparation according to claim 1-3, and the method described in claim 4, it is characterised in that
The white wine red streptomyces are(Streptomyces albovinaceus)ATCC 12951;
The azotobacter chroococcum is (Azotobacter chroococcum) ATCC 4412;
The pseudomonas aeruginosa is(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)ATCC 15442;
The Lactobacillus helveticus is(Lactobacillus helveticus)ATCC 15009;
The bacillus amyloliquefaciens are(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)ATCC 23843;
The enterococcus faecalis is(Enterococcus faecalis)ATCC 29212;
The phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium is(Bacillus megaterium)ATCC 14581.
6. the decomposed preparation according to claim 1-3, and the method described in claim 4, it is characterised in that described compound The preparation method of microbial bacterial agent is as follows:By white wine red streptomyces, azotobacter chroococcum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus helveticus, solution Bacillus amyloliquefacienses, enterococcus faecalis, phosphorus decomposing bacillus megaterium are cultivated to concentration and are respectively(2-4)×109Individual/ml bacterium solution, Then according to 7:3:4:5:1:2:3 volume ratio mixing, is produced.
7. according to the method described in claim 4-6, it is characterised in that the agricultural crop straw is rice straw.
8. decomposed preparation described in claim 1-7 or method are used for the purposes that straw-returning reduces pollution.
CN201710894680.XA 2017-09-28 2017-09-28 A kind of decomposed preparation and its purposes in rice straw also Tanaka Pending CN107502578A (en)

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CN108841743A (en) * 2018-06-10 2018-11-20 东北农业大学 Cold ground straw decomposing bacterium bacterial strain and its preparation method and application
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CN109247178A (en) * 2018-10-08 2019-01-22 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所 A method of it improving winterberry euonymus herb salt-soda soil and plants survival rate
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