CN110810291B - Breeding method for mixed culture of golden lobsters and sea grapes - Google Patents

Breeding method for mixed culture of golden lobsters and sea grapes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110810291B
CN110810291B CN201911170803.0A CN201911170803A CN110810291B CN 110810291 B CN110810291 B CN 110810291B CN 201911170803 A CN201911170803 A CN 201911170803A CN 110810291 B CN110810291 B CN 110810291B
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culture
lobster
lobsters
sea grapes
golden
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CN110810291A (en
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任宪云
吕建建
高保全
徐垚
洪宜展
李健
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G33/00Cultivation of seaweed or algae
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention provides a method for breeding sea grapes and golden lobsters in a mixed mode, which comprises the following steps: (1) preparing a culture pond; (2) throwing the sea grapes; (3) putting the Spanish lobster fries; (4) daily management; (5) disease control; (6) and (4) harvesting the sea grapes. According to the biological characteristics of the sea grapes and the golden lobsters, the sea grapes are inoculated by the liftable cultivation floating bed, the optimum illumination for the growth of the sea grapes is achieved by adjusting the height of the cultivation floating bed, meanwhile, the cultivation floating bed can create a proper dark environment for the benthic lobsters, and the illumination intensity which is optimum for the growth of the golden lobsters is achieved. The breeding method has the characteristics of low cost, simple and convenient operation and bait saving, can produce the sea grapes uninterruptedly all the year round, has high survival rate, fast growth speed, short period and good breeding benefit of the bred golden lobsters, can improve the utilization rate of a breeding workshop, is beneficial to large-scale popularization, and has wide application prospect.

Description

Breeding method for mixed culture of golden lobsters and sea grapes
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of water body culture, in particular to a culture method for polyculture of golden lobsters and sea grapes.
Background
Beautiful lobster (A), (B)Panulirus ornatus) Belonging to Crustacea, order decapod, lobster family, genus lobster. China coastal fishermen also refer to the lobsters as Qinglong, crayfish or colorful lobsters. The brocade lobster is the largest lobster in the middle body, the length of the lobster can reach 60 cm, the weight of the lobster can reach more than 3kg, the lobster usually lives in muddy sand land with the water depth of 1-10 m at the periphery of coral, the number of the lobsters and still water on the inclined surface of the reef is more, and the lobsters on the market are mainly obtained by wild fishing at present. However, the beautiful lobsters are famous and precious economic lobsters in the world, and with the continuous increase of the demand of the market for the lobsters, the lobster resources are lack due to over fishing. Therefore, the artificial lobster breeding is imperative. Seedling and seedlingThe breeding is one of the prerequisites for artificial breeding of the lobsters, but the basic biological characteristics and embryo development observation and research on the beautiful lobsters are not successful at present, the artificial breeding of the lobsters can be carried out only by catching wild seedlings, the breeding scale is small, the period is long, the cost is high, the industrial popularization is not facilitated, and therefore a new method suitable for industrial breeding of the beautiful lobsters needs to be found.
Sea grape (A)Caulerpa lentillifera) Also called "Changnincao", "Green caviar", its scientific name is Caulerpa lentillifera, belonging to Chlorophyta, Caulerpaceae, Caulerpa, native to Philippines in southeast Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan Chongguo, etc. The sea grape is edible algae, has extremely low calorie, delicious taste and high nutritive value, can be directly eaten, and can also be used as an ingredient of foods such as hand-pulled noodles, seafood rice and the like. The sea grape contains various amino acids and vitamins, proteins, rich calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and other minerals essential to human body, has the functions of purifying blood, resisting oxidation, cancer and tumor, and can reduce blood cholesterol, so that the sea grape is an ideal health food. The sea grape artificial propagation is originated in Okinawa county of Japan, and although the cultivation market prospect is very wide, the sea grape has extremely high requirements on the growth environment and the water quality, and the artificial cultivation difficulty is higher. At present, the sea grapes are generally cultured in outdoor ponds and indoor cement ponds, the outdoor pond culture is influenced by factors such as climate and the like, the defects of short culture period, low culture yield and the like exist, and the problems of single culture mode and high cost exist in industrial culture although the disadvantages can be avoided.
