CN106212328B - Method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing greenhouse - Google Patents

Method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing greenhouse Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN106212328B
CN106212328B CN201610566661.XA CN201610566661A CN106212328B CN 106212328 B CN106212328 B CN 106212328B CN 201610566661 A CN201610566661 A CN 201610566661A CN 106212328 B CN106212328 B CN 106212328B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
water
pond
breeding
greenhouse
shrimp
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CN201610566661.XA
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN106212328A (en
Inventor
李春晓
陈楷亮
杨铿
许晓能
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
MARINE AND FISHERY INSTITUTE OF SHANTOU
South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences
Original Assignee
MARINE AND FISHERY INSTITUTE OF SHANTOU
South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by MARINE AND FISHERY INSTITUTE OF SHANTOU, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences filed Critical MARINE AND FISHERY INSTITUTE OF SHANTOU
Priority to CN201610566661.XA priority Critical patent/CN106212328B/en
Publication of CN106212328A publication Critical patent/CN106212328A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN106212328B publication Critical patent/CN106212328B/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/003Aquaria; Terraria
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/04Arrangements for treating water specially adapted to receptacles for live fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/04Arrangements for treating water specially adapted to receptacles for live fish
    • A01K63/042Introducing gases into the water, e.g. aerators, air pumps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for breeding overwintering litopenaeus vannamei 2 times by using a greenhouse, wherein the breeding period is from the middle of 9 months to the next 5 months: (1) the first construction and implementation of the key technology of firstly putting seedlings and then putting greenhouse films: the seedlings are put in advance in 9 months, and when the water temperature is reduced to 25 ℃, a light-transmitting PVC film is covered on the greenhouse frame; (2) secondly, implementing a key technology of intensive marking and re-breeding of shrimp larvae; the method comprises the steps of harvesting a pond which accounts for 10-25% of the total culture area for intensive thickening of shrimp seeds for second shrimp seed production. Preferably, the second fry breeding and releasing water is introduced into part of the first old pond water with higher water temperature so as to ensure that the shrimp fries adapt to the water temperature; the temperature of the water is controlled to be 22-32 ℃ by utilizing a greenhouse in the full wintering period, and the optimal temperature is 25-30 ℃. Compared with the common prawn culture in the greenhouse, the invention increases 1-time production, and the first culture is harvested at the peak of the sales demand before the spring festival, and the second culture is harvested 20 days earlier than the pond without the winter greenhouse in 5 months, thereby having good economic benefit and meeting the demands of citizens.

