CN104447038B - A kind of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser and its preparation method and application - Google Patents

A kind of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser and its preparation method and application Download PDF

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CN104447038B
CN104447038B CN201410775092.0A CN201410775092A CN104447038B CN 104447038 B CN104447038 B CN 104447038B CN 201410775092 A CN201410775092 A CN 201410775092A CN 104447038 B CN104447038 B CN 104447038B
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fermentation
microbial inoculum
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microbial
bacillus
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CN104447038A (en
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肖敏淇
肖汉乾
向铁军
易百科
陈裕新
刘大其
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HUNAN GOLD LEAF PUBLIC EXPECTATION TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • C05F9/04Biological compost
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/60Biocides or preservatives, e.g. disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides; Pest repellants or attractants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING, OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N1/00Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/14Fungi; Culture media therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING, OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N1/00Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/14Fungi; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/16Yeasts; Culture media therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING, OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N1/00Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/20Bacteria; Culture media therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention provides a kind of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser, the total nutrient 30% ~ 35%, N of this Chemical Mixed Fertilizer, P 2o 5, K 2the nutrient of O is than 6 ~ 15:5 ~ 18:6 ~ 25, and living bacteria count 0.5 hundred million/g ~ 100,000,000/g, organic matter 15 ~ 25%, nicotine content is 0.15 ~ 0.20%, chlorion≤3.0%, moisture≤12%, fineness 40 ~ 60 order, pH6.0 ~ 7.0.Its preparation method comprises the following steps: be added in stirrer by offal, the dish dregs of rice, pig manure, artificial humic's acid, organism of fermentation microbial inoculum, add water, carry out pile fermentation, obtain fermentation maturity material during stirring; Then fermentation maturity material, urea, monoammonium phosphate, Repone K, active nano carbon dust, functional microbial microbial inoculum are added in stirrer, mixing is pulverized, be sieved into Powdered, namely obtain N P and K inorganic nutrients, organic content is high, environmental protection, pest-resistant biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser.

Description

A kind of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser and its preparation method and application
Technical field
The present invention relates to fertilizer field, particularly relate to a kind of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser and its preparation method and application.
Background technology
Along with the development of economy and society, Soil degradation problem becomes increasingly conspicuous, main manifestations be soil compaction and sclerosis, erosion, salinization, acidifying, element is unbalance, chemical pollution, Organic Matter Loss and animals and plants fauna degeneration etc., seriously limit the development of fertility.Agricultural Activities causes Soil degradation to be the major reason causing land deterioration.A large amount of use inorganic fertilizer causes soil compaction, and unreasonable irrigation causes the soil salinization, and it is all the major cause causing soil fertility to decline that unreasonable use agricultural chemicals causes soil poisoning seriously to wait.
For the problem that solution inorganic fertilizer and agricultural chemicals are existing in application, researcher has carried out being permitted many-sided trial and improvement.Manure use or biological organic fertilizer are one of important measures of repairing degenerated soil.Fertilizer can improve soil physical and chemical property and soil nutrient status effectively, improves permeability, and activating soil microorganism improves the adsorptive power to fertilizer, reduces nutrient and fixes, strengthen the preserve moisture and fertility ability of soil, improve plant recovery of nutrient.Biological organic fertilizer also added functional microbiobacterial agent, by the activity of functional microbial, decomposes and has fixed phosphorus, potassium nutrition, obtain release; The nitrogen of fixed air is converted to available nitrogen, reduces the usage quantity of nitrogenous fertilizer; Some microorganisms effectively can also suppress the generation of disease and pest.But simple fertilizer or biological organic fertilizer, nutrient content is low, and mostly is organic type, and Crop utilizes slowly.Which suppress the active demand of plant growth to nutrient, the quick supply of the nutrient of crop can not be met, affect the high yield of crop.Therefore appropriate inorganic nutrients need be added in fertilizer or biological organic fertilizer, the quick demand of crop to nutrient can be met, effectively can prevent Soil degradation again, improve soil physico-chemical property, improvement air permeability, provides water retention capacity, activating soil microorganism, reduce nutrient loss, plant recovery of nutrient is provided.China Patent Publication No. is CN101712569A, publication date is on May 26th, 2010, denomination of invention is the patent documentation of " a kind of special rice organic-inorganic base manure and preparation method thereof ", disclose a kind of formula and preparation method of special rice organic-inorganic base manure, its