CN106942105A - A kind of method for carrying out Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding using the northern megathermal period - Google Patents

A kind of method for carrying out Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding using the northern megathermal period Download PDF

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CN106942105A
CN106942105A CN201710331232.9A CN201710331232A CN106942105A CN 106942105 A CN106942105 A CN 106942105A CN 201710331232 A CN201710331232 A CN 201710331232A CN 106942105 A CN106942105 A CN 106942105A
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hong kong
oyster
kong oyster
salinity
northern
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CN106942105B (en
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张哲�
于瑞海
李琪
马培振
佘忠明
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Ocean University of China
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention provides a kind of method for carrying out Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding using the northern megathermal period.This method is directed to the technical barrier of Hong Kong oyster nursery, the ecological accelerating Cultivating techniques of the close shellfish high temperature of exploitation, innovation technology is collected seedling and smashed to quick spawning inductive technology and special attachments base, it is the key put the axe in the helve that the nursery workshop left unused using the northern megathermal period, which carries out the northern seedling raising mannerses for educating Nan Yangxin, the natural seedling speed of growth of Hong Kong oyster can also be overcome slow simultaneously, culture-cycle is long, the problems such as death rate is high, particularly change and collect seedling naturally in the past, it is bred as, the custom of harvest operation at sea, significantly reduce the South China coastal typhoon, economic loss of the natural calamities such as heavy rain to mariculture, the utilization rate in northern megathermal period nursery workshop is also improved simultaneously.It was verified that the Bei Miaonan that the present invention realizes Hong Kong oyster is supported, shorten Hong Kong oyster culturing time 0.5 1.0 years, its cultivation survival rate improves 30 50%.

Description

A kind of method for carrying out Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding using the northern megathermal period
Technical field
It is more particularly to a kind of to be carried out using the northern megathermal period the present invention relates to a kind of method of Hong Kong oyster Seedling production The method of Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding.
Background technology
With the development of internet and Cold Chain Logistics, oyster is the aquatic products of most suitable live transport in aquatic products, and it is sought Abundant, delicious flavour is supported, supply falls short of demand in market, rapid rise of price, and oyster culture area is also constantly expanding.
Hong Kong oyster(Crass0strea hongkongensis)For high temperature resistant, the excellent oyster kind of resistance to less salt, perch It is the distinctive large-scale economic shellfish in south China sea area in nearly river mouth or the neighbouring place for having fresh water to inject.Hong Kong oyster chitin Hard thick, soft body is generally black for white, outer embrane, with color and luster is attractive in appearance, delicious meat the characteristics of;Its market price is also than it The oyster of his kind is high 1-2 times, wide market.
The source of current China Hong Kong oyster seed is main based on the semi of natural waterses, but fish wild seed Collect seedling climate, seasonal variations influence it is very big, particularly influenceed by the exceedingly odious weather such as Typhoon in South China, fish wild seed supply Should be extremely unstable, this also limits the development of Hong Kong oyster aquaculture.
Because Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding is by its exclusive life habit and reproductive biology feature, and southern nursery skill The limitation of art, culture facility and condition, nursery success rate is relatively low.High salt accelerating Cultivating techniques, induction in above-mentioned seedling-raising technique The Cultivating techniques of spawning technology, fertilization and hatching technology, the selection and processing of easily peelable attachment base and the big specification monomer spat of oyster, be The major technology bottleneck of Hong Kong oyster nursery, it is difficult to overcome, it is extremely low to cause Hong Kong oyster nursery output of seedling, does not reach productivity The level of nursery, also can not meet cultivation unit to the demand of seed certainly, therefore be cultivated mainly by wild Hong Kong oyster seedling, And the seeding-growth speed of growth is slow, and the death rate is high, is not appropriate for propagating artificially.
Therefore a kind of Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding technique for being adapted to propagate artificially is needed badly, to overcome present in prior art Various problems.
The content of the invention
It is existing to make up it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of method using northern megathermal period Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding The deficiency of technology.
The present invention is directed to the technical barrier of Hong Kong oyster nursery, the ecological accelerating Cultivating techniques of the close shellfish high temperature of exploitation, quick production Innovation technology is collected seedling and smashed to ovum inductive technology and special attachments base, and the nursery workshop left unused using the northern megathermal period is entered The seedling raising mannerses that Nan Yangxin is educated in row north are the keys put the axe in the helve, while can also overcome the natural seedling speed of growth of Hong Kong oyster Slowly, the culture-cycle is long, the problem of death rate is high, particularly changes and collects seedling, is bred as naturally in the past, harvesting operation at sea Custom, significantly reduces economic loss of the natural calamities such as the South China coastal typhoon, heavy rain to mariculture, while also improving north The utilization rate in square megathermal period nursery workshop.