Description

Method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing greenhouse
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of aquaculture, in particular to a method for breeding twice-wintering litopenaeus vannamei by using a greenhouse.
Background
The Litopenaeus vannamei (commonly known as penaeus vannamei) is an important penaeus vannamei breeding variety in China, particularly in the south, the breeding industry of the Litopenaeus vannamei is rapidly developed, the breeding scale is continuously enlarged, the breeding mode gradually changes from extensive type to intensive and benefit type development, and the high-density fine breeding mode becomes the most important breeding mode.
In recent years, in parts of coastal areas in south China, original prawn intensive culture ponds are utilized, full mulching film covered ponds and greenhouse frameworks are further reconstructed and constructed, high-density culture ponds with basically controllable culture elements such as controllable temperature (winter greenhouse), water retention and conservation and the like are constructed, and a mechanized oxygenation system mainly based on three-dimensional oxygenation and a matched water purification system and the like are matched.
The success rate of the winter greenhouse prawn culture is higher due to good water quality of the sea area in winter. However, the general greenhouse overwintering cultivation of the litopenaeus vannamei can only carry out winter cultivation for 1 time (10 months per year to 2 months next year), the cultivation yield and the economic benefit are low, and the market demand is difficult to meet.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the technical problem of providing a method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing a greenhouse, scientifically putting seedlings and reasonably harvesting by reasonably arranging 2-generation cultivation periods, realizing 2-generation overwintering cultivation (namely, overyear cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei in 1 winter), being beneficial to improving the cultivation yield, having good economic benefit and better meeting the market demand. The technical scheme is as follows:
a method for breeding litopenaeus vannamei for 2 generations through winter in a greenhouse is characterized by breeding litopenaeus vannamei according to the following steps:
(1) first making cultivation
(1-1) in the last ten days of 9 months, building a greenhouse framework on each aquaculture pond; introducing seawater to each culture pond in the middle ten days of 9 months, and stocking the first shrimp breeding seedlings for culture;
(1-2) after 10 months, when the water temperature of the sea area (namely the inlet water temperature of the aquaculture pond) is reduced to 25 ℃, paving a light-transmitting agricultural film on the built greenhouse framework to form a light-transmitting greenhouse covering the aquaculture pond, and maintaining and improving the water temperature of the pond water by utilizing the greenhouse effect;
(1-3) when the first breeding is carried out to the late 12 th month, harvesting the litopenaeus vannamei in a breeding pond accounting for 10-25% of the total breeding area, and taking the part of the breeding pond as a second shrimp seedling gathering temporary breeding coarse pond after harvesting the litopenaeus vannamei; the rest of the litopenaeus vannamei in the aquaculture pond accounting for 75-90% of the total aquaculture area is continuously cultured until harvesting in the first 1 month and the middle ten days of the next year;
(2) second generation breeding
(2-1) temporarily culturing the second shrimp seedlings in the standard coarse pond (namely an aquaculture pond which first harvests the litopenaeus vannamei and occupies 10-25% of the total aquaculture area) temporarily by using the second shrimp seedlings in the step (1-3) to gather in the temporary coarse pond on the first month and the middle ten days of the next year, and after culturing for 30-45 days, separately culturing the juvenile shrimps into other aquaculture ponds which occupy 75-90% of the total aquaculture area (namely the aquaculture pond which harvests the litopenaeus vannamei after the first aquaculture);
(2-2) second breeding till 5 months of harvest.
The transparent greenhouse is utilized to cultivate the litopenaeus vannamei through winter, the water temperature of the cultivation pond determines the growth rate of the cultivated litopenaeus vannamei, and therefore the water temperature regulation and control are very important. Preferably, the temperature of the culture pond is controlled between 22 and 32 ℃ (suitable value) in the process of the first culture and the second culture. More preferably, the temperature of the culture pond is controlled between 25 and 30 ℃ (optimum) during the first and second aquaculture.
In the preferable step (2-2), when the second crop is cultured to the beginning of 5 months, part of the litopenaeus vannamei with the specification of 100-80 tails/kg in the pond is harvested first, the culture density is reduced, and the rest litopenaeus vannamei is cultured for 20 days and then harvested (at the moment, the specification of the litopenaeus vannamei can reach 70-60 tails/kg). By implementing the 'interval harvesting technology', the supply market of high-yield and large-size high-quality litopenaeus vannamei is realized.
In the invention, the water temperature of the culture pond is regulated and controlled at each stage of the culture period according to the following modes:
a) in the early stage of first breeding (9 months), the first breeding seedlings are arranged by using the advantage of high-temperature weather in the subtropical regions of the coast in south of China in 9 months; at the moment, the water temperature of the sea area is generally 28-32 ℃, seawater is introduced into the culture pond, the water temperature is enough to meet the requirement of shrimp fry growth, and a light-transmitting greenhouse does not need to be covered with a light-transmitting agricultural film;
b) from the later stage of the first breeding to the middle stage of the second breeding (11 months to 3 months in the next year), the weather is cold, the water temperature is low, and the transparent greenhouse is made to be airtight as much as possible so as to avoid the influence on the growth of the prawns caused by the too fast drop of the water temperature. If water needs to be fed, the method is generally carried out in a time period (such as 10: 00-16: 00) when the temperature is higher;
c) in the middle stage of the first breeding (10 months) and the late stage of the second breeding (4-5 months in the next year), the temperature change is large in the two stages, and the timing of covering and lifting the light-transmitting agricultural film is mastered according to specific weather conditions, namely: when the temperature is higher in the daytime during film covering, the light-transmitting agricultural film around the aquaculture pond is opened when the water temperature of the aquaculture pond exceeds 32 ℃ so as to prevent the temperature from rising too fast; when the temperature drops in the evening, the opened light-transmitting agricultural film is covered to prevent the temperature from dropping too fast.