essential characteristic is mixed than the ratio for 4-6:1-1.5 according to dry matter weight with rice bran by dried poultrymanure, the fermentation 12-18 days that becomes thoroughly decomposed is carried out in compost pond, afterwards by compost and urea, monoammonium phosphate, Repone K mixes than the ratio for 55-68:15-16:7-14:10-15 according to dry matter weight.Although this kind of base manure has the advantages that organic-inorganic combines, the demand of crop to this season nutrient can be met, can keep soil from packing together again, improvement soil quality; But this fertilizer does not add the microbiobacterial agent that can activate crop rhizosphere soils, and suppress the nicotine of soil-borne disease.The effect that fertile medicine is dual-purpose can not be reached.Therefore, develop disease resistance biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser and seem very necessary.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is, overcomes the deficiency and defect mentioned in above background technology, provides a kind of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium inorganic nutrients, organic content high, environmental protection, pest-resistant biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical scheme that the present invention proposes is a kind of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser, and described fertilizer is black powder, N, P 2o 5, K 2the nutrient ratio of O is 6 ~ 15:5 ~ 18:6 ~ 25, living bacteria count is 0.5 hundred million/g ~ 100,000,000/g, organic matter is 15 ~ 25%, and nicotine content is 0.15 ~ 0.20%, chlorion≤3.0%, moisture≤12%, fineness is 40 ~ 60 orders, and pH is 6.0 ~ 7.0, excrement colibacillus group number (individual/g)≤100, induced worm egg death rate>=95%, the biological activity quality guaranteed period is 6 months.The mensuration of excrement colibacillus group value is undertaken by the regulation of GB/T19524.1-2004, and the mensuration of induced worm egg death rate is undertaken by the regulation of GB/T19524.2-2004.
As a total inventive concept, the present invention also provides a kind of preparation method of above-mentioned biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser, comprise the following steps: each raw material is added in stirrer by following parts by weight of crushed and stirs: offal 40 ~ 60 parts, the dish dregs of rice 10 ~ 20 parts, pig manure 20 ~ 30 parts, artificial humic's acid 5 ~ 10 parts, organism of fermentation microbial inoculum 0.8 ~ 1.2 part; Add water while stirring, after stirring, material is carried out pile fermentation, obtain fermentation maturity material;
Then by above-mentioned fermentation maturity material 50 ~ 60 parts, 21 ~ 23 parts, urea, monoammonium phosphate 15 ~ 17 parts, 3 ~ 5 parts, Repone K, active nano carbon dust 1 ~ 2 part, functional microbial microbial inoculum 1 ~ 2 part adds in stirrer, mixing, pulverizing, be sieved into Powdered, packaging final prod, obtain pest-resistant type biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser.
Offal is the waste material of cigarette industry, accounts for 20% ~ 30% of tobacco leaf gross weight, and the annual offal waste material produced in the whole nation just has several nearly 1,000,000 tons.Offal has singularity, directly can not carry out burning and destroy or landfill disposal etc., owing to not utilizing timely and effectively or process, causes that most of the products are overstocked, waste warehousing resource, the serious sustainable development hindered to cigarette industry.In recent years, to the comprehensive utilization of offal, tobacco waste gradually deeply, resource reutilization more and more comes into one's own, and correspondingly develops series of process technology, and as extracted pectin, nicotine, cellulose xanthate ester, or it is expanded etc. to manufacture reconstituted tobacco, offal; However, the utilization of current offal waste material is also quite little, can meet far away the requirement of process offal waste material.Offal belongs to agricultural byproducts tankage, has the feature of organic waste, if be developed as fertilizer, then the utilization of tobacco stem waste will obtain tremendous growth.Offal has the resources of high-content, is rare potassium element fertilizer raw material sources.In addition, offal contains a kind of biomass desinsection anthelmintic substance-nicotine, as being developed as fertilizer, effectively can suppress the generation of native transmissibility insect pest, and nicotine easily decomposes, and is not easily absorbed by plants, and is a kind of desinsection anthelmintic substance of environmental protection safety.The dish dregs of rice are by products of Semen Brassicae campestris squeezing industry, account for the 50%-70% of Semen Brassicae campestris gross weight.The dish dregs of rice of whole nation generation in 2013 are more than 7,000,000 tons.The dish dregs of rice are the material of high protein, but contain glucosinolate, phytic acid, tannin, the sinapinic acid of antinutritional factor due to the dish dregs of rice; Capital affects the absorption and digestion of animal to mineral substance, nutritive substance, finally affects the growth of animal.Therefore, the dish dregs of rice are applied and are subject to certain suppression in feedstuff industry.Owing to not utilizing timely and effectively or process, cause stock, not only cause inventory lot nervous, and serious waste grouts resource.But the dish dregs of rice are high-protein plant raw material, a kind of rare organonitrogen raw material sources, if the dish dregs of rice are made into fertilizer or biological organic fertilizer by biological fermentation, then can process digestion dish dregs of rice raw material in a large number, and the fertilizer produced or biological organic fertilizer have the organic nitrogen of high-content, various nutritive element is also very abundant, is a kind of organic fertilizer raw material resource of high-quality.