At present, no report and example about the mixed culture of the ampelopsis grossedentata and the mallow is available in the production.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention overcomes the defects and problems of the prior art, fills the blank of no mixed culture of the sea grape and the golden lobster, and provides the culture method of the mixed culture of the golden lobster and the sea grape.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following specific technical scheme:
the invention provides a method for breeding sea grapes and golden lobsters in a mixed mode, which comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing a culture pond: laying an inhabitant at the bottom of the culture pond, fully disinfecting the culture pond and the inhabitant, and injecting filtered seawater;
(2) and (3) throwing the sea grapes: after removing the attached foreign algae from the sea grape, uniformly putting the sea grape seedlings on the culture floating bed, wherein the putting amount of the sea grape seedlings is 1.8-2.4 kg/culture floating bed, and the putting density is 1.3-2.3 kg/m2
(3) Putting the Spanish lobster fries: selecting 5.0-20.0 g/tail of Spongilla frutescens larvae for sterilization, and feeding into a culture pond to be mixed with the sea grapes, wherein the feeding amount is 30-50 tails/m2When the weight of the beautiful lobsters exceeds 400 g/tail, thinning is carried out, and 5-10 tails/m are reserved in each culture pond2
(4) Daily management
a. Feeding baits: when the weight of the brocade lobster is less than 20 g/tail, feeding the brocade lobster once every 4 hours; when the weight of the beautiful lobster is not less than 20 g/tail, feeding the beautiful lobster for 4 times every day, and feeding the beautiful lobster for 2 times respectively in the morning and evening;
b. water quality regulation and control: keeping the water temperature at 22-30 ℃, the salt concentration at 20-33 per mill, the pH at 7.8-8.5, the dissolved oxygen concentration at 9-12 mg/L and the ammonia nitrogen concentration less than 0.2 mg/L;
c. and (3) illumination control: the illumination intensity of the sea grapes is 3000-5000 lux, and the illumination intensity of the golden lobster is 100-200 lux;
(5) disease control: disinfecting the water body of the culture pond by using bromochlorohydantoin every 8-10 days for 2-3 times;
(6) harvesting of sea grapes: harvesting the sea grapes after the sea grapes grow for 2-3 months;
(7) capturing the beautiful lobsters: and after 10-12 months of culture, trapping the crayfishes.
Further, the height of the seawater injected in the step (1) is 1.2-1.5 m.
Furthermore, the inhabitant in the step (1) is hollow, the inhabitant is made of at least one of plastic, cement, bamboo and stone, and the number of the laid layers of the inhabitant is 1-3.
Further, breed in step (2) and float the bed and constitute by frame and net, frame and net carry out fixed connection through the plastics ribbon, breed and float bed and install the lift and hold in the palm the rope all around, can adjust the height that floats the bed, the aperture of net is not less than 5 mm.
Furthermore, the material of breeding the bed of floating is the plastics material, the material of lift support rope is the plastics material.
Further, in the step (2), in the initial stage of cultivation, the distance between the cultivation floating bed and the bottom of the cultivation pond is 80-100 cm; after 5-8 days of the germination period of the sea grapes, lifting the culture floating bed to the water surface for 2-3 cm when the upright stems of the sea grapes grow for 1 cm; and in the later stage of cultivation, lifting the cultivation floating bed to a position 35-40cm away from the water surface.
Further, the sterilization method of the Spatholobus cuneatus fry in the step (3) is to soak the Spatholobus cuneatus fry with 25-35 ppm of povidone iodine for 30-40 min.
Further, in the step (4), the feeding amount in the daytime is 30-40% of the total feeding amount, and the feeding amount at night is 60-70% of the total feeding amount; when the weight of the brocade lobster is less than 20 g/tail, the daily feeding amount is 20-25% of the weight of the brocade lobster body; when the weight of the brocade lobster is 20-50 g/tail, the daily feeding amount is 10-15% of the weight of the brocade lobster body; when the weight of the brocade lobster is 50-400 g/tail, the daily bait feeding amount is 8-10% of the weight of the brocade lobster; when the weight of the brocade lobster is more than 400 g/tail, the daily bait feeding amount is 5-6% of the weight of the brocade lobster.
Further, the culture pond in the step (4) needs to complete seawater updating at least 1 time every day, and the water changing amount is 100%.