In addition, the water temperature can be adjusted by a water changing method, more water can be properly changed when the water temperature is higher, and the water can be changed as little as possible when the water temperature is lower on the premise that the water quality index is normal.
The first breeding implementation 'first seedling placing and then shed film covering' key technology: in the step (1-1), the air temperature is higher in 9 months (particularly in subtropical regions in south China), the water temperature in the sea area is generally 28-32 ℃, the shrimp larvae are suitable for rapid growth, and the body length of the prawns can reach 4-6 cm after the prawns are cultured for 20-30 days generally; in the step (1-2), as the weather becomes cold, the water temperature of the sea area (namely the inlet water temperature of the aquaculture pond) is reduced, a light-transmitting agricultural film (such as a PVC light-transmitting agricultural film) is laid on a greenhouse framework to form a greenhouse, the appropriate water temperature of the aquaculture pond is kept at 22-32 ℃ (the optimum water temperature is 25-30 ℃) through the greenhouse effect, and the rapid growth of prawns at higher temperature is ensured. Generally, the breeding period of the first breeding is 100-120 days, and the size of the harvested litopenaeus vannamei is 70-80 tails/kg.
The second breeding implementation 'intensive temporary shrimp fry breeding and re-breeding' key technology: in the step (2-1), the shrimp seeds needed by a plurality of culture ponds are firstly concentrated in one culture pond (a second shrimp seed production concentrated temporary culture coarse marking pond) to perform intensive temporary culture coarse marking, the temporary culture coarse marking period is 30-45 days, and then the shrimp seeds are separately cultured in other culture ponds. Therefore, on one hand, a longer culture time is provided for the first-time litopenaeus vannamei, so that the litopenaeus vannamei can reach a larger finished product specification, on the other hand, the shrimp seedlings are gathered and marked for 30-45 days, the water quality environmental pollution to the second-time culture water body can be reduced, the culture survival rate is also favorably improved, and the 2-time culture is better carried out in a limited time.
Preferably, in the 1 st month of the next year, after cleaning and sterilizing the second shrimp-making seedlings in the intensive temporary culture coarse pond, introducing seawater to the water depth of 50-60 cm, introducing the water in the upper pond from the culture pond which is not harvested to the water depth of 100-120 cm of the intensive temporary culture coarse pond for the second shrimp-making seedlings, adjusting the water temperature to 23-24 ℃, and preparing to place the second shrimp-making seedlings. The water in the upper layer pond is introduced into the second shrimp breeding seedling intensive temporary breeding coarse pond from the culture pond which is not harvested, the recycling of the water in the first enrichment-making 'biological floc group' culture pond is realized, the water in the first enrichment-making 'biological floc group' culture pond is introduced and utilized as an important component of the water for breeding the second shrimp breeding pond, on one hand, the water temperature in the second shrimp breeding seedling intensive temporary breeding coarse pond is ensured, on the other hand, the rich 'biological floc group' in the water in the first culture pond provides high-quality feed for the second shrimp breeding seedlings and the shrimps.
In the step (2-1), when the young shrimps are separately cultured, a special shrimp trawl net with a dense net mesh is generally adopted, and the young shrimps are fished and passed through a pond.
In order to ensure the healthy and rapid growth of the cultured litopenaeus vannamei and better realize the cross-year culture of litopenaeus vannamei for 2 generations in 1 winter, the following culture technical measures are also adopted on the basis of scientifically arranging the culture period of 2 generations:
(a) water inlet and water treatment: when water needs to be fed, introducing seawater into the culture pond, wherein the primary water inlet level is 1.0-1.5 m; water disinfection is performed at night after water is admitted, and then the water is fertilized and beneficial microbial agents are applied.
When water enters, the seawater at the time of heavy tide is pumped as much as possible so as to ensure better water quality. Halogen disinfectants (e.g., 2-3ppm strong chlorine) are typically used in water disinfection. The fertilizing amount is determined according to the water quality condition. By properly applying the beneficial microbial preparation, the probiotics form dominant flora in the water body, and good water quality and water color are formed.
(b) Selecting and putting seedlings: the shrimp larvae are qualified by detection and have no specific pathogen, and the shrimp larvae are required to be good in activity, neat in individuals, free of attachments on body surfaces and free of jejunum and jejunum; the seedling setting specification is that the length of the shrimp seedlings is preferably 0.8-1.2 cm; the water temperature is 22-32 deg.C when placing seedling, and the optimum water temperature is 25-30 deg.C.
(c) Water quality regulation and control: the water quality is regulated and controlled by fertilizing, applying beneficial microbial agents and changing water. The early stage water inlet needs to be pretreated by precipitation, filtration, disinfection and the like.
Measuring the water temperature (T) dailyW) Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Ammonia Nitrogen (NH)4 +-N), Nitrite (NO)2 -) Water quality indexes such as transparency, pond water salinity and the like. The variety and the quantity change of plankton in the aquaculture pond are often detected. The growth conditions (including body weight, body length, etc.) of the prawns are measured every 7-10 days. According to the measuring condition, the water quality is regulated and controlled to ensure that the water temperature (T)W) Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Ammonia Nitrogen (NH)4 +-N), Nitrite (NO)2 -) The water quality index is in the appropriate value range shown in Table 1, and is preferably adjusted to be in the optimum value range shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 Water quality index
Figure BDA0001050419070000051
(d) Water changing: the water is not drained and changed in the latter half month after the seedlings are put, the water is drained through a drainage system of the aquaculture pond in the latter half month, and the water changing amount is gradually increased along with the growth of the shrimp bodies so as to keep a good substrate environment. The bottom of the culture pond, particularly a central water outlet, is inspected and cleaned by frequently sucking dirt or diving. If water needs to be fed, the water is generally fed in a sunny day and is fed in a time period (such as 10: 00-16: 00) with higher temperature. When the water temperature is higher, more water can be properly changed, and when the water temperature is lower, the water can be changed as little as possible on the premise of normal water quality index.