Along with the development of aquaculture, animal excrement have become the important bottleneck of restriction aquaculture development.For pig manure, because paving town, green hill, 2012-2013 Changsha County live pig is raised pigs popularization, additional cultivation dispersion, ight soil is seriously polluted to water quality, soil, air etc., local government is under the pressure of environmental improvement pressure, put into effect and be limited to adopt measure accordingly, alleviated environment contradiction, pig manure has become the bottleneck of the local pig industry development of serious restriction.Pig manure is rich in organic matter, material fiber is many, and carbon-nitrogen ratio is moderate, adds materials as organic fertilizer fermentation, better can improve the compost fermentation condition of material, and accelerating material and become thoroughly decomposed, is a kind of organic fertilizer raw material resource of high-quality.
In above-mentioned preparation method, preferably, the preparation of described organism of fermentation microbial inoculum comprises the following steps: the mother of bacillus cereus (Bacilluscereus.Frankland), aspergillus oryzae (Aspergillusoryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn), yeast (Saccharomycessp.), subtilis (Bacillussubtilis (Ehrenberg1835) Cohn1872) planted respectively and carry out shaking flask liquid culture;
Then above-mentioned four kinds of liquid mother being planted respectively is inoculated in fermenter equipment, and carry out independent fermentative production, the bacterial concentration after fermentation is greater than 10,000,000,000/mL;
Adopt the mixture of oily chaff and rice straw powder to adsorb kind of the bacterium liquid of four after above-mentioned fermentation respectively, stir, dry; Obtain four kinds of single microbial inoculums: bacillus cereus microbial inoculum, aspergillus oryzae microbial inoculum, yeast microbial inoculum, bacillus subtilis microbial agent;
Then the single microbial inoculum after above-mentioned four kinds of absorption is carried out mixture by following weight part: bacillus cereus microbial inoculum 2 ~ 3 parts, aspergillus oryzae microbial inoculum 1.5 ~ 2 parts, yeast microbial inoculum 0.5 ~ 1 part, bacillus subtilis microbial agent 4 ~ 6 parts; Organism of fermentation microbial inoculum is obtained, final organism of fermentation bacteria suspension concentration >=2,000,000,000/g after mixing, pulverizing.
In above-mentioned preparation method, preferably, the preparation of described functional microbial microbial inoculum comprises the following steps: the mother of fixed nitrogen series bacillus (Paenibacillusazotofixans), bacillus megaterium (Bacillusmegaterium), bacillusmusilaginosiengineering (Bacullusmucilaginosus), bacillus thuringiensis (BacillusthuringiensisBerliner) planted respectively and carry out shaking flask liquid culture;
Then aforesaid liquid mother being planted respectively is inoculated in fermenter equipment, and carry out independent fermentative production, the bacterial concentration after fermentation is greater than 20,000,000,000/mL;
The mixture of oily chaff and rice straw powder is adopted to adsorb kind of the bacterium liquid of four after above-mentioned fermentation respectively, stir, dry, obtain four kinds of single microbial inoculums: fixed nitrogen series bacillus microbial inoculum, bacillus megaterium microbial inoculum, bacillusmusilaginosiengineering microbial inoculum, bacillus thuringiensis microbial inoculum;
Then the single microbial inoculum after above-mentioned four kinds of absorption is carried out mixture by following weight part: fixed nitrogen series bacillus microbial inoculum 2 ~ 3 parts, bacillus megaterium microbial inoculum 1 ~ 1.5 part, bacillusmusilaginosiengineering microbial inoculum 2 ~ 2.5 parts, bacillus thuringiensis microbial inoculum 4 ~ 5 parts; Functional microbial microbial inoculum is obtained, final functional microbial bacteria suspension concentration >=5,000,000,000/g after mixing, pulverizing.Bacillus thuringiensis in described functional microbial microbial inoculum effectively can prevent and treat lepidopterous insects.