To reach above-mentioned purpose, the concrete technical scheme that the present invention takes is:
A kind of method for carrying out Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding using the northern megathermal period, comprises the following steps:
(1)Select the close shellfish of Hong Kong oyster;
(2) indoor high salt transition:In 5-6 months before southern mating period, northern nursery is transported to, temporarily supports transition;
(3) close shellfish outdoor earth pond ecological is cultivated:Then temporary adopted parents shellfish is hung over into salinity around nursery native for 28-32 outdoor Chi Li, carries out ecologic adaptation and accelerating is cultivated, and is cultivated by the outdoor earth pond ecological of 40-60 days to maturation;
(4)Temporarily support and cultivate in close shellfish room:In the high temperature season of August, Hong Kong oyster kind shellfish is picked out by 40-50/m3It is placed on and educates Miao Chili, under conditions of 26-30 DEG C of water temperature and salinity 28-32, parents holding culture carries out artificial spawning, row's essence after 8-12 days;
(5)Artificial stimulation spawning, row's essence:The close shellfish of the Hong Kong oyster washed is firstly placed on the temperature-controlling chamber that temperature is 15-16 DEG C Inside dry in the shade 5-6 hours, place into after pure freshwater soaking 0.5-1.0 hours, place into 10-15 salinity seawater and soak 1.0-1.5 Hour, in the nursery pond for being finally putting into normal filtration seawater, after being adapted to through 0.5-1.0 hours, start a large amount of discharge essences, ovum, award Essence;
(6) hatch:It is 40-50/mL to control incubating oosperm density, by using a point pond hatching, continuous charge and drags for bubble Foam, causes water quality deterioration to reduce megathermal period polyspermism, improves incubation rate;Under the conditions of 26-32 DEG C of water temperature, embryonated egg is passed through Hatching in 18-20 hours is reached after D type larvas, and children is selected immediately;
(7)Larvae cultivation:By 5-6/m after choosing children3Density cloth pond is cultivated, and routinely Shellfish Larva Cultivating techniques enter larvae cultivation OK:
(8) bay scallop shell is collected seedling:Cultivated through 16-18 days, embryophore height grows to 330-360 μm, and eyebot larvae occurs in 60-80% When, start to deliver and cross the thin frangible bay scallop shell attachment base of shell, injected volume 3000-4000 pieces/m through dilute acid pretreatment3, it is average every Piece spatfall amount reaches 20-30, and attachment base is removed, and continues to deliver attachment base, until the eyebot larvae of Hong Kong oyster is all attached Abnormal into untill juvenile mollusk;
(9) big specification spat of oyster Tu Chi is cultivated:The attachment base for adhering to juvenile mollusk is moved on into outdoor ponds biological breeding, juvenile mollusk profit together Grown with the unicellular alga in pond, to by the end of October i.e. grow to 20-25mm;
(10)The cultchless oyster seedlings of cultivation:Bay scallop shell with 20-25mm Hong Kong oyster seedlings is gently smashed, is attached to Hong Kong oyster seedling above is separated into single Hong Kong oyster seedlings one by one, and 8-12 DEG C dry to be transported to southern sea area and cultivated.
Further, above-mentioned steps(1)In, in southern mariculture area, selection salinity is a height of in the shell that 18-22 sea areas are cultivated 10-16cm Hong Kong oysters Cheng Beiwei parent shellfishes.
Further, above-mentioned steps(2)Specially:5-6 before southern mating period part below the moon, 6-10 DEG C of temperature is transported to Northern nursery, the nursery pond being placed in 4-5 higher than former salinity, 4-5 lower than existing salinity 25-26 salinity was temporarily supported Cross.
Further, above-mentioned steps(7)In concretely comprise the following steps:As larval growth gradually reduces density, to the children that crawls Worm density is down to 2-3/ml;Day changes water 2-3 times, and water 30%-50% is changed every time;D type larvas start to feed chrysophyceae, daily ration of feeding Ten thousand cells of mid-term 3.0-4.0/ml, ten thousand cells of later stage 5.0-6.0/ml, children are gradually increased to from ten thousand cells of the 1.0-2.0/ml at initial stage Worm, which is developed to after the mid-term of shell top, adds flat algae, and daily ration of feeding is ten thousand cells of 1.0-2.0/ml;Water temperature 25-32 during larvae cultivation DEG C, salinity 25-30, pH value 8.0-8.2, Micro Algae require it is fresh, pollution-free, without aging.