(e) Bait casting management: the bait adopts artificial mixed bait which meets the relevant regulation requirements of GB13078 and NY5072 and requires that the protein content is not lower than 38%; the daily feeding rate of the artificial bait is 3-10% of the weight of the litopenaeus vannamei. In the initial stage of cultivation after seedling placement, feeding is generally carried out for 4-6 times a day, and then the feeding time is adjusted to 3-4 times a day along with the growth of shrimp bodies. The actual feeding amount is properly adjusted according to the weather and the water temperature condition. The bait is generally evenly fed along the entire perimeter of the pond.
(f) Harvesting: the specification of the harvested Litopenaeus vannamei is 100-60 tails/kg. When the litopenaeus vannamei is harvested in the first construction, the litopenaeus vannamei is generally harvested in each aquaculture pond once so as to gain time for stocking the litopenaeus vannamei in the second construction. Harvesting for the second time, namely harvesting part of litopenaeus vannamei with the specification of 100-80 tails/kg in the culture pond at the beginning of 5 months to reduce the culture density; the rest of the litopenaeus vannamei is harvested after being cultured for 20 days, and the specification of the litopenaeus vannamei can reach 70-60 tails/kg, so that the high-yield and large-specification high-quality litopenaeus vannamei supply market is realized.
In order to better realize the overwintering culture of the litopenaeus vannamei, the culture pond is usually matched with the following facilities:
(1) light-transmitting greenhouse
The light-transmitting greenhouse has the main functions of keeping a certain water temperature of the culture pond by utilizing the greenhouse effect and ensuring the healthy and rapid growth of the prawns; the light-transmitting greenhouse needs to be sealed as much as possible, and large gaps are not left. The light-transmitting greenhouse is generally one greenhouse for each pool to prevent cross infection of diseases.
The light-transmitting greenhouse comprises a greenhouse framework and a light-transmitting agricultural film (such as a PVC light-transmitting agricultural film) paved on the greenhouse framework, wherein the greenhouse framework comprises a foundation, a support and a steel wire mesh. The foundation (foundation is used for pulling steel wire ropes) can adopt one of the following two structures: one is a reinforced concrete structure poured along one side of the pond close to the inner side, and the other is that small piles are inserted into the pond close to the inner side at certain intervals. The bracket consists of a fir bracket arranged in the middle of the pond and a steel wire rope drawn between the fir bracket and the foundation. After the support is built, a layer of steel wire mesh is laid on the whole support, then the light-transmitting agricultural film is covered, then a layer of gauze is covered on the light-transmitting agricultural film, and then a layer of steel wire rope is pulled to compress the light-transmitting agricultural film (two ends of each steel wire rope are generally connected with the foundation). After the film covering is finished, each light-transmitting greenhouse is provided with a door as a working access.
(2) Aquaculture pond drainage system
The purpose of the overwintering greenhouse cultivation is to improve the cultivation water temperature and provide healthy and rapid growth conditions for the prawns, and the cultivation drainage quantity should be as small as possible, so that the cultivation pond needs to be matched with a pond efficient collection and drainage system, and an efficient central drainage (sewage) hole is constructed, so that better collection and drainage are facilitated, the pollution of cultivation metabolites to the water environment is reduced, and the healthy and rapid growth of the prawns is ensured.
The aquaculture pond drainage system consists of a central drainage port, a drainage pipe, a water collecting well and a drainage ditch, wherein the central drainage port is positioned in the center of the aquaculture pond, and a shrimp escape preventing device (such as a screen) is covered above the central drainage port; the central water outlet is communicated to the water collecting well through a water discharging pipe (the water discharging pipe can adopt a PVC pipe); the water collecting well is communicated with the drainage ditch.
The central drain opening may be square or circular, preferably having a side length of 1m or a diameter of a circle. The periphery of the central water outlet is generally in a pan bottom shape, so that sewage collection and drainage are facilitated.
The water collecting well is a connecting structure between the water discharging pipes and the water discharging ditches, every two or four aquaculture ponds share one water collecting well, and the water discharging pipes of each aquaculture pond are provided with control water gate valves or inserted vertical PVC water discharging control pipes at the water collecting wells.
Drainage gutters are terminal drainage structures leading from a sump well to the sea, usually buried at the lowest end of the drainage well. Gutters are typically constructed from PVC pipe or cement culvert pipe. The depth, gradient and pipe diameter of the bottom of the drainage ditch are determined according to the area of the aquaculture pond.
(3) Oxygen increasing facility
The oxygen increasing facility is used for supplementing external fresh air to the inside of the light-transmitting greenhouse. Because the light-transmitting greenhouse is a nearly closed space, external fresh air needs to be supplemented, and oxygen increasing facilities need to be equipped. Usually, besides the conventional oxygen increasing facilities such as an oxygen increasing machine, a Roots blower inflation system is added during the cultivation.
The light-transmitting greenhouse is used for overwintering cultivation, the cultivation water temperature can be improved, the healthy and quick growth conditions of the prawns are provided, and the cultivation drainage amount is reduced as much as possible, so that the cultivation pond is matched with the cultivation pond drainage system, better pollution collection and discharge are facilitated, the pollution of cultivation metabolites to the water environment is reduced, and the healthy and quick growth of the prawns is ensured.
The method can realize 2 times of overwintering for culturing the litopenaeus vannamei, the first time is usually harvested at the peak of the sale demand before the spring festival, the second time is harvested in 5 months (20-30 days earlier than the common pond without winter shed culture), the prawn price is higher than that in summer due to the realization of out-of-season sale in the harvesting period, the economic benefit is good, and in another view, the out-of-season harvesting supply of the prawns meets the demand of 'vegetable baskets' of citizens.
