CN106942105B - Method for artificially breeding seedlings of crassostrea hongkongensis by utilizing northern high-temperature period - Google Patents

Method for artificially breeding seedlings of crassostrea hongkongensis by utilizing northern high-temperature period Download PDF

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CN106942105B
CN106942105B CN201710331232.9A CN201710331232A CN106942105B CN 106942105 B CN106942105 B CN 106942105B CN 201710331232 A CN201710331232 A CN 201710331232A CN 106942105 B CN106942105 B CN 106942105B
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crassostrea hongkongensis
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CN106942105A (en
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张哲�
于瑞海
李琪
马培振
佘忠明
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Ocean University of China
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    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention provides a method for artificially breeding seedlings of crassostrea hongkongensis by utilizing the northern high-temperature period. The method aims at the technical problem of breeding the crassostrea hongkongensis, develops a parent shellfish high-temperature ecological ripening cultivation technology, a rapid spawning induction technology, a special attaching base seedling collection and smashing technology and other new technologies, utilizes a new breeding mode of north breeding and south breeding in a breeding workshop idle in the north high-temperature period to solve the problem, can also solve the problems of slow growth speed, long breeding period, high death rate and the like of natural seedlings of the crassostrea hongkongensis, particularly changes the previous habit that the natural seedling collection, breeding and harvesting are all operated on the sea, obviously reduces the economic loss of natural typhoon, storm rain and other natural disasters to the sea breeding, and also improves the utilization rate of the breeding workshop in the north high-temperature period. Practice proves that the invention realizes the north-seedling south cultivation of the crassostrea hongkongensis, shortens the cultivation time of the crassostrea hongkongensis by 0.5 to 1.0 year, and improves the cultivation survival rate by 30 to 50 percent.

Description

Method for artificially breeding seedlings of crassostrea hongkongensis by utilizing northern high-temperature period
Technical Field
The invention relates to a method for producing crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings, in particular to a method for artificially culturing crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings by utilizing the northern high-temperature period.
Background
With the development of the internet and cold chain logistics, oysters are the most suitable aquatic products for living body transportation, and are rich in nutrition, delicious in taste, short in supply and demand in the market, high in price and continuously enlarged in oyster cultivation area.
Hong Kong oyster (Crass0strea hongkongensis) The oyster is a high-temperature-resistant and low-salt-resistant excellent oyster variety, inhabits a place near a river mouth or nearby where fresh water is injected, and is a special large-scale economic shellfish in the sea area in south China. The shell of the crassostrea hongkongensis is firm and thick, the soft part is white, the mantle is mostly black, and the crassostrea hongkongensis has the characteristics of beautiful color and luster and delicious meat quality; the market price of the oyster is 1 to 2 times higher than that of other varieties of oysters, and the oyster has wide market prospect.
At present, the sources of the crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings in China mainly adopt semi-artificial seedling collection in natural sea areas, but the seedling collection of wild seedlings is greatly influenced by climate and season changes, particularly by extreme severe weather such as typhoon in south China, the supply of the wild seedlings is extremely unstable, and the development of the crassostrea hongkongensis breeding industry is limited.
Because the artificial breeding of the crassostrea hongkongensis is limited by the unique life habit and breeding biological characteristics of the crassostrea hongkongensis, the breeding technology, the breeding facilities and the conditions of the crassostrea hongkongensis, the success rate of breeding is low. The high-salt ripening cultivation technology, the induced spawning technology, the fertilization incubation technology, the selection and treatment of the easy-to-peel adhesion base and the cultivation technology of large-size monomer oyster seedlings in the seedling culture technology are main technical bottlenecks of the crassostrea hongkongensis seedling culture, are difficult to overcome, cause the extremely low seedling emergence amount of the crassostrea hongkongensis seedling culture, cannot reach the level of productive seedling culture, and cannot meet the requirements of culture units on seedlings.
Therefore, an artificial breeding technology for crassostrea hongkongensis suitable for artificial breeding is urgently needed to overcome various problems in the prior art.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for artificially culturing seedlings of crassostrea hongkongensis in a northern high-temperature period so as to make up for the defects of the prior art.