Further, step(8)Collector bay scallop shell used, is handled 8-12 hours through 0.05% watery hydrochloric acid After rinse well and use, on the one hand the bay scallop shell attachment base handled by watery hydrochloric acid is conducive to the attachment of eyebot larvae to become State, shell of the opposing party through acid treatment is more crisp to be easy to smash after collecting seedling in the future.
Further, the above method also includes southern shrimp ponds transition step, through step(10)The single Hong Kong oyster of processing In seedling, dress cage or floating net cage, pass through the cultivation of 1-2 months in salinity 20-25 shrimp-cultivation pool, individual is grown in 3.5-4.5cm Bei Hou, the spat of oyster is bonded on cement block and hangs over marine cultivated.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
The present invention solves the problem of southern Hong Kong oyster room heat source incubation cultivates difficult and difficult spawning, and The big specification fast culture of juvenile mollusk and oyster shell spatfall take off the problem of base is difficult.Meanwhile, the present invention can effectively utilize northern high temperature Phase shellfish hatchery workshop idle periods, drastically increase the comprehensive utilization ratio in nursery workshop, to realize Hong Kong oyster northerner Work nursery, the new model of south cultivation.
The present invention is that artificial breeding is carried out under conditions of environment is controllable, changes and collects seedling, is bred as naturally in the past, harvesting The custom of operation at sea, significantly reduces the huge warp that the natural calamities such as the South China coastal typhoon, heavy rain are caused to mariculture Ji loss, a set of new thinking is provided for the aquaculture industry development of Hong Kong oyster.
It was verified that the Bei Miaonan that the present invention realizes Hong Kong oyster is supported, shorten Hong Kong oyster culturing time 0.5-1.0 Year, its cultivation survival rate improves 30-50%.
Embodiment
The present invention is explained further and illustrated below by way of specific embodiment.
Embodiment:
A kind of method for carrying out Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding using the northern megathermal period, comprises the following steps:
(1)The selection of the close shellfish of the huge oyster in Hong Kong:First in southern mariculture area, the shell that selection salinity is cultivated in 18-22 sea areas is high For the close shellfishes of 10-16cm Hong Kong oysters Cheng Beiwei;
(2) indoor high salt transition:In 5-6 months before southern mating period, northern nursery is transported at a temperature of 6-10 DEG C, is placed on Temporarily supported 3-4 days in deployed salinity 25-26 nursery pond, temporarily support period and do not change water, daily bait throwing in 2 times, daily ration, feeding quantity is 5-6 Ten thousand/mL. days;
(3) close shellfish outdoor earth pond ecological is cultivated:Temporary foster 3-4 days close shellfishes are hung over into salinity around nursery native for 28-32 outdoor Chi Li, carries out ecologic adaptation and accelerating is cultivated, and is cultivated by the outdoor earth pond ecological of 40-60 days to maturation;
(4)Temporarily support and cultivate in close shellfish room:In the high temperature season of August, Hong Kong oyster kind shellfish is picked out by 40-50/m3It is placed on and educates Miao Chili, under conditions of 26-30 DEG C of water temperature and salinity 28-32, parents holding culture carries out artificial spawning, row's essence after 8-12 days;
(5)Artificial stimulation spawning, row's essence:The close shellfish of the Hong Kong oyster washed is firstly placed on the temperature-controlling chamber that temperature is 15-16 DEG C Inside dry in the shade 5-6 hours, place into after pure freshwater soaking 0.5-1.0 hours, place into 10-15 salinity seawater and soak 1.0-1.5 Hour, in the nursery pond for being finally putting into normal filtration seawater, after being adapted to through 0.5-1.0 hours, start a large amount of discharge essences, ovum, award Essence;
(6) hatch:It is 40-50/mL to control incubating oosperm density, by using a point pond hatching, continuous charge and drags for bubble Foam, causes water quality deterioration to reduce megathermal period polyspermism, improves incubation rate;Under the conditions of 26-32 DEG C of water temperature, embryonated egg is passed through Hatching in 18-20 hours is reached after D type larvas, and children is selected immediately;
(7)Larvae cultivation:Choosing children is by 5-6/m3Density cloth pond is cultivated, and routinely Shellfish Larva Cultivating techniques enter larvae cultivation OK:As larval growth gradually reduces density, 2-3/ml is down to Creeping larva density;Day changes water 2-3 times, changes water every time 30%-50%;D type larvas start to feed chrysophyceae, and daily ration of feeding gradually increases to mid-term from ten thousand cells of the 1.0-2.0/ml at initial stage Flat algae is added after ten thousand cells of 3.0-4.0/ml, ten thousand cells of later stage 5.0-6.0/ml, larvae development to shell top mid-term, daily ration of feeding is Ten thousand cells of 1.0-2.0/ml;25-32 DEG C of water temperature during larvae cultivation, salinity 25-30, pH value 8.0-8.2, Micro Algae will look for novelty It is fresh, pollution-free, without aging;