Organism of fermentation microbial inoculum in the present invention and the production of functional microorganism microbial inoculum are all adopt first shaking flask single culture, after obtaining certain density liquid mother kind, transfer to enlarged culturing in fermenter equipment again, after reaching finite concentration, dry after again mother liquor being adsorbed by sorbent material (mixture of oily chaff and rice straw powder), make the microbial inoculum of solid.Making step is as follows:
Table 1 substratum main component
The each microbial growth condition of table 2
Microbiobacterial agent title Substratum Culture temperature Aerobic situation Light requirement situation Bacterial classification working concentration
Subtilis JYM01 35~37℃ Aerobic, aerated culture Detest light, lucifuge is cultivated 10000000000/mL
Bacillus cereus JYM01 30~32℃ Aerobic, aerated culture Detest light, lucifuge is cultivated 10000000000/mL
Yeast JYM02 25~28℃ Aerobic, aerated culture Detest light, lucifuge is cultivated 10000000000/mL
Aspergillus oryzae JYM03 25~28℃ Aerobic, aerated culture Detest light, lucifuge is cultivated 10000000000/mL
Bacillus megaterium JYM04 28~30℃ Aerobic, aerated culture Detest light, lucifuge is cultivated 20000000000/mL
Fixed nitrogen series bacillus JYM05 28~30℃ Aerobic, aerated culture Detest light, lucifuge is cultivated 20000000000/mL
Bacillusmusilaginosiengineering JYM06 28~30℃ Aerobic, aerated culture Detest light, lucifuge is cultivated 20000000000/mL
Bacillus thuringiensis JYM04 28~30℃ Aerobic, aerated culture Detest light, lucifuge is cultivated 20000000000/mL
Configure substratum by described in table 1, and be sub-packed in 1000mL triangular flask, every bottled amount 200 ~ 300mL, with silica gel plug sealing, to be placed in high-pressure sterilizing pot sterilizing 20min at 121 DEG C.Take out cooling, respectively different microorganisms mother is planted in aseptic Bechtop and be inoculated in corresponding substratum.By described in table 2, bacterial classification shaking table under corresponding culture condition is cultivated (rotating speed 120rpm) 2 ~ 4d, obtain cultured liquid mother and plant.By configuring a large amount of liquid nutrient mediums described in table 1; being sub-packed in special bacterial classification produces in fermentor tank; liquid amount is 70%; lid mouth sealing sterilizing (maintaining 20min at sterilising conditions 121 DEG C); (utilize the provide protection of flame; manufacture aseptic technique space, liquid mother planted and is inoculated in fermentor tank) cooling.By the culture condition described in table 2, each controling parameters of adjustment fermentor tank, reaches the culture condition of different strain, spawn culture 4 ~ 10d.Being cultivated by the culture dish coating of bacterium liquid, measure the growth concentration of bacterial classification in fermentor tank, when reaching after by the bacterial classification working concentration described in table 2, stopping the fermentor liquid of bacterial classification to cultivate.
In above-mentioned preparation method, preferably, the weight ratio of described oily chaff and rice straw powder is 1:1, when adopting the mixture of oily chaff and rice straw powder to adsorb respectively bacterium liquid, bacterium liquid: mixture=1L:3kg, moisture content≤10% of said mixture material, fineness is 60 ~ 80 orders.
In above-mentioned preparation method, preferably, the concrete operations of described pile fermentation are: build heap fermentation by carrying out in material transfer to warm canopy fermenter, the aerobic automatic temperature-controlled throwing fermentation technique that turns over of sun power is adopted to ferment, build heap and be positioned at plastic warm canopy, utilize the heat-insulating property of the heat effect of sun power and warm canopy, improve the temperature in warm canopy, accelerate material fermentation.After building heap fermentation ends, be transferred to by material in Secondary Fermentation ageing field, carry out banking up ageing, material moisture, through high temperature evaporation effect, is down to 30% by material.
In above-mentioned preparation method, preferably, the starting moisture of described pile fermentation controls 42% ~ 45% (adopting halogen soil moisture measure to detect material moisture).
In above-mentioned preparation method, preferably, described in build heap fermentation stack height of building be 0.8 ~ 1.2m, width 4 ~ 5m, length is not limit.Laying temperature survey meter in temperature canopy fermenter, according to bank temperature rising situation, automatically carries out turning over throwing and aeration operation, increases oxygen supply and promote moisture evaporation, accelerating material and become thoroughly decomposed.Automatic turning after temperature rises to 60 DEG C also carries out aeration operation, and on average turning in every 2 ~ 3 days once, altogether turning 10 ~ 12 times, fermentation period about 25 days.Material gradually becomes Vandyke brown by tawny, and smell is by gradually becoming slightly corrupt bilgy odour with tobacco flavor, now material fermentation is become thoroughly decomposed.