Aiming at the technical problem of breeding the crassostrea hongkongensis, the invention develops a parent shellfish high-temperature ecological ripening cultivation technology, a rapid spawning induction technology, a special attaching base seedling collection and smashing technology and other new technologies, utilizes a new breeding mode of north breeding and south breeding in a breeding workshop idle in the north high-temperature period to solve the problem, and can also overcome the problems of slow growth speed, long breeding period and high death rate of natural seedlings of the crassostrea hongkongensis, particularly change the habit that the original natural seedling collection, breeding and harvesting are all operated on the sea, obviously reduce the economic loss of natural typhoon, storm rain and other natural disasters to the sea breeding, and simultaneously improve the utilization rate of the breeding workshop in the north high-temperature period.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following specific technical scheme:
a method for artificially culturing the seedlings of the crassostrea hongkongensis by utilizing the northern high-temperature period comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting parent shells of the hong Kong oysters;
(2) indoor high-salt transition: transporting the seedlings to a northern seedling raising field in 5-6 months before the southern breeding season, and temporarily culturing for transition;
(3) and (3) parent scallop outdoor soil pond ecological cultivation: then hanging the temporary cultured parent shellfish in an outdoor soil pond with the salinity of 28-32 around a seedling growing field for ecological adaptation and ripening cultivation, and carrying out ecological cultivation in the outdoor soil pond for 40-60 days until the parent shellfish is ripe;
(4) indoor temporary breeding and cultivation of parent scallops: selecting the seed shellfish of Crassostrea hongkongensis at a ratio of 40-50 per m in high temperature season of 8 months3Placing in a seedling pond, temporarily culturing parent shellfish for 8-12 days at water temperature of 26-30 deg.C and salinity of 28-32, and artificially ovipositing and discharging sperm;
(5) artificial stimulation spawning and semen excretion: putting the cleaned parent shells of the crassostrea hongkongensis into a temperature control room with the temperature of 15-16 ℃ for drying in the shade for 5-6 hours, then putting the parent shells into pure fresh water for soaking for 0.5-1.0 hour, then putting the parent shells into seawater with the salinity of 10-15 for soaking for 1.0-1.5 hours, finally putting the parent shells into a seedling raising pool with normal filtered seawater, and after adaptation for 0.5-1.0 hour, beginning to discharge a large amount of sperms and eggs and inseminate;
(6) hatching: controlling the hatching density of fertilized eggs to be 40-50/mL, and adopting separate hatching, continuous inflation and foam fishing to reduce the water quality deterioration caused by excessive semen in a high-temperature period and improve the hatching rate; hatching fertilized eggs for 18-20 hours at the water temperature of 26-32 ℃ to obtain D-type larvae, and immediately selecting the larvae;
(7) larva breeding: after selecting, the number of the young plants is 5-6/m3And (3) breeding in a density cloth pool, and breeding larvae according to a conventional shellfish larva breeding technology:
(8) collecting seedling of bay scallop shell, culturing for 16-18 days, when the height of the larva shell reaches 330-3Removing the attaching base when the average seedling adhering amount of each piece reaches 20-30, and continuously putting the attaching base until all eyespot larvae of the crassostrea hongkongensis are adhered and transformed into young crassostrea;
(9) cultivating large oyster seedlings in a soil pond: transferring the attaching bases attached with the young shellfish to an outdoor pond for ecological cultivation, wherein the young shellfish grows and develops to 20-25mm by using unicellular algae in the pond until the end of 10 months;
(10) monomeric oyster seedling for cultivation: gently crushing the bay scallop shells attached with 20-25mm hong Kong oyster seedlings, separating the hong Kong oyster seedlings attached to the bay scallop shells into single hong Kong oyster seedlings, and carrying out dry transportation at 8-12 ℃ to southern sea areas for cultivation.
Further, in the step (1), selecting the adult hongkong oysters with the shell height of 10-16cm and cultivated in the sea area with the salinity of 18-22 as parent oysters in the south cultivation sea area.