(8) bay scallop shell is collected seedling:Through 16-18 days cultivate, embryophore height grow to 330-360 μm, 60-80% there is eyebot larvae When, start to deliver and cross the thin frangible bay scallop shell attachment base of shell, injected volume 3000-4000 pieces/m through dilute acid pretreatment3, it is average every Piece spatfall amount reaches 20-30, and attachment base is removed, and continues to deliver attachment base, until the eyebot larvae of Hong Kong oyster is all attached Abnormal into untill juvenile mollusk;
(9) big specification spat of oyster Tu Chi is cultivated:The attachment base for adhering to juvenile mollusk is moved on into outdoor ponds biological breeding, juvenile mollusk profit together Grown with the unicellular alga in pond, to growing to 20-25mm by the end of October;
(10)The cultchless oyster seedlings of cultivation:Bay scallop shell with 20-25mm Hong Kong oyster seedlings is gently smashed, is attached to Hong Kong oyster seedling above is separated into single Hong Kong oyster seedlings one by one, fills foam chest, low temperature is dry to be transported to southern sea area Cultivated, the Bei Miaonan for realizing Hong Kong oyster is supported, and shortens Hong Kong oyster culturing time 0.5-1.0, its cultivation survival rate Improve 30-50%.
Above-mentioned steps(8)Collector bay scallop shell used, is rinsed after being handled 8-12 hours through 0.05% watery hydrochloric acid Totally use, on the one hand the bay scallop shell attachment base handled by watery hydrochloric acid is conducive to the settlement and metamorphosis of eyebot larvae, another Shell of the side through acid treatment is more crisp to be easy to smash after collecting seedling in the future.
The above method also includes southern shrimp ponds transition:Through step(10)The single Hong Kong oyster seedling of processing, dress cage or floating In net cage, pass through the cultivation of 1-2 months in salinity 20-25 shrimp-cultivation pool, individual is grown in 3.5-4.5cm after shellfish, by the spat of oyster It is bonded on cement block and hangs over marine cultivated.
Actual cultivation empirical evidence, the Hong Kong oyster Bei Miaonan provided using the present invention supports method, shortens Hong Kong oyster and supports Time 0.5-1.0 is grown, its cultivation survival rate also improves 30-50%;Illustrate that the present invention contribute to Hong Kong oyster seed really Efficient, high yield the pattern of propagating artificially, be worthy of popularization.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of method for carrying out Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding using the northern megathermal period, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1)Select the close shellfish of Hong Kong oyster;
(2)Indoor high salt transition:In 5-6 months before southern mating period, northern nursery is transported to, temporarily supports transition;
(3)Close shellfish outdoor earth pond ecological is cultivated:Then temporary adopted parents shellfish is hung over into the outdoor earth pond that salinity around nursery is 28-32 In, carry out ecologic adaptation and accelerating is cultivated;
(4)Temporarily support and cultivate in close shellfish room:In the high temperature season of August, Hong Kong oyster kind shellfish is picked out in 26-30 DEG C of water temperature and salinity Under conditions of 28-32, temporarily support, then carry out artificial spawning, row's essence;
(5)Artificial stimulation spawning, row's essence;It is fertilized again;
(6) hatch:By using a point pond hatching, incubating oosperm is reached after D type larvas, and children is selected immediately;
(7)Larvae cultivation:Routinely Shellfish Larva Cultivating techniques are carried out;
(8)Bay scallop shell is collected seedling:Through cultivating, embryophore height grows to 330-360 μm, when eyebot larvae occurs in 60-80%, beginning Dispensing crosses the thin frangible bay scallop shell attachment base of shell through dilute acid pretreatment, until the whole settlement and metamorphosis of the eyebot larvae of Hong Kong oyster Untill juvenile mollusk;
(9) big specification spat of oyster Tu Chi is cultivated:The attachment base for adhering to juvenile mollusk is moved on into outdoor ponds biological breeding, juvenile mollusk profit together Grown with the unicellular alga in pond, to by the end of October i.e. grow to 20-25mm;
(10)The cultchless oyster seedlings of cultivation:Bay scallop shell attachment base with 20-25mm Hong Kong oyster seedlings is smashed, it is attached Superincumbent Hong Kong oyster seedling is separated into single Hong Kong oyster seedlings one by one, and 8-12 DEG C dry to be transported to southern sea area and supported Grow.
2. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that above-mentioned steps(1)In, in southern mariculture area, select salinity The close shellfishes of a height of 10-16cm Hong Kong oysters Cheng Beiwei of shell cultivated in 18-22 sea areas.
3. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that above-mentioned steps(2)Specially:5- before southern mating period 6 parts below the moon, 6-10 DEG C of temperature transports to northern nursery, is placed on 4-5 higher than former salinity, 4-5 lower than existing salinity 25- Nursery pond in 26 salinity temporarily supports transition.
4. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that the close shellfish of the Hong Kong oyster washed is firstly placed on into temperature is Dry in the shade 5-6 hours, placed into after pure freshwater soaking 0.5-1.0 hours in 15-16 DEG C of temperature-controlling chamber, place into 10-15 salinity sea Soak 1.0-1.5 hours, in the nursery pond for being finally putting into normal filtration seawater, after being adapted to through 0.5-1.0 hours, start big in water Amount discharge essence, ovum, are then inseminated.
5. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that above-mentioned steps(7)In concretely comprise the following steps:With larval growth Density is gradually reduced, 2-3/ml is down to Creeping larva density;Day changes water 2-3 times, and water 30%-50% is changed every time;D type larvas Start to feed chrysophyceae, daily ration of feeding gradually increases to ten thousand cells of mid-term 3.0-4.0/ml from ten thousand cells of the 1.0-2.0/ml at initial stage, after Flat algae is added after ten thousand cells of phase 5.0-6.0/ml, larvae development to shell top mid-term, daily ration of feeding is ten thousand cells of 1.0-2.0/ml;Children 25-32 DEG C of worm nurturing period water temperature, salinity 25-30, pH value 8.0-8.2, Micro Algae require it is fresh, pollution-free, without aging.
6. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that step(8)Collector bay scallop shell used, be through 0.05% watery hydrochloric acid is rinsed well after handling 8-12 hours and used, the bay scallop shell attachment base handled by watery hydrochloric acid.
7. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that the above method also includes southern shrimp ponds transition step, through step (10)In the single Hong Kong oyster seedling of processing, dress cage or floating net cage, supported in salinity 20-25 shrimp-cultivation pool by 1-2 months Grow, individual is grown in 3.5-4.5cm after shellfish, the spat of oyster is bonded on cement block and hangs over marine cultivated.
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CN108112518A (en) * 2017-12-19 2018-06-05 广西壮族自治区水产科学研究院 Hong Kong oyster segmented high-efficiency breeding method
CN109122437A (en) * 2018-08-24 2019-01-04 苑春亭 The method of pond superficial water and intertidal zone low tidal region relay oyster culture
CN109349176A (en) * 2018-11-15 2019-02-19 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 A kind of cultural method of purple sea hybrid scallop
CN111149744A (en) * 2020-02-11 2020-05-15 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 Method for inducing efficient attachment and metamorphosis of crassostrea hongkongensis
CN111903579A (en) * 2020-08-14 2020-11-10 中国科学院海洋研究所 Method for improving survival rate of oyster juvenile mollusks in red tide period

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CN108112518A (en) * 2017-12-19 2018-06-05 广西壮族自治区水产科学研究院 Hong Kong oyster segmented high-efficiency breeding method
CN108112518B (en) * 2017-12-19 2020-08-11 广西壮族自治区水产科学研究院 Sectional type efficient breeding method for crassostrea hongkongensis
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CN109349176A (en) * 2018-11-15 2019-02-19 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 A kind of cultural method of purple sea hybrid scallop
CN111149744A (en) * 2020-02-11 2020-05-15 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 Method for inducing efficient attachment and metamorphosis of crassostrea hongkongensis
CN111149744B (en) * 2020-02-11 2021-12-03 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 Method for inducing efficient attachment and metamorphosis of crassostrea hongkongensis
CN111903579A (en) * 2020-08-14 2020-11-10 中国科学院海洋研究所 Method for improving survival rate of oyster juvenile mollusks in red tide period
CN111903579B (en) * 2020-08-14 2022-01-04 中国科学院海洋研究所 Method for improving survival rate of oyster juvenile mollusks in red tide period

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