According to the method, 2 breeding periods are reasonably arranged, seedlings are scientifically released, harvesting is reasonably carried out, the water temperature of the breeding pond is controlled within a proper range by using the light-transmitting greenhouse, 2 breeding litopenaeus vannamei is bred in an overwintering mode, namely 1 litopenaeus vannamei is bred in 1 winter year (for example, 9 months to 5 months in the next year), 1 breeding winter production is increased compared with the common 1 breeding overwintering breeding mode, the method is favorable for improving the breeding yield of the litopenaeus vannamei, improving the economic benefit, better meeting the market demand, ensuring the healthy and sustainable development of the breeding industry, and having better economic and practical significance. The invention is suitable for constructing a warm shed for overwintering culture of the litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing the culture pond in subtropical regions in south China.
Detailed Description
The vannamei prawn farm used in the embodiment is located in the Shantou city of the coastal subtropical area in south China, the vannamei prawn farm has 8 breeding ponds, each breeding pond is 4.0 mu, and the total breeding area is 32 mu.
The method for breeding litopenaeus vannamei for 2 generations through winter in the greenhouse comprises the following steps:
(1) first making cultivation
(1-1) building a greenhouse framework (namely three parts of a foundation, a support and a steel wire mesh, but not paving a light-transmitting agricultural film temporarily) on the 8-mouth aquaculture pond at the beginning of 9 months;
and (3) introducing seawater into each culture pond for 9 months and 15 days, and completely stocking the litopenaeus vannamei fries (namely the first shrimp-making fries), wherein the size of the fries is 1.0cm, 10 thousands of fries are stocked per mu, and 320 thousands of fries are stocked in total. The water temperature is 28-32 ℃ in this season, which is suitable for the rapid growth of shrimp larvae;
(1-2) 10 months and 15 days, after a culture period of 30 days, when the water temperature of the sea area (namely the inlet water temperature of the culture pond) is reduced to 25 ℃, paving a light-transmitting agricultural film (PVC light-transmitting agricultural film) on the built greenhouse framework to form a light-transmitting greenhouse covering the culture pond, and maintaining and increasing the water temperature of pond water by utilizing the greenhouse effect, wherein the water temperature of the pond water is maintained at 25-30 ℃;
(1-3) culturing for the first time till 25 days of 12 months, and in the culture period of 100 days (the specification of the litopenaeus vannamei can reach 90-100 tails/kg), harvesting the litopenaeus vannamei in 2 culture ponds (accounting for 25 percent of the total culture area), and taking the 2 culture ponds as a second shrimp seedling-making intensive temporary culture coarse pond; the litopenaeus vannamei in other 6 breeding ponds (accounting for 75 percent of the total breeding area) is continuously bred until 15-20 days in the next 1 month, and the litopenaeus vannamei is harvested (the specification of the litopenaeus vannamei is 60-80 tails/kg);
cleaning and disinfecting a second shrimp-making seedling intensive temporary culture coarse pond of 2 mouths in the next 1 month and 5 days, introducing seawater (the temperature of the open seawater is 16 ℃) to the water depth of 50cm, and introducing upper pond water (the temperature of the water is 25 ℃) from an unharvested culture pond to the water depth of the second shrimp-making seedling intensive temporary culture coarse pond of 120 cm; and (5) adjusting the water temperature to 23-24 ℃ for 10 days after 1 month, and preparing to put a second shrimp breeding seedling.
(2) Second generation breeding
(2-1) temporarily culturing the coarse second shrimp seeds in a coarse standard pond (namely a 2-mouth culture pond for harvesting the litopenaeus vannamei first) by using the 2-mouth second shrimp seeds in the step (1-3) in an intensive temporary culture manner on 10 days in 1 month next year; the 2 breeding ponds are used for breeding the shrimp seedlings in 8 mu area, 60 ten thousand seedlings are bred in each mu area, and 480 ten thousand seedlings are bred in total, so that intensive temporary breeding of the shrimp seedlings is carried out;
after other 6 culture ponds are cultured for 1 month and 15-20 days and harvested, the ponds are cleaned, repaired and prepared, and an oxygen charging system is arranged; starting to enter seawater to a depth of 100cm in 2 months and 1 day, carrying out water disinfection and culturing water quality, and increasing the temperature of pool water by utilizing the greenhouse effect of a light-transmitting greenhouse; 2, 15 days after the month, raising the water temperature of the 6 culture ponds to 24 ℃, fishing the juvenile shrimps temporarily cultured in the 2 second shrimp-making seedlings intensive temporary culture standard coarse pond to pass through a pond (namely, separately culturing the juvenile shrimps temporarily cultured in the 2 second shrimp-making seedlings intensive temporary culture standard coarse pond to other 6 culture ponds; fishing the juvenile shrimps to pass through the pond by adopting a special shrimp trawl with a dense net mesh), moving 8 ten thousand of juvenile shrimps into each mu of culture pond, and when the juvenile shrimps are separately cultured, ensuring that the juvenile shrimps have the standard body length of 4-6 cm and the weight of 2500 tails/kg;
(2-2) harvesting half of the litopenaeus vannamei (the specification of the litopenaeus vannamei is 85-90 tails/kg) in the pond when the second breeding is carried out for 5 months and 5 days, reducing the breeding density, breeding the rest litopenaeus vannamei for 5 months and 25 days (the specification of the litopenaeus vannamei can reach 70-65 tails/kg), and completely harvesting for 5 months and 30 days.
The temperature of the culture pond is controlled between 22 and 32 ℃ during the first culture and the second culture (preferably between 25 and 30 ℃). In the invention, the water temperature of the culture pond is regulated and controlled at each stage of the culture period according to the following modes:
in the invention, the water temperature of the culture pond is regulated and controlled at each stage of the culture period according to the following modes:
a) in the early stage of first breeding (9 months), the first breeding seedlings are arranged by using the advantage of high-temperature weather in the subtropical regions of the coast in south of China in 9 months; at the moment, the water temperature of the sea area is generally 28-32 ℃, seawater is introduced into the culture pond, the water temperature is enough to meet the requirement of shrimp fry growth, and a light-transmitting greenhouse does not need to be covered with a light-transmitting agricultural film;
b) from the later stage of the first breeding to the middle stage of the second breeding (11 months to 3 months in the next year), the weather is cold, the water temperature is low, and the transparent greenhouse is made to be airtight as much as possible so as to avoid the influence on the growth of the prawns caused by the too fast drop of the water temperature. If water needs to be fed, the method is generally carried out in a time period (such as 10: 00-16: 00) when the temperature is higher;