In above-mentioned preparation method, preferably, described in ageing of banking up adopt the process of not turning mode, the high 1 ~ 1.5m of bank, length and width are not limit.Because moisture content of material is also higher, through Secondary Fermentation, allow material pass through the high-temperature self transpiring moisture produced that ferments, after material moisture is down to 30%, material is transferred in finished product packing workshop.The Secondary Fermentation time is influenced by ambient temperature, and envrionment temperature is high, and moisture evaporation is fast, and the time is then short, otherwise then long.The Secondary Fermentation time is generally 20 ~ 30 days.
As a total inventive concept, the present invention also provides a kind of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser suppressing the application in the generation of native transmissibility insect pest, control lepidopterous insects.
Biomass nicotine composition containing trace in this composite fertilizer, is a kind of desinsection anthelmintic substance of environmental protection safety, effectively can prevents and treats native transmissibility insect pest; Also added functional microbial microbial inoculum, make it have effect of fixed nitrogen, phosphorus decomposing, potassium decomposing; Also added active nano carbon dust, energy active adsorption nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, reduce nutrient loss, improve utilization rate of fertilizer; Base manure material, containing abundant organic composition, can effectively solve soil compaction, improve Soil structure, prevention and elimination of disease and pests, improves crop anti-adversity ability.Pest-resistant type biological activity organic-inorganic base manure material of the present invention performs GB18877-2009 " organic and inorganic base manure material " quality standard.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
(1) to foster and apply fertilizer and activating soil: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium inorganic nutrients content are high, can increase soil fertility; Organic content is high, has high-efficiency activated soil function microorganism, can improve Soil structure and physicochemical character, increases permeability, strengthens preserve moisture and fertility ability, and transform fixing phosphorus, potassium nutrition, nitrogen in fixed air, makes soil fertile gradually.
(2) suppress disease and pest, strengthen resistance: the desinsection expelling parasite biomass nicotine composition containing trace, effectively can suppress the generation of native transmissibility insect pest; Functional microbial microbial inoculum forms dominant microflora around root system, suppresses the breeding of pathogenic micro-organism, reduces disease and occurs; In addition this base manure material contains bacillus thuringiensis, effectively can prevent and treat lepidopterous insects.This fertilizer contains higher potassium element, is conducive to roots of plants, Stem nematode, prevents lodging, strengthens the resistance ability of crop.
(3) quality is improved, improve mouthfeel: the selectivity of base manure material energy Effective Regulation crop of the present invention to fertilizer independently absorbs, organic composition is rich in multiple mineral element and trace element, be conducive to plant growth, increase reducing sugar and Vitamin C content, increase the carbohydrate content of unit fresh weight.
(4) reduce pollution, protection of the environment: the present invention makes full use of discarded crop material and animal excrement, reduce environmental pollution; Base manure material free from extraneous odour of the present invention, organic content is high, effectively can alleviate the problems such as the soil pollution brought because of long-term a large amount of Single fertilizer; This fertilizer has biological pest-resistant performance, reduces the use of chemical pesticide, protection of the environment.
Embodiment
For the ease of understanding the present invention, hereafter will do to describe more comprehensively, meticulously to the present invention in conjunction with preferred embodiment, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to following specific embodiment.
Unless otherwise defined, hereinafter used all technical terms are identical with the implication that those skilled in the art understand usually.The object of technical term used herein just in order to describe specific embodiment is not be intended to limit the scope of the invention.
Unless otherwise specified, the various starting material, reagent, instrument and equipment etc. used in the present invention are all bought by market and are obtained or prepare by existing method.
Embodiment 1
A kind of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser of the present invention, this fertilizer is black powder, and total nutrient is 30%, the nutrient of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is than being 15:7:8, and living bacteria count is 0.5 hundred million/g, and organic matter is 30%, nicotine content is 0.2%, chlorion is 3.0%, and moisture is 12%, and fineness is 60 orders, pH is 7.0 ~ 7.5, excrement colibacillus group number (individual/g)≤100, induced worm egg death rate >=95%, the biological activity quality guaranteed period is 6 months.
Prepare the method for above-mentioned biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser, comprise the following steps: by configuring different fermentations microbiobacterial agent substratum described in upper table 1 respectively, and be sub-packed in 1000mL triangular flask, every bottled amount 300mL, seal with silica gel plug, to be placed in high-pressure sterilizing pot sterilizing 20min at 121 DEG C, it is for subsequent use to take out cooling.Be inoculated into respectively in corresponding substratum in aseptic Bechtop, build bottle cap.By described in table 2 by bacterial classification under corresponding culture condition, shaking table cultivate (rotating speed 120rpm) cultivate 4d, obtain cultured liquid mother plant.And then by configuring a large amount of liquid nutrient mediums described in table 1, be sub-packed in special bacterial classification and produce in fermentor tank, liquid amount is 70%, lid mouth sealing sterilizing (maintaining 20min at sterilising conditions 121 DEG C), cooling.Utilize the provide protection of flame, manufacture aseptic technique space, liquid mother is planted and is inoculated in fermentor tank.By the culture condition described in upper table 2, each controling parameters of adjustment fermentor tank, reaches the culture condition of different strain, spawn culture 10d.