Further, when harvesting is carried out in the step (6), the whole cultivation floating bed is taken out of water, only the position 8-10 cm before the upright stem of the sea grape is harvested, the seeds are reserved properly, cultivation is continued, and harvesting is carried out for 5-7 times.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
according to the method, the cultivation floating bed for cultivating the sea grapes is built above the cultivation pond according to the yin-loving life habit of the golden lobsters, the optimum illumination for the growth of the sea grapes is provided by adjusting the height of the cultivation floating bed, meanwhile, the cultivation floating bed also provides a shady environment for the golden lobsters, and the yield, the growth speed and the survival rate of the golden lobsters are improved by combining the scientific and reasonable feeding density and the bait feeding amount, so that the method not only improves the yield, the growth speed and the survival rate of the golden lobsters, shortens the natural growth period of the golden lobsters, but also can increase the yield and the quality of the sea grapes, can produce the sea grapes all the year round continuously, is suitable for industrial cultivation of the golden lobsters, also improves the utilization rate of a cultivation workshop, is low in cost, is beneficial to large-scale popularization, and can lay a parent stock foundation for the.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific examples.
The invention relates to a method for breeding sea grapes and golden lobsters in a mixed mode, which comprises the following steps:
1. preparing a culture pond: laying one or more layers of hollow inhabitants at the bottom of the culture pond for the caragana lobster to inhabit; and fully disinfecting the culture pond and the inhabitants, and injecting filtered seawater with the height of 1.2-1.5 m.
2. Preparing a culture floating bed: the cultivation floating bed is composed of a frame and a grid, is fixedly connected through a plastic binding belt, is provided with lifting support ropes at the periphery, can be used for adjusting the height of the cultivation floating bed, is made of plastic, can prevent seawater from corroding the cultivation floating bed, and has the aperture of the grid not smaller than 5 mm.
3. And (3) throwing the sea grapes: selecting strong sea grapes as seedlings, and removing attached hybrid algae. 1.8-2.4 kg of sea grape seedlings are put in each floating bed, and the putting density is 1.3-2.3 kg/m2. Uniformly placing the sea grape seedlings on the grids, and sewing the periphery of the culture floating bed by using net lines to keep the sea grape seedlings fixed.
The distance between the breeding floating bed and the bottom of the breeding pond is 80-100 cm at the initial breeding stage, after the germination period of the sea grapes, every 1cm of upright stems of the sea grapes grow, the breeding floating bed rises to the water surface for 2-3 cm, and at the later breeding stage of the sea grapes, the breeding floating bed is lifted to a position 35-40cm away from the water surface, so that the situation that the growth of the whole sea grapes is influenced due to insufficient illumination and the illumination of the sea grapes is excessively shielded by the golden lobsters is avoided.
4. Putting the Spanish lobster fries: selecting 5.0-20.0 g/tail of Spatholobus littoralis seedlings, soaking the Spatholobus littoralis seedlings for 30-40 min by using 25-35 ppm of povidone iodine to prevent diseases of the Spatholobus littoralis seedlings, putting the Spatholobus littoralis seedlings into a culture pond, and culturing the Spatholobus littoralis seedlings and sea grapes in a mixed mode, wherein the putting amount of the Spatholobus littoralis seedlings is 5.0-20.0 g/tail of seedlings is 30-50 tails/m2Gradually thinning in the breeding process, and when the weight of the beautiful lobsters is more than 400 g/tail, keeping 5-10 tails/m in each breeding pond2
5. Feeding baits: when the weight of the brocade lobster is less than 20 g/tail, feeding once every 4h, wherein the daily feeding amount is 20-25% of the mass of the brocade lobster, and feeding fresh bivalve shellfish which are pried open, such as oysters, variegated clams, ruditapes philippinarum and the like; when the weight of the splendid lobster is not less than 20 g/tail, feeding the splendid lobster for 4 times every day, and feeding the splendid lobster for 2 times respectively in the morning and evening, wherein when the weight of the splendid lobster is 20-50 g/tail, the daily feeding amount is 10-15% of the weight of the splendid lobster body, when the weight of the splendid lobster is 50-400 g/tail, the daily feeding amount is 8-10% of the weight of the splendid lobster body, when the weight of the splendid lobster is more than 400 g/tail, the daily feeding amount is 5-6% of the weight of the splendid lobster body, and at the moment, besides feeding the bivalve shellfish, the fresh squid, blue crab, fish and the like can be fed; and the feeding amount in the daytime is 30-40% of the total feeding amount, and the feeding amount at night is 60-70% of the total feeding amount.