c) in the middle stage of the first breeding (10 months) and the late stage of the second breeding (4-5 months in the next year), the temperature change is large in the two stages, and the timing of covering and lifting the light-transmitting agricultural film is mastered according to specific weather conditions, namely: when the temperature is higher in the daytime during film covering, the light-transmitting agricultural film around the aquaculture pond is opened when the water temperature of the aquaculture pond exceeds 32 ℃ so as to prevent the temperature from rising too fast; when the temperature drops in the evening, the opened light-transmitting agricultural film is covered to prevent the temperature from dropping too fast.
The embodiment also adopts the following culture technical measures:
(a) water inlet and water treatment: when water needs to be fed, introducing seawater into the culture pond, wherein the primary water inlet level is 1.0-1.5 m; water disinfection is performed at night after water is admitted, and then the water is fertilized and beneficial microbial agents are applied.
When water enters, the seawater at the time of heavy tide is pumped as much as possible so as to ensure better water quality. A halogen disinfectant (such as strong chlorine 2-3ppm) is used for water disinfection. The fertilizing amount is determined according to the water quality condition. By properly applying the beneficial microbial preparation, the probiotics form dominant flora in the water body, and good water quality and water color are formed.
(b) Selecting and putting seedlings: the shrimp larvae are qualified by detection and have no specific pathogen, and the shrimp larvae are required to be good in activity, neat in individuals, free of attachments on body surfaces and free of jejunum and jejunum; the seedling setting specification is that the length of the shrimp seedlings is preferably 0.8-1.2 cm; the water temperature is 22-32 deg.C when placing seedling, and the optimum water temperature is 25-30 deg.C.
(c) Water quality regulation and control: the water quality is regulated and controlled by fertilizing, applying beneficial microbial agents and changing water. The early stage water inlet needs to be pretreated by precipitation, filtration, disinfection and the like.
Measuring the water temperature (T) dailyW) Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Ammonia Nitrogen (NH)4 +-N), Nitrite (NO)2 -) Water quality indexes such as transparency, pond water salinity and the like. The variety and the quantity change of plankton in the aquaculture pond are often detected. The growth conditions (including body weight, body length, etc.) of the prawns are measured every 7-10 days. According to the measuring condition, the water quality is regulated and controlled to ensure that the water temperature (T)W) Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Ammonia Nitrogen (NH)4 +-N), Nitrite (NO)2 -) The water quality index is in the appropriate value range shown in Table 1, and is preferably adjusted to be in the optimum value range shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 Water quality index
Figure BDA0001050419070000101
Figure BDA0001050419070000111
(d) Water changing: the water is not drained and changed within a half month after the seedlings are put, the water is drained through a drainage system of the aquaculture pond after the half month, and the water changing amount is gradually increased along with the growth of the shrimp bodies so as to keep a good substrate environment. The bottom of the culture pond, particularly a central water outlet, is inspected and cleaned by frequently sucking dirt or diving. If water needs to be fed, sunny and sunny water is selected and the water is changed in a time period (such as 10: 00-16: 00) with higher temperature, more water can be properly changed when the water temperature is higher, and water is changed as little as possible when the water temperature is lower on the premise that the water quality index is normal.
(e) Bait casting management: the bait adopts artificial mixed bait which meets the relevant regulation requirements of GB13078 and NY5072 and requires that the protein content is not lower than 38%; the daily feeding rate of the artificial bait is 3-10% of the weight of the litopenaeus vannamei. Feeding for 4-6 times a day in the initial breeding period after seedling placement, and adjusting the feeding time to 3-4 times a day later along with the growth of the shrimp body. The bait is evenly fed along the whole circumference of the pool.
The aquaculture pond is matched with the following facilities:
(1) light-transmitting greenhouse
The light-transmitting greenhouse is one greenhouse for each pool to prevent cross infection of diseases. The light-transmitting greenhouse comprises a greenhouse framework and a light-transmitting agricultural film (such as a PVC light-transmitting agricultural film) paved on the greenhouse framework, wherein the greenhouse framework comprises a foundation, a support and a steel wire mesh. The foundation (foundation is used for pulling steel wire ropes) can adopt one of the following two structures: one is a reinforced concrete structure poured along one side of the pond close to the inner side, and the other is that small piles are inserted into the pond close to the inner side at certain intervals. The bracket consists of a fir bracket arranged in the middle of the pond and a steel wire rope drawn between the fir bracket and the foundation. After the support is built, a layer of steel wire mesh is laid on the whole support, then the light-transmitting agricultural film is covered, then a layer of gauze is covered on the light-transmitting agricultural film, and then a layer of steel wire rope is pulled to compress the light-transmitting agricultural film (two ends of each steel wire rope are generally connected with the foundation). After the film covering is finished, each light-transmitting greenhouse is provided with a door as a working access.
(2) Aquaculture pond drainage system
The aquaculture pond drainage system consists of a central drainage port, a drainage pipe, a water collecting well and a drainage ditch, wherein the central drainage port is positioned in the center of the aquaculture pond, and a shrimp escape preventing device (such as a screen) is covered above the central drainage port; the central water outlet is communicated to the water collecting well through a water discharging pipe (the water discharging pipe can adopt a PVC pipe); the water collecting well is communicated with the drainage ditch.
The central drain opening may be square or circular, with a square side length or a circular diameter of 1 m.
The water collecting well is a connecting structure between the water discharging pipes and the water discharging ditches, every two or four aquaculture ponds share one water collecting well, and the water discharging pipes of each aquaculture pond are provided with control water gate valves or inserted vertical PVC water discharging control pipes at the water collecting wells.
The drainage ditch is a terminal drainage structure leading from the water collecting well to the sea side and buried at the lowest end of the drainage well. The drainage ditch can be constructed by PVC pipes or cement culvert pipes.
(3) Oxygen increasing facility
The oxygen increasing facility is used for supplementing external fresh air to the inside of the light-transmitting greenhouse. Usually, besides the conventional oxygen increasing facilities such as an oxygen increasing machine, a Roots blower inflation system is added during the cultivation.