Being cultivated by the culture dish coating of bacterium liquid, measure the growth concentration of bacterial classification in fermentor tank, when reaching after by the bacterial classification working concentration described in table 2, stopping the fermentor liquid of bacterial classification to cultivate.Bacterium liquid adopts oily chaff respectively: the mixture of rice straw powder=1:1 adsorbs, bacterium liquid (L): compound (kg)=1:3 adsorbs.Stir, dry under room temperature, moisture≤30%, for subsequent use.
By four kinds that the prepare single cultures that ferment by bacterial classification weight mixture: bacillus cereus 5kg, aspergillus oryzae 4kg, yeast 2kg, subtilis 10kg.Mixing, pulverizing, final organism of fermentation bacteria suspension concentration >=2,000,000,000/g.
By four kinds of function singleness bacterial classifications preparing by bacterial classification weight mixture: fixed nitrogen series bacillus 5kg, bacillus megaterium 2kg, bacillusmusilaginosiengineering 4kg, bacillus thuringiensis 9kg.Mixing, pulverizing, final functional microorganism bacteria suspension concentration >=5,000,000,000/g.
Offal, sesame seed meal, dish dregs of rice raw material are carried out pulverization process, by each proportioning raw materials: offal 450kg, dish dregs of rice 150kg, pig manure 250kg, artificial humic's acid 80kg, organism of fermentation microbial inoculum 10kg, add respectively in material agitator, add clear water while stirring, adopt halogen soil moisture measure to detect material moisture, the starting moisture of fermentation materials is controlled in 42% ~ 45% scope.After stirring, undertaken building heap cloth by material transfer to warm canopy fermenter.Adopt the aerobic automatic temperature-controlled throwing fermentation technique that turns over of sun power to ferment, build heap and be positioned at plastic warm canopy, utilize the heat-insulating property of the heat effect of sun power and warm canopy, improve the temperature in warm canopy, accelerate material fermentation.Laying temperature survey meter in fermenter, according to bank temperature rising situation, automatically carries out turning over throwing and aeration operation, increases oxygen supply and promote moisture evaporation, accelerating material and become thoroughly decomposed.Build stack height 1.2m, width 5m, length is not limit, and builds heap and is positioned at warm canopy indoor.Automatic turning after temperature rises to 60 DEG C also carries out aeration operation, and on average turning in about every 2 ~ 3 days once, altogether turning 10 times, fermentation period about 25 days.Material gradually becomes Vandyke brown by tawny, and smell is by gradually becoming slightly corrupt bilgy odour with tobacco flavor, now material fermentation is become thoroughly decomposed.After material slot type fermentation ends, material is transferred in ageing field, carries out Secondary Fermentation (also known as ageing).Secondary Fermentation adopts the process of not turning mode, and bank height 1.5m, length and width are not limit.Because moisture content of material is also higher, through Secondary Fermentation, allow material pass through the high-temperature self transpiring moisture produced that ferments, after material moisture is down to 30%, material is transferred in finished product packing workshop.The Secondary Fermentation time is influenced by ambient temperature, and envrionment temperature is high, and moisture evaporation is fast, and the time is then short, otherwise then long.The Secondary Fermentation time is generally 20 ~ 30 days.The material that Secondary Fermentation terminates, be transported in packing shop stirrer, by weight ratio: fermentation maturity material (after Secondary Fermentation) 550kg, urea 220kg, phosphorus ammonium 160kg, Repone K 40kg, active nano carbon dust 15kg, functional microbial microbial inoculum 10kg, add respectively in stirrer mix, pulverize, be sieved into Powdered, packaging final prod.
Illustrate the service condition of the present invention in celery plot experiment below:
Test site
Place: Yueyang
Test materials
1, fertilizer variety: (total nutrient is 30% to the pest-resistant type biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser of the present embodiment, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium nutrition compare 15:7:8, organic matter is 30%), Common compound fertilizer (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium nutrition are than 15:15:15), local farm manure (total nutrient >=7%, pig manure, organic >=80%).
2, cultivation quality: celery (the real celery No. 1 of Jin Nan)
Test design
Process 1: local farm manure (total nutrient >=7%, pig manure, organic >=80%)
Process 2: pest-resistant type biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser (total nutrient is 30%, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium nutrition are than 15:7:8, and organic matter is 30%), lower abbreviation " Chemical Mixed Fertilizer ".
Process 3: Common compound fertilizer (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium nutrition are than 15:15:15)
Celery adopts unified nursery, and nursery adopts unified fertilising, unified production measure, transplants at once when seedling grows to 4-5 sheet true leaf, design 3 process after transplanting, and each process cultivated area is designed to 330m 2, planting density is 10 × 7 strains/cm 2.Each process is except fertilizer variety difference, and other production measures are consistent.
With 330m 2it is standard that cultivated area sails total nutrient 35kg into, ensures the fertilizer applying equal total nutrient, obtains corresponding concrete rate of fertilizer application through each fertilizer nutrient content conversion.As following table 3:
Table 3 rate of fertilizer application, output, quality preservation
Fertilizer unification is used in base manure mode, no longer adds any fertilizer in cultivation.Dig strip groove at transplanted seedling annex, earthing after fertilising, after transplanting, unification in the 100th day is gathered, is surveyed product, and analytical unit fresh amount inclusion quality, reducing sugar amount, organic quality.A situation arises for statistics disease and pest.
Results and analysis:
Output, quality results analysis
From test-results (table 3), on the basis of equal fertilising total nutrient amount, common compound ultimate production is the highest, and be secondly Chemical Mixed Fertilizer, farm manure is minimum.Base manure and Common compound fertilizer output only poor 189kg, amount of decrease is only 4.45%; And exceeding 1203kg than farm manure, amplification degree reaches 39%.From output, Chemical Mixed Fertilizer is suitable with Common compound fertilizer effect, and is much better than farm manure.
In each index of quality measuring celery, unit fresh weight intension substances content, reducing sugar content, organic content 3 indexs all become unified trend, farm manure > Chemical Mixed Fertilizer > Common compound fertilizer.From rangeability, base manure and farm manure quality are more or less the same, and differ larger with Common compound fertilizer.
The application of biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser in the generation, control lepidopterous insects of the native transmissibility insect pest of suppression of the present embodiment:
Disease and pest a situation arises analyze
From disease and pest statistical conditions (table 4), 3 fertilizer treatment diseases occur without too large disease substantially, and in applications of farmyard manure process, only occur that 2 place's soft rot occur, occurring area is little.In disease and pest occurs, cutworm and grub occur comparatively frequent, and 2 kinds of insect pests all occur for applications of farmyard manure and Common compound fertilizer process; And use Chemical Mixed Fertilizer insect pest does not occur.This is probably that nicotine has stronger desinsection anthelmintic action, can in the generation to a certain degree preventing and treating subterranean pest-insect containing micro-nicotine material and bacillus thuringiensis in base manure; Bacillus thuringiensis effectively can prevent and treat and control lepidopterous insects.
Table 4 disease and pest a situation arises cartogram
Sum up: from above-mentioned test-results, use the quality that the process of pest-resistant type biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser can significantly improve celery, substantially can be equal to applications of farmyard manure effect, be much better than and use Common compound fertilizer effect.And in output, using base manure output will much larger than applications of farmyard manure output.Base manure also has certain desinsection anthelminthic effect simultaneously, is a kind of pest-resistant type biological activity organic-inorganic base manure of high-quality.