6. Water quality regulation and control: the water quality of the culture pond is detected once a day, and the water quantity is updated for at least 1 time, wherein the water temperature is kept to be 22-30 ℃, the salt concentration is 20-33 per thousand, the pH value is 7.8-8.5, the dissolved oxygen concentration is 9-12 mg/L, and the ammonia nitrogen concentration is less than 0.2 mg/L.
7. The illumination intensity is as follows: the growth illumination intensity of the sea grapes is 3000-5000 lux, and the illumination intensity of the golden lobster is maintained at 100-200 lux.
8. Disease control: and (4) disinfecting the water body of the culture pond by using bromochlorohydantoin for 2-3 times every 8-10 days. And if the sea grape algae are attached with the miscellaneous algae, the algae are sprayed by using a spraying pot or a water pump to remove the miscellaneous algae.
9. Harvesting of sea grapes: the method comprises the steps of harvesting after the sea grapes grow for 2-3 months, taking out the whole cultivation floating bed from water during harvesting, partially harvesting, harvesting only 8-10 cm before the upright stems of the sea grapes, reserving seeds appropriately, allowing the sea grapes to continue to grow, and repeating harvesting for 5-7 times.
10. Capturing the beautiful lobsters: after 12 months of culture, the crayfish was caught.
Example 1
In this embodiment, the cultivation site is selected to be 1000m in building area2In the cultivation workshop, 24 cement cultivation ponds of 4m multiplied by 1.5m are arranged in the workshop, the cultivation ponds are shaped like a pot bottom, a water outlet pipeline is arranged above the cultivation ponds, a water outlet is arranged at the bottom of the cultivation ponds, and the water level is adjustable.
1. Preparing a seawater treatment system: a water intake pipeline of about 200m is paved from a culture workshop to the seabed, the seawater is pumped to pass through a primary sedimentation tank, the precipitated seawater enters a first sand filtration tank for primary filtration, then enters a second sand filtration tank for deep filtration, then passes through a soft water treatment system, and finally enters a seawater storage tank for standby.
2. Preparing a culture pond: paving a circle of hollow bricks at the bottom of the culture pond for the golden lobsters to inhabit; the culture pond and the hollow bricks are sterilized and then injected with treated seawater, and the height of the seawater is 1.5 m.
3. Preparing a culture floating bed: 6 culture floating beds with the specification of 1.2m multiplied by 1m are placed in each culture pond. The cultivation floating bed is made of drinking water pipelines and plastic grids, and specifically, the drinking water pipelines are used as a floating bed frame, and 2 plastic grids are laid in the middle of the frame. The young sea grapes are placed on the grids, so that the aperture of each grid is 5 mm. After seedlings are placed, the plastic grids and the drinking water pipeline are fixed through plastic ties, lifting ropes and other accessories of the floating bed are made of plastic materials to prevent seawater corrosion, and the floating bed for cultivation can be adjusted through lifting supporting ropes.
4. And (3) throwing the sea grapes: selecting strong sea grapes with average body length of 10cm as seedlings. Before cultivation, the mixed algae attached to the sea grape seedlings need to be treated. 2.4kg of sea grapes are initially put in each floating bed, and the average putting density is 2 kg/m2. The floating bed is controlled to be 80cm away from the bottom of the culture pond in the initial culture stage, and after the sprouting period of 5-8 days, every time an upright stem grows for 1cm, the floating bed rises to the water surface by 3cm, and meanwhile, the illumination intensity of the sea grapes and the golden lobsters is improved. In the later stage of breeding, the extension of sea grape stem can make the alga body pave the floating bed, and alga body density obviously increases, and mutual shading makes partial alga body photic not enough between the alga body, for avoiding influencing holistic growth speed and the growth of beautiful lobster, promotes the floating bed to avoid making partial alga body photic not enough and the beautiful lobster below the alga body photic not enough and apart from the surface of water 40cm each other shading between the alga body.
5. Removing the miscellaneous algae: during the cultivation and growth period of the sea grape, the sea grape is mainly affected by the attachment of miscellaneous algae such as benthic diatom, which not only affects the appearance and reduces the quality of the sea grape algae, but also affects the growth of the algae, and in severe cases, the algae can whiten and rot and even die. When the diatom adheres to the bodies of the marine grape algae, the bottom walls of the culture pond and the floating bed can be sprayed, and the illumination intensity can be reduced to improve and remove the miscellaneous algae.
6. Putting the Spanish lobster fries: soaking young Spatholobus cuneatus with weight of above 5 g in 30ppm povidone iodine for 30min, placing into culture pond, and polyculturing with sea grape with initial density of 30 tail/m2Gradually thinning in the culture process, and when the size of the lobsters is larger than 400 g/tail, the stocking density of each culture pond is 5 tails/m2
7. Feeding baits: when the bait is thrown, 4 times of feeding are generally selected every day, 2 times of feeding are carried out respectively in the morning and evening, the feeding amount in the daytime is 30% of the total feeding amount, and the feeding amount at night is 70% of the total feeding amount. Feeding fresh bivalve shellfish such as Concha Ostreae, variegated clam, Ruditapes philippinarum etc. when weight of lobster is less than 20 g/tail in earlier stage of cultivation, but need to pry open shell to feed, and feeding once every 4h, daily feeding amount is 20% of lobster body mass; when the weight of the lobsters is 20-50 g/tail, the daily bait feeding amount is 10% -15% of the weight of the lobsters; in the middle culture period (50-400 g/tail), the daily bait feeding amount is 8-10% of the weight of the lobster body; in the later period of cultivation (> 400 g/tail), the daily bait feeding amount is 5% of the lobster body mass, and fresh feed such as squid, blue crab and fish can be fed except bivalve shellfish.
8. Water quality regulation and control: proper aeration and flow culture are necessary conditions for cultivating high-quality sea grapes and beautiful lobsters. The water quality of the culture pond needs to be detected once a day, and the water quantity is updated for at least 1 time, wherein the water changing quantity is 100%, the water temperature is controlled to be 22-30 ℃, the salt concentration is maintained to be 20-33 per thousand, the pH value is kept to be 7.8-8.5, the dissolved oxygen concentration is 9-12 mg/L, and the ammonia nitrogen concentration is less than 0.2 mg/L.
9. And (3) illumination control: the illumination intensity of the sea grapes is kept at 3000-5000 lux; the illumination intensity of the beautiful lobster is maintained to be 100-200 lux.
10. Disease control: the golden lobster has strong disease resistance, and diseases can not occur in the breeding period generally, and mainly prevent and treat the golden lobster. The preventive measures are as follows: 30ppm of bromochlorohydantoin is used for disinfecting water every 10 days for 2 times. The diseases of the golden lobster which are easy to obtain mainly comprise gill rot disease, fiber defect disease, tail rot disease and the like, and the treatment method comprises the following steps: gill rot disease: norfloxacin 1.5-2.0 mg/L is used for 1 time per day for 3 days; tail rot disease: at initial infection, soak with 30ppm povidone iodine; fibroid disease: 0.8-1.2 mg/L of anhydrous zinc sulfate or 0.5-1.5 mg/L of chelated copper is used for 1 time per day and 3 days continuously, and the application is carried out after water is changed every time; other parasitic diseases: soaking the golden lobster in 3-5 mg/kg potassium permanganate for 30 min.
11. Harvesting of sea grapes: the sea grape is cultivated and harvested for 2 months, the weight of each harvest is generally more than 3 times of the weight of the put seedlings, and the length of the upright stem of the sea grape is 16-20 cm. When harvesting, the whole floating bed is taken out of water, the upright stems of the sea grapes with the front 10cm are picked, and the rest part is reserved for the seeds to continue growing so as to be convenient for multiple harvesting.
In the embodiment, 2000 tail Spanish crayfish fries are stocked in total, after 12 months of culture, 1663 tail Spanish crayfish is harvested, the culture survival rate is 83.2%, and the individual Spanish crayfish is heavyThe amount of the lobster is over 400g, 1663.2 kg of the brocade lobsters are harvested together, and the yield per unit area reaches 4.33 kg/m2(ii) a The yield of 6 sea grapes is 2177.3kg after the harvest, and the average yield per harvest of the sea grapes reaches 2.1 kg/m2
Example 2
The artificial breeding test of the Spanish crayfish and the sea grape is carried out in a Bomo Hainan breeding workshop during 8 months in 2018 to 7 months in 2019. Selecting a building area of 400m2The cultivation workshop is internally provided with 10 cement cultivation ponds of 5m multiplied by 1.2m, the cultivation ponds are shaped like a pot bottom, a water outlet pipeline is arranged above the cultivation ponds, a water outlet is arranged at the bottom of the cultivation ponds, and the water level can be adjusted.
1. Preparing a culture pond: after the cement hollow bricks are fully sterilized, two circles of cement hollow bricks are paved in the pond in a low position for lobsters to inhabit. The seawater used for cultivation is extracted from a seawater sand well, subjected to dark precipitation and then treated by a filter tank.
2. Seed algae selection: immediately disassembling and assembling the transported sea grapes, putting the sea grapes into seawater in time, cleaning and removing rotten beads, and selecting healthy algae with normal color for putting.
3. And (3) algae seed throwing: and uniformly paving the selected sea grapes in the assembled floating bed. Totally laying 6 floating beds with the specification of 1.4 m multiplied by 0.8 m, wherein each floating bed is used for placing 1.8 kg of grapes on the sea, and the average throwing density is 1.6 kg/m2When the grape is put in, the algae seeds are prevented from being concentrated as much as possible, and then the periphery of the grape is sewn by using net lines, so that the sea grapes are fixed in the frame. In the initial stage of cultivation, the distance between the floating bed and the bottom of the cultivation pool is 80-100 cm, after the germination period of the sea grapes, every 1cm of upright stem of the sea grapes grows, and the floating bed rises 2-3 cm towards the water surface.
4. Culturing the golden lobsters and the sea grapes in a mixed mode: temporarily breeding the early stage of the golden lobsters in a breeding pond, and putting the golden lobsters and the selected sea grapes into the breeding pond for mixed breeding when the average body length of the golden lobsters reaches 7 cm, wherein the stocking initial density of the golden lobsters is 50 tails/m2Gradually thinning the lobsters in the breeding process, and keeping 5 tails/m when the weight of the lobsters exceeds 400 g/tail2
5. Daily management
(1) Washing a pool and changing water: and (3) putting the algae seeds in the pond for washing the pond and changing water on the 3 rd day, slightly shaking the frame to separate rotten algae, then discharging water, flushing the bottom and the wall of the pond when discharging the water, and discharging new water and flushing the pond after discharging the water. If diatom or miscellaneous algae are found to be attached in daily management, the algae should be washed in time, if diatom is found to be attached in the algae, the algae seeds are sprayed by using a spray can or a water pump, the water spraying strength is moderate, and the algae are prevented from being injured.
(2) And (3) illumination adjustment: measuring the illumination intensity by using an illuminometer every day, keeping the illumination of the sea grapes at 3000-5000 lux, preventing the sea grapes from being directly irradiated by sunlight, and adjusting the sea grapes by using black sun-shading cloth; meanwhile, the illumination intensity of the beautiful lobster is kept between 100 and 200 lux.
(3) Water temperature and salt concentration: the water temperature and the salinity of the seawater are measured every day, the water temperature is controlled to be 23.5-30.6 ℃ during the culture period, and the salinity is 20-32 per mill.
(4) Disease control: the same as in the disease control in example 1.
In the embodiment, 1500 tail Spanish crayfish seedlings are bred in total, after 12 months of culture, 1242 tails of Spanish crayfish are harvested, the survival rate of the culture is 82.8%, the weight of the individual Spanish crayfish reaches more than 450g, 573.8 kg of Spanish crayfish are harvested together, and the yield per unit area reaches 2.3 kg/m2(ii) a The yield of 6 sea grapes is 972.8kg after the harvest, and the average yield per harvest of the sea grapes reaches 2.41 kg/m2
The above examples are only intended to illustrate the technical solution of the present invention, but not to limit it; although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof; and such modifications or substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the corresponding technical solutions.

Claims (7)

1. A breeding method for polyculture of sea grapes and golden lobsters is characterized by comprising the following steps: the culture method comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing a culture pond: laying inhabitant at the bottom of the culture pond, fully sterilizing the culture pond and the inhabitant, and injecting filtered seawater; the height of the injected seawater is 1.2-1.5 m;
(2) and (3) throwing the sea grapes: uniformly putting the young sea grape seeds on the culture floating bed after removing the attached foreign algae, wherein the putting amount of the young sea grape seeds is 1.8-2.4 kg/culture floating bed, and the putting density is 1.3-2.3 kg/m2
The cultivation floating bed is composed of a frame and grids, the frame and the grids are fixedly connected through plastic ties, lifting support ropes are arranged on the periphery of the cultivation floating bed, the height of the cultivation floating bed can be adjusted, and the aperture of each grid is not smaller than 5 mm;
in the initial stage of cultivation, the distance between the cultivation floating bed and the bottom of the cultivation pond is 80-100 cm; after 5-8 days of the germination period of the sea grapes, lifting the culture floating bed to the water surface for 2-3 cm when the upright stems of the sea grapes grow for 1 cm; in the later stage of cultivation, lifting the cultivation floating bed to a position 35-40cm away from the water surface;
(3) putting the Spanish lobster fries: selecting 5.0-20.0 g/tail of Spongilla frutescens larvae for sterilization, and feeding into a culture pond to be mixed with the sea grapes, wherein the feeding amount is 30-50 tails/m2When the weight of the beautiful lobsters exceeds 400 g/tail, thinning is carried out, and 5-10 tails/m are reserved in each culture pond2
(4) Daily management
a. Feeding baits: when the weight of the brocade lobster is less than 20 g/tail, feeding the brocade lobster once every 4 hours; when the weight of the beautiful lobster is not less than 20 g/tail, feeding the beautiful lobster for 4 times every day, and feeding the beautiful lobster for 2 times respectively in the morning and evening;
b. water quality regulation and control: keeping the water temperature at 22-30 ℃, the salt concentration at 20-33 per mill, the pH at 7.8-8.5, the dissolved oxygen concentration at 9-12 mg/L and the ammonia nitrogen concentration less than 0.2 mg/L;
c. and (3) illumination control: the illumination intensity of the sea grapes is 3000-5000 lux, and the illumination intensity of the golden lobster is 100-200 lux;
(5) disease control: disinfecting the water body of the culture pond by using bromochlorohydantoin every 8-10 days for 2-3 times;
(6) harvesting of sea grapes: harvesting the sea grapes after the sea grapes grow for 2-3 months;
(7) capturing the beautiful lobsters: and after 10-12 months of culture, trapping the crayfishes.
2. The culture method of the mixed culture of the sea grapes and the golden lobsters as claimed in claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: in the step (1), the interior of the habitat is hollow, the habitat is made of at least one of plastic, cement, bamboo and stone, and the number of laying layers of the habitat is 1-3.
3. The culture method of the mixed culture of the sea grapes and the golden lobsters as claimed in claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: the material of breeding the bed of floating is the plastics material, the material of lift support rope is the plastics material.
4. The culture method of the mixed culture of the sea grapes and the golden lobsters as claimed in claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: the sterilization method of the Spatholobus cuneatus fry in the step (3) is to soak the Spatholobus cuneatus fry for 30-40 min by using 25-35 ppm of povidone iodine.
5. The culture method of the mixed culture of the sea grapes and the golden lobsters as claimed in claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: in the step (4), the feeding amount in the daytime is 30-40% of the total feeding amount, and the feeding amount at night is 60-70% of the total feeding amount; when the weight of the brocade lobster is less than 20 g/tail, the daily feeding amount is 20-25% of the weight of the brocade lobster body; when the weight of the brocade lobster is 20-50 g/tail, the daily feeding amount is 10-15% of the weight of the brocade lobster body; when the weight of the brocade lobster is 50-400 g/tail, the daily bait feeding amount is 8-10% of the weight of the brocade lobster; when the weight of the brocade lobster is more than 400 g/tail, the daily bait feeding amount is 5-6% of the weight of the brocade lobster.
6. The culture method of the mixed culture of the sea grapes and the golden lobsters as claimed in claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: in the step (4), the culture pond needs to finish seawater updating at least 1 time every day, and the water change amount is 100%.
7. The culture method of the mixed culture of the sea grapes and the golden lobsters as claimed in claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: and (4) taking out the whole culture floating bed from water during harvesting in the step (6), harvesting only the position 8-10 cm before the upright stem of the vitis amurensis, continuing culturing after reserving seeds properly, and repeating harvesting for 5-7 times.
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