Claims (6)

1. A method for breeding litopenaeus vannamei for 2 generations through winter in a greenhouse is characterized by breeding litopenaeus vannamei according to the following steps:
(1) first making cultivation
(1-1) in the last ten days of 9 months, building a greenhouse framework on each aquaculture pond; introducing seawater to each culture pond in the middle ten days of 9 months, and stocking the first shrimp breeding seedlings for culture;
(1-2) after 10 months, when the temperature of the sea water is reduced to 25 ℃, paving a light-transmitting agricultural film on the built greenhouse framework to form a light-transmitting greenhouse covering the culture pond, and keeping and improving the temperature of the water in the pond by utilizing the greenhouse effect;
(1-3) when the first breeding is carried out to the late 12 th month, harvesting the litopenaeus vannamei in a breeding pond accounting for 10-25% of the total breeding area, and taking the part of the breeding pond as a second shrimp seedling gathering temporary breeding coarse pond after harvesting the litopenaeus vannamei; the rest of the litopenaeus vannamei in the aquaculture pond accounting for 75-90% of the total aquaculture area is continuously cultured until harvesting in the first 1 month and the middle ten days of the next year;
cleaning and disinfecting a second shrimp-making seedling intensive temporary culture coarse pond in the 1 st ten days of the next year, introducing seawater to the water depth of 50-60 cm, introducing upper pond water from an unharvested culture pond to the water depth of 100-120 cm of the second shrimp-making seedling intensive temporary culture coarse pond, adjusting the water temperature to 23-24 ℃, and preparing to put the second shrimp-making seedling;
(2) second generation breeding
(2-1) temporarily breeding the coarse second shrimp seeds in the coarse standard pond in a temporary manner in the first month and the middle ten days of the next year by using the second shrimp seeds in the step (1-3) to gather, and separately breeding the young shrimps in the rest breeding ponds which account for 75-90% of the total breeding area after breeding for 30-45 days;
(2-2) second breeding till 5 months of harvest;
the method for overwintering cultivation of 2-time litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing the greenhouse also adopts the following cultivation technical measures:
(a) water inlet and water treatment: when water needs to be fed, introducing seawater into the culture pond, wherein the primary water inlet level is 1.0-1.5 m; disinfecting water at night after water is fed in, then fertilizing the water and applying beneficial microbial agents;
(b) selecting and putting seedlings: the shrimp larvae are qualified by detection and have no specific pathogen, and the shrimp larvae are required to be good in activity, neat in individuals, free of attachments on body surfaces and free of jejunum and jejunum; the standard of the released shrimp larvae is that the body length of the shrimp larvae is 0.8-1.2 cm; the water temperature is 22-32 ℃ when the seedlings are put;
(c) water quality regulation and control: regulating and controlling the water quality by fertilizing, applying beneficial microbial agents and changing water;
the five water quality indexes of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH value, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are measured every day, and the water quality is regulated according to the measurement condition, so that the five water quality indexes of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH value, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are in the following ranges: the water temperature is 22-32 ℃, the dissolved oxygen is more than or equal to 4mg/l, the pH value is 7.0-9.0, the ammonia nitrogen is less than or equal to 0.2mg/l, and the nitrite is less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l;
(d) water changing: water is not drained and changed within a half month after the seedlings are put, water is drained through a drainage system of the aquaculture pond after the half month, and the water changing amount is gradually increased along with the growth of the shrimp bodies;
(e) bait casting management: the bait adopts artificial mixed bait which meets the relevant regulation requirements of GB13078 and NY5072 and requires that the protein content is not lower than 38%; the daily feeding rate of the artificial bait is 3-10% of the weight of the shrimps;
(f) harvesting: when the litopenaeus vannamei is harvested for the first time, harvesting the litopenaeus vannamei in each aquaculture pond once; the second harvest adopts a secondary harvest technology, namely, part of the litopenaeus vannamei with the specification of 100-80 tails/kg in the culture pond is harvested at the beginning of 5 months, the culture density is reduced, and the rest litopenaeus vannamei is harvested after being continuously cultured for 20 days.
2. The method for overwintering and culturing 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by using the greenhouse as claimed in claim 1, which is characterized in that: in the first and second breeding processes, the temperature of the culture pond is controlled between 22-32 ℃.
3. The method for overwintering and culturing 2-made litopenaeus vannamei by using the greenhouse as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that: in the first and second breeding processes, the temperature of the culture pond is controlled between 25-30 ℃.
4. The method for overwintering and culturing 2-time litopenaeus vannamei by using the greenhouse as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, which is characterized in that: the light-transmitting greenhouse comprises a greenhouse framework and a light-transmitting agricultural film paved on the greenhouse framework, wherein the greenhouse framework comprises a foundation, a support and a steel wire mesh; the bracket consists of a fir bracket arranged in the middle of the pond and a steel wire rope drawn between the fir bracket and the foundation; after the support is built, firstly laying a layer of steel wire mesh on the whole support, then covering a light-transmitting agricultural film, then covering a layer of gauze on the light-transmitting agricultural film, and then pulling a layer of steel wire rope for compaction; after the film covering is finished, each light-transmitting greenhouse is provided with a door as a working access.
5. The method for overwintering and culturing 2-time litopenaeus vannamei by using the greenhouse as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, which is characterized in that: the aquaculture pond is matched with an aquaculture pond drainage system; the aquaculture pond drainage system consists of a central drainage port, a drainage pipe, a water collecting well and a drainage ditch, wherein the central drainage port is positioned in the center of the aquaculture pond, and a shrimp escape preventing device is covered above the central drainage port; the central water outlet is communicated to the water collecting well through a water discharge pipe; the water collecting well is communicated with the drainage ditch.
6. The method for overwintering and culturing 2-time litopenaeus vannamei by using the greenhouse as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, which is characterized in that: the aquaculture pond is provided with an oxygenation facility, and the oxygenation facility is used for supplementing external fresh air to the inside of the light-transmitting greenhouse.
CN201610566661.XA 2016-07-15 2016-07-15 Method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing greenhouse Expired - Fee Related CN106212328B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201610566661.XA CN106212328B (en) 2016-07-15 2016-07-15 Method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing greenhouse