Claims (7)

1. a preparation method for biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser, is characterized in that, the total nutrient 30% ~ 35%, N of described Chemical Mixed Fertilizer, P 2o 5, K 2the nutrient ratio of O is 6 ~ 15:5 ~ 18:6 ~ 25, living bacteria count 0.5 hundred million/g ~ 100,000,000/g, organic 15 ~ 25%, nicotine content is 0.15 ~ 0.20%, chlorion≤3.0%, moisture≤12%, fineness is 40 ~ 60 orders, pH is 6.0 ~ 7.0, described preparation method comprises the following steps: be added in stirrer by following parts by weight of crushed by each raw material and stir: offal 40 ~ 60 parts, the dish dregs of rice 10 ~ 20 parts, pig manure 20 ~ 30 parts, artificial humic's acid 5 ~ 10 parts, organism of fermentation microbial inoculum 0.8 ~ 1.2 part; Add water while stirring, after stirring, material is carried out pile fermentation, obtain fermentation maturity material; Then following weight part is pressed by above-mentioned fermentation maturity material 50 ~ 60 parts, 21 ~ 23 parts, urea, monoammonium phosphate 15 ~ 17 parts, 3 ~ 5 parts, Repone K, active nano carbon dust 1 ~ 2 part, functional microbial microbial inoculum 1 ~ 2 part adds in stirrer, mixing, pulverizing, be sieved into Powdered, packaging final prod, obtain pest-resistant type biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser;
The preparation of described organism of fermentation microbial inoculum comprises the following steps: respectively by bacillus cereus ( bacilluscereus.Frankland), aspergillus oryzae ( aspergillusoryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn), yeast ( saccharomycessp.), subtilis ( bacillussubtilis (Ehrenberg1835) Cohn1872) mother plant carry out shaking flask liquid culture; Then above-mentioned four kinds of liquid mother being planted respectively is inoculated in fermenter equipment, and carry out independent fermentative production, the bacterial concentration after fermentation is greater than 10,000,000,000/mL; Adopt the mixture of oily chaff and rice straw powder to adsorb kind of the bacterium liquid of four after above-mentioned fermentation respectively, stir, dry; Obtain four kinds of single microbial inoculums: bacillus cereus microbial inoculum, aspergillus oryzae microbial inoculum, yeast microbial inoculum, bacillus subtilis microbial agent; Then the single microbial inoculum after above-mentioned four kinds of absorption is carried out mixture by following weight part: bacillus cereus microbial inoculum 2 ~ 3 parts, aspergillus oryzae microbial inoculum 1.5 ~ 2 parts, yeast microbial inoculum 0.5 ~ 1 part, bacillus subtilis microbial agent 4 ~ 6 parts; Organism of fermentation microbial inoculum is obtained, final organism of fermentation bacteria suspension concentration>=2,000,000,000/g after mixing, pulverizing;
The preparation of described functional microbial microbial inoculum comprises the following steps: respectively by fixed nitrogen series bacillus ( paenibacillusazotofixans), bacillus megaterium ( bacillusmegaterium), bacillusmusilaginosiengineering ( bacullusmucilaginosus), bacillus thuringiensis ( bacillusthuringiensisBerliner) mother plant carry out shaking flask liquid culture; Then aforesaid liquid mother being planted respectively is inoculated in fermenter equipment, and carry out independent fermentative production, the bacterial concentration after fermentation is greater than 20,000,000,000/mL; The mixture of oily chaff and rice straw powder is adopted to adsorb kind of the bacterium liquid of four after above-mentioned fermentation respectively, stir, dry, obtain four kinds of single microbial inoculums: fixed nitrogen series bacillus microbial inoculum, bacillus megaterium microbial inoculum, bacillusmusilaginosiengineering microbial inoculum, bacillus thuringiensis microbial inoculum; Then the single microbial inoculum after above-mentioned four kinds of absorption is carried out mixture by following weight part: fixed nitrogen series bacillus microbial inoculum 2 ~ 3 parts, bacillus megaterium microbial inoculum 1 ~ 1.5 part, bacillusmusilaginosiengineering microbial inoculum 2 ~ 2.5 parts, bacillus thuringiensis microbial inoculum 4 ~ 5 parts; Functional microbial microbial inoculum is obtained, final functional microbial bacteria suspension concentration>=5,000,000,000/g after mixing, pulverizing.
2. preparation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the weight ratio of described oily chaff and rice straw powder is 1:1, when adopting the mixture of oily chaff and rice straw powder to adsorb respectively bacterium liquid, bacterium liquid: mixture=1L:3kg, moisture content≤10% of the mixture of above-mentioned oily chaff and rice straw powder, fineness is 60 ~ 80 orders.
3. preparation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the concrete operations of described pile fermentation are: build heap fermentation by carrying out in material transfer to warm canopy fermenter, adopt the aerobic automatic temperature-controlled throwing fermentation technique that turns over of sun power to ferment, build heap and be positioned at plastic warm canopy, after building heap fermentation ends, material is transferred in Secondary Fermentation ageing field, carry out banking up ageing, material moisture, through Evaporation, is down to 30% by material.
4. preparation method according to claim 3, is characterized in that, the starting moisture of described pile fermentation controls 42% ~ 45%.
5. preparation method according to claim 3, it is characterized in that, the described stack height of building building heap fermentation is 0.8 ~ 1.2m, width 4 ~ 5m, laying temperature survey meter in temperature canopy fermenter, automatic turning after temperature rises to 60 DEG C also carries out aeration operation, and on average turning in every 2 ~ 3 days once, altogether turning 10 ~ 12 times.
6. preparation method according to claim 3, is characterized in that, described in ageing of banking up adopt the process of not turning mode, the high 1 ~ 1.5m of bank.
7. one kind as claimed in claim 1 preparation method obtain biological organic inorganic composite fertiliser suppress native transmissibility insect pest generation, control lepidopterous insects in application.
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