Further, the step (2) is specifically: transporting the culture medium to a northern nursery site at 6-10 ℃ in 5-6 months before the southern breeding season, and temporarily culturing in a nursery pond with the salinity 4-5 higher than that of the original environment and the salinity 4-5 lower than that of the current environment and in the salinity 25-26 for transition.
Further, the specific steps in the step (7) are as follows: gradually reducing the density along with the growth of the larvae until the density of the creeping larvae is reduced to 2-3 larvae per ml; changing water for 2-3 times every day, wherein the water is changed for 30% -50% every time; feeding golden algae to the D-type larvae, gradually increasing the daily bait amount from 1.0-2.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the initial stage to 3.0-4.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the middle stage, and 5.0-6.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the later stage, adding the Platymonas mellea after the larvae develop to the middle of the shell top, wherein the daily bait amount is 1.0-2.0 ten thousand cells/ml; during larva cultivation, the water temperature is 25-32 ℃, the salinity is 25-30, the pH value is 8.0-8.2, and the unicellular algae are required to be fresh, pollution-free and aging-free.
Further, the seashell of the seedling collector used in the step (8) is washed clean after being treated by 0.05% dilute hydrochloric acid for 8-12 hours, and the seashell attaching base treated by the dilute hydrochloric acid is beneficial to attaching and metamorphosis of eyespot larvae on one hand, and the shells treated by the acid on the other hand are brittle and are convenient to break after seedling collection in the future and the like.
Further, the method also comprises a south shrimp pool transition step, wherein the single crassostrea hongkongensis fry treated in the step (10) is filled into a cage or a floating net cage, the crassostrea hongkongensis is cultured in a shrimp pond with the salinity of 20-25 for 1-2 months, and after the individual grows to 3.5-4.5cm, the crassostrea hongkongensis fry is stuck on a cement block and hung on the sea for culture.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the invention solves the problems of difficult ripening and breeding of parent oyster for artificial breeding in the south hong Kong oyster room and difficult spawning, and the problems of large-scale rapid culture of young oysters and difficult culture and culture removal of oyster shell spat. Meanwhile, the method can effectively utilize the idle period of the shellfish seedling raising workshop in the high temperature period in the north, greatly improve the comprehensive utilization rate of the seedling raising workshop, and is used for realizing a new mode of artificial seedling raising and south culture of the crassostrea hongkongensis in the north.
The invention carries out artificial seedling raising under the condition of controllable environment, changes the habit that the original natural seedling picking, breeding and harvesting are all operated on the sea, obviously reduces the huge economic loss caused by natural disasters such as typhoon, heavy rain and the like on the coast of south China to the sea culture, and provides a set of new thought for the development of the culture industry of the crassostrea hongkongensis.
Practice proves that the invention realizes the north-seedling south cultivation of the crassostrea hongkongensis, shortens the cultivation time of the crassostrea hongkongensis by 0.5 to 1.0 year, and improves the cultivation survival rate by 30 to 50 percent.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated and described below by means of specific examples.
Example (b):
a method for artificially culturing the seedlings of the crassostrea hongkongensis by utilizing the northern high-temperature period comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting parent oysters of crassostrea hongkongensis: firstly, selecting adult hongkong oysters with the shell height of 10-16cm and cultivated in the sea area with the salinity of 18-22 as parent oysters in the south cultivation sea area;
(2) indoor high-salt transition: transporting to a northern nursery site in 5-6 months before the propagation season of south at the temperature of 6-10 ℃, temporarily culturing in a nursery pond with the adjusted salinity of 25-26 for 3-4 days, and feeding 2 times per day with the feeding amount of 5-6 ten thousand per mL day without changing water during temporary culture;
(3) and (3) parent scallop outdoor soil pond ecological cultivation: the parent scallops temporarily cultured for 3-4 days are hung in an outdoor soil pond with the salinity of 28-32 around a breeding field for ecological adaptation and ripening cultivation, and are ecologically cultured to be ripe through the outdoor soil pond for 40-60 days;
(4) indoor temporary breeding and cultivation of parent scallops: selecting the seed shellfish of Crassostrea hongkongensis at a ratio of 40-50 per m in high temperature season of 8 months3Placing in a seedling pond, temporarily culturing parent shellfish for 8-12 days at water temperature of 26-30 deg.C and salinity of 28-32, and artificially ovipositing and discharging sperm;
(5) artificial stimulation spawning and semen excretion: putting the cleaned parent shells of the crassostrea hongkongensis into a temperature control room with the temperature of 15-16 ℃ for drying in the shade for 5-6 hours, then putting the parent shells into pure fresh water for soaking for 0.5-1.0 hour, then putting the parent shells into seawater with the salinity of 10-15 for soaking for 1.0-1.5 hours, finally putting the parent shells into a seedling raising pool with normal filtered seawater, and after adaptation for 0.5-1.0 hour, beginning to discharge a large amount of sperms and eggs and inseminate;
(6) hatching: controlling the hatching density of fertilized eggs to be 40-50/mL, and adopting separate hatching, continuous inflation and foam fishing to reduce the water quality deterioration caused by excessive semen in a high-temperature period and improve the hatching rate; hatching fertilized eggs for 18-20 hours at the water temperature of 26-32 ℃ to obtain D-type larvae, and immediately selecting the larvae;
(7) larva breeding: selecting young according to 5-6 pieces/m3And (3) breeding in a density cloth pool, and breeding larvae according to a conventional shellfish larva breeding technology: gradually reducing the density along with the growth of the larvae until the density of the creeping larvae is reduced to 2-3 larvae per ml; changing water for 2-3 times every day, wherein the water is changed for 30% -50% every time; feeding golden algae to the D-type larvae, gradually increasing the daily bait amount from 1.0-2.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the initial stage to 3.0-4.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the middle stage, and 5.0-6.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the later stage, adding the Platymonas mellea after the larvae develop to the middle of the shell top, wherein the daily bait amount is 1.0-2.0 ten thousand cells/ml; during larva cultivation, the water temperature is 25-32 ℃, the salinity is 25-30, the pH value is 8.0-8.2, and the unicellular algae are required to be fresh, pollution-free and aging-free;
(8) collecting seedling of bay scallop shell, culturing for 16-18 days, when the height of the larva shell reaches 360 mu m of 330-3Removing the attaching base when the average seedling adhering amount of each piece reaches 20-30, and continuously putting the attaching base until all eyespot larvae of the crassostrea hongkongensis are adhered and transformed into young crassostrea;
(9) cultivating large oyster seedlings in a soil pond: transferring the attaching bases attached with the young shellfish to an outdoor pond for ecological cultivation, wherein the young shellfish grows and develops by using unicellular algae in the pond and grows to 20-25mm at the end of 10 months;
(10) monomeric oyster seedling for cultivation: the method comprises the following steps of slightly smashing gulf scallop shells attached with 20-25mm crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings, separating the crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings attached to the crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings into single crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings, filling the seedlings into a foam box, carrying out low-temperature drying and conveying the foam box to a southern sea area for cultivation, realizing northern seedling south cultivation of crassostrea hongkongensis, shortening the cultivation time of crassostrea hongkongensis by 0.5-1.0 year, and improving the cultivation survival rate by 30-.
The seashell of the seedling collector used in the step (8) is washed clean after being treated by 0.05% dilute hydrochloric acid for 8-12 hours, and the seashell attaching base treated by the dilute hydrochloric acid is beneficial to attaching and metamorphosis of eyespot larvae on one hand, and the shells treated by the acid on the other hand are brittle and are convenient to break after seedling collection and the like.
The method also comprises the following steps of southern shrimp pond transition: and (3) filling the single hong Kong oyster fries treated in the step (10) into cages or floating net cages, culturing in a shrimp pond with salinity of 20-25 for 1-2 months, and sticking the oyster fries on a cement block and hanging the oyster fries on the sea for culturing after the individual grows to 3.5-4.5 cm.
Actual culture experiences prove that the culture time of the crassostrea hongkongensis is shortened by 0.5 to 1.0 year and the culture survival rate is improved by 30 to 50 percent by utilizing the north-seedling south culture method of the crassostrea hongkongensis provided by the invention; the invention really contributes to the efficient and high-yield artificial breeding mode of the crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings and is worthy of popularization and application.

Claims (6)

1. A method for artificially culturing the seedlings of the crassostrea hongkongensis by utilizing the northern high-temperature period is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting parent shells of the hong Kong oysters;
(2) indoor high-salt transition: transporting the seedlings to a northern seedling raising field in 5-6 months before the southern breeding season, and temporarily culturing for transition; the method specifically comprises the following steps: transporting the culture medium to a northern nursery site at 6-10 ℃ in 5-6 months before the southern breeding season, and temporarily culturing and transiting the culture medium in a nursery pond with the salinity 4-5 higher than that of the original environment and the salinity 4-5 lower than that of the current environment and in a 25-26 salinity;
(3) and (3) parent scallop outdoor soil pond ecological cultivation: then hanging the temporary cultured parent shellfish in an outdoor soil pond with the surrounding salinity of 28-32 of a seedling raising field for ecological adaptation and ripening cultivation;
(4) indoor temporary breeding and cultivation of parent scallops: selecting the hong Kong oyster shell in 8 months high temperature season, temporarily culturing at 26-30 deg.C and 28-32 salinity, and performing artificial oviposition and semen excretion;
(5) artificial stimulation for spawning and semen discharge; then fertilization is carried out;
(6) hatching: by adopting the separate hatching, after fertilized eggs are hatched to reach D-type larvae, immediately selecting the larvae;
(7) larva breeding: carrying out conventional shellfish larva breeding technology;
(8) collecting seedlings of bay scallop shells: after cultivation, when the height of the larva shells reaches 330-;
(9) cultivating large oyster seedlings in a soil pond: transferring the attaching bases attached with the young shellfish to an outdoor pond for ecological cultivation, wherein the young shellfish grows and develops to 20-25mm by using unicellular algae in the pond until the end of 10 months;
(10) monomeric oyster seedling for cultivation: breaking the attaching base of the bay scallop shell attached with 20-25mm crassostrea hongkongensis, separating the crassostrea hongkongensis attached to the attaching base into individual crassostrea hongkongensis seedlings, and carrying out dry transportation at 8-12 ℃ to the southern sea area for cultivation.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the parent oyster is selected from the adult hong kong oysters having a shell height of 10-16cm and a salinity of 18-22 sea area in the south culture sea area.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that said step (5) is in particular: the parent shell of the crassostrea hongkongensis which is washed clean is firstly put in a temperature control room with the temperature of 15 to 16 ℃ and dried in shade for 5 to 6 hours, then is put in pure fresh water to be soaked for 0.5 to 1.0 hour, then is put in seawater with the salinity of 10 to 15 to be soaked for 1.0 to 1.5 hours, finally is put in a seedling raising pond with normal filtered seawater, after 0.5 to 1.0 hour of adaptation, a large amount of sperms and eggs are discharged, and then insemination is carried out.
4. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the step (7) comprises the following steps: gradually reducing the density along with the growth of the larvae until the density of the creeping larvae is reduced to 2-3 larvae per ml; changing water for 2-3 times every day, wherein the water is changed for 30% -50% every time; feeding golden algae to the D-type larvae, gradually increasing the daily bait amount from 1.0-2.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the initial stage to 3.0-4.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the middle stage, and 5.0-6.0 ten thousand cells/ml in the later stage, adding the Platymonas mellea after the larvae develop to the middle of the shell top, wherein the daily bait amount is 1.0-2.0 ten thousand cells/ml; during larva cultivation, the water temperature is 25-32 ℃, the salinity is 25-30, the pH value is 8.0-8.2, and the unicellular algae are required to be fresh, pollution-free and aging-free.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the seashell of the seedling harvester used in step (8) is a dilute hydrochloric acid treated bay scallop shell substrate which is washed clean after 8-12 hours of treatment with 0.05% dilute hydrochloric acid.
6. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the method further comprises a southern shrimp pool transition step, wherein the individual crassostrea hongkongensis treated in the step (10) is housed in a cage or a floating net cage, and after 1-2 months of cultivation in a shrimp pond with a salinity of 20-25, the individual crassostrea hongkongensis grown to 3.5-4.5cm, and then the crassostrea ostreae is stuck on a cement block and hung on the sea for cultivation.
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