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201610566661.XA CN106212328B (en) 2016-07-15 2016-07-15 Method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing greenhouse

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN106212328A CN106212328A (en) 2016-12-14
CN106212328B true CN106212328B (en) 2020-04-07

Family

ID=57530899

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201610566661.XA Expired - Fee Related CN106212328B (en) 2016-07-15 2016-07-15 Method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing greenhouse

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN106212328B (en)

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107047406A (en) * 2017-03-16 2017-08-18 广西精工海洋科技有限公司 A kind of sea-farming method of Penaeus monodon
CN107821262A (en) * 2017-11-20 2018-03-23 合肥康青源养殖有限公司 Cray winter cultural method
CN112369352B (en) * 2020-11-18 2022-08-23 福建省淡水水产研究所 Pond out-of-season alternate breeding method for micropterus salmoides and litopenaeus vannamei
CN112586429B (en) * 2020-12-16 2022-12-09 营口市农业农村综合发展服务中心 Closed high-efficient two crops of litopenaeus vannamei zero release are bred and are warmed up canopy
CN115281144A (en) * 2022-08-18 2022-11-04 广西壮族自治区水产技术推广站 Land-based round pond multi-level macrobrachium rosenbergii breeding system and method

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101720709A (en) * 2010-01-08 2010-06-09 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 Culture method of penaeid shrimps in over-winter shed and culture pond thereof
CN104430095A (en) * 2014-12-11 2015-03-25 罗源县长盛水产发展有限公司 Fresh water farming method of penaeus vannamei boone
CN105360029A (en) * 2015-11-17 2016-03-02 深圳市澳华农牧有限公司 Continuous culturing method for two-year-five-crop prawns

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR101355382B1 (en) * 2010-12-24 2014-02-20 조정선 Shrimps Farm and Construction Method thereof

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101720709A (en) * 2010-01-08 2010-06-09 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 Culture method of penaeid shrimps in over-winter shed and culture pond thereof
CN104430095A (en) * 2014-12-11 2015-03-25 罗源县长盛水产发展有限公司 Fresh water farming method of penaeus vannamei boone
CN105360029A (en) * 2015-11-17 2016-03-02 深圳市澳华农牧有限公司 Continuous culturing method for two-year-five-crop prawns

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
凡纳滨对虾高位池越冬暖棚建造及养殖关键技术;文国樑 等;《广东农业科学》;20100630(第12期);第143-145、152页 *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN106212328A (en) 2016-12-14

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN106212328B (en) Method for overwintering cultivation of 2-generation litopenaeus vannamei by utilizing greenhouse
CN108967085B (en) Rice field-south america white shrimp dystopy ecological breeding system
CN104206329A (en) Method for breeding procambarus clarkii spring seedlings in pond
CN101331860A (en) Method and device for culturing rice field eel
CN104026045B (en) Highland and severe cold cold water cray method for large scale cultivation
CN113647349B (en) Rice and shrimp comprehensive planting and breeding method based on trenchless paddy field transformation
CN105918200B (en) Crab and rice symbiotic breeding pond and comprehensive temperature adjusting method thereof
CN103583428A (en) Method for cultivating loach larvae by arranging net cages in pond
CN106942105B (en) Method for artificially breeding seedlings of crassostrea hongkongensis by utilizing northern high-temperature period
CN112042570A (en) Method for efficiently cultivating and domesticating micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in pond greenhouse
CN106417114B (en) River snail, black carp Collocation cultivation improve the ecological environmental-protection cultivation method of black carp yield
CN111887111A (en) Method and system for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red swamp crayfish
CN106922584A (en) A kind of method of raising crabs in paddy field
CN103563861A (en) Perinereis aibuhitensis totally-artificial breeding technology
CN101773029A (en) Method for three-dimensionally planting and breeding loofahs, water cresses and crabs
CN114885875A (en) Rice field double-shrimp alternate-culture comprehensive planting and breeding method
CN108323462B (en) Cultivation method of low-salt-resistant Arca inflata Reeve seedlings
CN102860273A (en) Crossbreeding method of mud crab
CN210094213U (en) Rice, fishing and shrimp circulating planting and breeding system
CN104823650A (en) Water-breeding planting method of water celeries with green and yellow buds
CN104145868B (en) A kind of method improving pond loach fry survival rate
CN112931331B (en) Rotation culture method for northern greenhouse prawns
CN107466622A (en) A kind of cultural method of lotus embryo
CN112673998A (en) Cyclic cultivation method for stichopus japonicus and urechis unicinctus
CN112167122A (en) Crab culture pond and crab culture method

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
PB01 Publication
C10 Entry into substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20200407

CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee