CN106472228B - Planting method of selenium-rich camellia oleifera - Google Patents

Planting method of selenium-rich camellia oleifera Download PDF

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CN106472228B
CN106472228B CN201610899095.4A CN201610899095A CN106472228B CN 106472228 B CN106472228 B CN 106472228B CN 201610899095 A CN201610899095 A CN 201610899095A CN 106472228 B CN106472228 B CN 106472228B
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parts
selenium
rich
weight
camellia oleifera
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CN201610899095.4A
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CN106472228A (en
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刘勇
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湖北鑫尔绿色食品有限公司
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B15/00Organic phosphatic fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05CNITROGENOUS FERTILISERS
    • C05C11/00Other nitrogenous fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/60Biocides or preservatives, e.g. disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides; Pest repellants or attractants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners
    • Y02E50/343
    • Y02W30/43
    • Y02W30/47

Abstract

The invention discloses a planting method of selenium-rich camellia oleifera, which comprises the following steps: land improvement: selecting sandy land with the gradient within 25 degrees as soil to be ploughed uniformly, and then applying a land modifier according to 50-80 kg/mu for naturally keeping for 2-3 d; and applying the soil conditioner again according to 30-60 kg/mu, uniformly ploughing, naturally keeping for 10-20 days, applying 1500-2200 kg/mu of selenium-rich farmyard manure, and raking the fine soil to obtain the improved soil. The camellia oleifera planted by the method has the advantages that the planting field can be improved, the camellia oleifera is suitable for the acid soil condition for growth of the camellia oleifera, meanwhile, selenium-rich fertilizer is applied to the soil to improve the soil nutrient structure of the planting field, the camellia oleifera grows rapidly, the nutrient components are comprehensive, and the camellia oleifera contains selenium elements required by a human body.

Description

Planting method of selenium-rich camellia oleifera

Technical Field

The invention relates to the technical field of woody oil plant planting, in particular to a method for planting selenium-rich camellia oleifera.

Background

The selenium-rich oil is a high-tech product produced by a scientific method and technology, achieves the purpose of enriching selenium by naturally adding selenium supplement elements in the production process, and is real pure natural green edible oil. In recent years, with the improvement of the living standard of people, the selenium-rich tea oil is more and more favored by people and is in short supply in the market, so that the development of the selenium-rich tea oil has important significance on human health. However, the camellia oleifera is suitable for growing in acid soil with pH of 5-6.5, and the basic iron selenite which is difficult to dissolve in selenium in the acid soil ring is fixed and is not easy to be absorbed and utilized by plant roots. And at present, selenium-rich areas in China are very few, so that the selenium content of the camellia oleifera planted by using a common planting method is very low, and the production of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera in China is limited and developed.

The patent application number 201210316373.0 discloses a selenium-rich planting method for camellia oleifera trees, which comprises forest land selection, scientific land preparation, reasonable density, scientific planting, reinforced cultivation, selenium fertilizer implementation, scientific fertilization, pest control and fruit harvesting; the invention can make the camellia oleifera tree plant the camellia oleifera tree containing selenium in the selenium-deficient zone, but the selenium content is not high, and the invention is not suitable for the planting of neutral or alkaline selenium-rich camellia oleifera trees.

Disclosure of Invention

The invention aims to provide a selenium-rich camellia oleifera planting method, which can adapt to the acidic soil condition for growth of the camellia oleifera through improvement of a planting field, and can improve the soil nutrient structure of the planting field by applying selenium-rich fertilizer to the soil, so that the camellia oleifera can grow rapidly, and the selenium-rich camellia oleifera planting method has the advantages of comprehensive nutrient components and containing selenium elements required by a human body.

To achieve these objects and other advantages in accordance with the present invention, there is provided a method for planting selenium-enriched camellia oleifera comprising:

land improvement: selecting sandy land with the gradient within 25 degrees as soil to be ploughed uniformly, and then applying a land modifier according to 50-80 kg/mu for naturally keeping for 2-3 d; applying the soil conditioner again according to the proportion of 30-60 kg/mu, uniformly ploughing, naturally keeping for 10-20 days, applying 1500-2200 kg/mu of selenium-rich farmyard manure, and raking the fine soil to obtain improved soil;

the land improver is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 5-10 parts of gypsum, 5-10 parts of brown soil, 2-5 parts of phosphogypsum, 10-20 parts of ferrous sulfate, 20-30 parts of sulfur powder, 10-20 parts of weathered coal, 20-40 parts of water, 5-10 parts of zinc sulfate, 0.5-1 part of chitin, 0.2-0.5 part of carboxymethyl chitosan, 0.01-0.03 part of heparin, 0.02-0.05 part of sodium alginate, 0.05-0.1 part of chitosan, 0.01-0.05 part of sulfate, 0.01-0.03 part of phosphate and 1-2 parts of acetic acid;

the preparation method of the selenium-rich farmyard manure comprises the following steps:

step A: firstly, 3-5 parts by weight of tripterygium wilfordii and 2-3 parts by weight of phoenix tree leaf are crushed to 50-100 meshes, then, 40-60 parts by weight of ethanol with the mass concentration of 80-90%, 70-80% and 50-60% in sequence are heated and refluxed at 40-70 ℃ for 6-10 hours, the final residues are collected to obtain first residues, and the extracting solutions obtained by each refluxing are combined to obtain a first extracting solution;

and B: mixing 10-20 parts of soybean meal, 10-20 parts of selenium-rich corn straw powder and 5-10 parts of watermelon vine powder, crushing the mixture to 50-100 meshes, adding first residues and 300-500 parts of water, stirring the mixture for 10-20 hours, adding 2-4 parts of EM (effective microorganisms), 1-3 parts of cellulase producing bacteria and 2-4 parts of protease producing bacteria by weight, placing the mixture in an environment with the temperature of 25-35 ℃ and the relative humidity of 60-80%, and standing the mixture for 10-20 days to form a first mixed material;

and C: uniformly mixing 60-80 parts by weight of biogas slurry, 30-50 parts by weight of syrup, 3-5 parts by weight of pig blood, 2-5 parts by weight of selenium ore, 10-15 parts by weight of selenium-rich amino acid, 2-5 parts by weight of selenium yeast and 1-2 parts by weight of selenocarrageenan, and hermetically standing for 4-7 days at the temperature of 20-30 ℃ and the relative humidity of 70-80% to obtain a second mixed material;

step D: mixing the first mixed material, the second mixed material and the first extracting solution, adding 5-10 parts by weight of organic acid and 10-20 parts by weight of composite bacteria, performing anaerobic fermentation for 10-20 days at the temperature of 25-32 ℃ and the relative humidity of 70-80%, and inactivating to obtain the selenium-rich farmyard manure; the composite bacteria comprise trichoderma viride, rhizopus japonicus and aspergillus niger in a mass ratio of 1: 0.5-1: 1-1.5.

Preferably, the planting method of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera further comprises the following steps:

selecting oil tea seedlings: selecting nursery stocks with the trunk diameter of 2.5-6.5 cm; digging out the seedlings with roots, cutting off 1/3-2/5 fibrous roots, and cutting off 1/4-1/3 lengths of main roots to obtain camellia oleifera seedlings for later use;

planting: excavating planting holes with the depth of 20-45 cm and the diameter of 15-35 cm in the improved land according to the specification of the plant spacing of 3m and the row spacing of 3m, and planting camellia oleifera seedlings;

and (3) water and fertilizer management: after field planting, watering once when the water content in the root soil of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera is lower than 15-20%; applying a mixture containing 10-20 parts by weight of compound fertilizer, 10-15 parts by weight of selenium-rich nutrient solution and 30-50 parts by weight of clear water to the roots of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera at a ratio of 1-2 kg/plant every 20-30 days; after the selenium-rich camellia oleifera blooms and fruits, diluting the selenium-rich nutrient solution by 20-30 times with clear water, and spraying the diluted solution on the leaf surfaces of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera at a ratio of 0.4-0.7 kg/plant; diluting the selenium-rich nutrient solution by 60-100 times with clear water in the fruit mature period, spraying the diluted selenium-rich nutrient solution on the leaf surfaces of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera trees according to the proportion of 0.2-0.5 kg per plant, and stopping application 15-25 days before the fruits are mature; the selenium-rich nutrient solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 20-40 parts of water, 1-2 parts of acetic acid, 10-20 parts of ferrous sulfate, 0.01-0.02 part of sodium citrate, 0.5-2 parts of vitamin, 0.5-1 part of ammonium selenite, 0.1-0.5 part of selenomethionine, 1-2 parts of sodium selenate, 0.1-0.3 part of malic acid and 0.5-2 parts of chitin.

Preferably, the planting method of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera includes the following steps after selecting the camellia oleifera seedlings and before planting:

root-forcing of oil-tea camellia seedlings: placing the camellia oleifera seedlings in an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate with the mass fraction of 20-30% to soak for 20-40 min, washing with water, then placing the camellia oleifera seedlings in a root promoting solution to soak for 5-10 h, taking out the camellia oleifera seedlings, and draining for later use; the root-promoting liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 5-10 parts of indoleacetic acid, 2-5 parts of bigille, 1-3 parts of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate and 40-80 parts of water.

Preferably, in the planting method of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera, the selenium ore is selenium ore containing selenium and one or more of zinc, molybdenum, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, copper, chromium and silicon, wherein the selenium content is not less than 200 mug/kg.

Preferably, the selenium-rich amino acid comprises selenomethionine, selenocysteine and gamma-glutamyl selenomethylselenocysteine in a mass ratio of 1: 0.8-1.2: 1.5-2: 0.1-0.5.

Preferably, in the planting method of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera, the organic acid is composed of tartaric acid, salicylic acid and succinic acid in a mass ratio of 1: 0.8-1.2: 0.1-0.5.

Preferably, the selenium-rich camellia oleifera planting method comprises the steps that the biogas slurry contains Aplothora porosa, Aplothora glabrata, Aureospora koshii, Gliocladium moseri and Gliocladium macrocarpum, and the spore densities of the Aplothora porosa, the Aureospora glabrata, the Gliocladium coxsackiensis, the Gliocladium moseri and the Gliocladium macrocarpum are 200-300/ml, 100-150/ml, 80-100/ml, 120-150/ml and 100-130/ml respectively.

The invention at least comprises the following beneficial effects:

1. according to the invention, the land modifier is applied to the land to be treated, and the gypsum, the phosphogypsum, the ferrous sulfate, the sulfur powder, the weathered coal and the acetic acid in the land modifier can improve the acidity and alkalinity of the soil, so that the soil is maintained in an acidic environment, and the growth of the camellia oleifera is facilitated; chitin, carboxymethyl chitosan and chitosan in the land improver have the effects of promoting the rooting and root-nourishing of the camellia oleifera, promoting the division of root system cells, rapidly increasing capillary roots, and promoting the development and rapid growth of root systems; the beneficial floras such as a large number of actinomycetes and the like can be cultured after the chitin, the carboxymethyl chitosan and the chitosan enter the soil, the beneficial floras improve the soil and secrete a large number of antibiotic substances, resistant enzyme chitinase and the like, the nematode and the egg body wall of the nematode can be directly dissolved, the growth and the propagation of harmful floras are inhibited, various diseases can be resisted for a long time, and the growth of the camellia oleifera is facilitated; chitin, sodium alginate, heparin, sulfate and phosphate can generate chitin derivatives under the acidic condition of improving soil, and the chitin derivatives have synergistic effect to promote the rapid growth of the camellia oleifera.

2. The selenium-rich farmyard manure contains tripterygium wilfordii and phoenix tree leaves, active ingredients of the selenium-rich farmyard manure are extracted by using ethanol, and then the selenium-rich farmyard manure is fermented and applied to soil to kill insects and sterilize, so that the growth of oil-tea trees is facilitated; decomposing and degrading soybean meal, selenium-rich corn straw powder and watermelon vine powder into small molecules by using cellulase-producing bacteria and protease-producing bacteria, so that the small molecules are beneficial to later fermentation and are more beneficial to absorption of camellia oleifera trees after entering soil; mixing biogas slurry, syrup, pig blood, selenium ore, selenium-rich amino acid, selenium yeast and selenocarrageenan, adding ore powder rich in selenium and various trace elements into probiotic groups in the biogas slurry, and degrading, absorbing and digesting micro-macro elements such as selenium existing in an inorganic state under the rapid propagation of a large amount of beneficial microbial groups to enable the probiotic groups to become organic binding state selenium and the like in life physiological activities; then adding the compound bacteria, providing a proper temperature condition to allow the compound bacteria to be rapidly propagated, converting residual inorganic-state trace elements and the like again, and greatly improving the bioavailability of inorganic-state micro-macro elements such as selenium and the like, thereby overcoming the restriction of organic fixation of selenium element in acid soil and being beneficial to the full absorption of selenium by the camellia oleifera.

3. The selenium-rich nutrient solution contains acetic acid and malic acid, so that the selenium-rich nutrient solution can keep acidity, ferrous sulfate can promote chlorophyll formation, and chitin can promote plant rooting and cell growth.

Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned from practice of the invention.

Detailed Description

The present invention is further described in detail below with reference to examples so that those skilled in the art can practice the invention with reference to the description.

Example 1

A planting method of selenium-rich camellia oleifera comprises the following steps:

land improvement: selecting sandy land with gradient within 25 degrees as soil to be ploughed uniformly, applying a land modifier according to 50 kg/mu, and naturally keeping for 2 d; applying the land improving agent according to 30 kg/mu again, uniformly ploughing, naturally keeping for 10 days, applying 1500 kg/mu of selenium-rich farmyard manure, and raking fine land to obtain improved land;

the land improver is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 5 parts of gypsum, 5 parts of brown soil, 2 parts of phosphogypsum, 10 parts of ferrous sulfate, 20 parts of sulfur powder, 10 parts of weathered coal, 20 parts of water, 5 parts of zinc sulfate, 0.5 part of chitin, 0.2 part of carboxymethyl chitosan, 0.01 part of heparin, 0.02 part of sodium alginate, 0.05 part of chitosan, 0.01 part of sulfate, 0.01 part of phosphate and 1 part of acetic acid; the main components of the gypsum and the phosphogypsum are calcium sulfate which can react with sodium carbonate in alkaline soil, so that the alkalinity of the alkaline soil can be reduced; the sulfur powder can reduce the alkalinity of soil, provide sulfur elements and promote the absorption of iron by the camellia oleifera; humic acid contained in the weathered coal can reduce soil acidity;

the preparation method of the selenium-rich farmyard manure comprises the following steps:

step A: firstly, 3 parts by weight of tripterygium wilfordii and 2 parts by weight of phoenix tree leaf are crushed to 50 meshes, then 40 parts by weight of ethanol with the mass concentration of 80%, 70% and 50% are used for heating and refluxing for 6 hours at 40 ℃, the final residues are collected to obtain first residues, and the first residues are combined with the extracting solution obtained by each refluxing to obtain a first extracting solution; the tripterygium wilfordii and the phoenix tree leaf are crushed and extracted by ethanol, so that the effective active ingredients are extracted, the fertilizer can play a role in the subsequent fermentation process to prepare the fertilizer, and the pests and harmful bacteria in the soil can be killed more effectively.

And B: mixing 10 parts of soybean meal, 10 parts of selenium-rich corn straw powder and 5 parts of watermelon vine powder, crushing the mixture to 50 meshes, adding first residues and 300 parts of water, stirring the mixture for 10 hours, adding 2 parts of EM (effective microorganisms) bacteria, 1 part of cellulase producing bacteria and 2 parts of protease producing bacteria by weight, placing the mixture in an environment with the temperature of 25 ℃ and the relative humidity of 60%, and standing the mixture for 10 days to form a first mixed material; the EM bacteria generate antibacterial substances, and the antibacterial substances and the actinomycetes generated by chitin culture in the soil are symbiotic, so that a good crop growth environment is formed, the soil fertilizer is improved, the soil is thoroughly improved, the propagation of harmful microorganisms is inhibited, beneficial substances are generated to prevent and control various diseases of crops, and the content of amino acid in the fermented raw materials can be improved.

And C: uniformly mixing 60 parts by weight of biogas slurry, 30 parts by weight of syrup, 3 parts by weight of pig blood, 2 parts by weight of selenium ore, 10 parts by weight of selenium-rich amino acid, 2 parts by weight of selenium yeast and 1 part by weight of selenocarrageenan, and sealing and standing for 4 days at the temperature of 20 ℃ and the relative humidity of 70% to obtain a second mixed material; the selenium-rich amino acid, selenium yeast and seleno-carrageenan are all organic selenium which is beneficial to the absorption of the camellia oleifera.

Step D: mixing the first mixed material, the second mixed material and the first extracting solution, adding 5 parts by weight of organic acid and 10 parts by weight of composite bacteria, carrying out anaerobic fermentation for 10 days at the temperature of 25 ℃ and the relative humidity of 70%, and inactivating to obtain the selenium-rich farmyard manure; the composite bacteria comprise trichoderma viride, rhizopus japonicus and aspergillus niger in a mass ratio of 1:0.5: 1. The raw materials are fermented under the action of trichoderma viride, rhizopus japonicus and aspergillus niger to generate necessary various amino acids, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, biotin, interferon and other life-beneficial active factors, so that the prepared fertilizer has the effects of improving the soil structure, enhancing the soil fertility and increasing the crop yield, and is beneficial to the absorption and utilization of the camellia oleifera.

The planting method of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera further comprises the following steps:

selecting oil tea seedlings: selecting nursery stocks with the trunk diameter of 2.5 cm; digging out the seedlings with roots, cutting off 1/3 fibrous roots, cutting off 1/3 length of main roots to obtain camellia oleifera seedlings for later use;

planting: excavating planting holes with the depth of 20cm and the diameter of 15cm in the improved land according to the specification of the plant spacing of 3m and the line spacing of 3m, and planting camellia oleifera seedlings;

and (3) water and fertilizer management: after field planting, watering once when the water content in the root soil of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera is lower than 15%; applying a mixture containing 10 parts by weight of compound fertilizer, 10 parts by weight of selenium-rich nutrient solution and 30 parts by weight of clear water to the root of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera at a ratio of 1 kg/plant every 20 days; after the selenium-rich camellia oleifera blooms and fruits, diluting the selenium-rich nutrient solution by 20 times with clear water, and spraying the diluted solution on the leaf surfaces of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera at a ratio of 0.4 kg/plant; diluting the selenium-rich nutrient solution by 60 times with clear water in the fruit mature period, spraying the diluted solution on the leaf surfaces of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera trees according to the proportion of 0.2kg per plant, and stopping application 15 days before the fruits mature; the selenium-rich nutrient solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 20 parts of water, 1 part of acetic acid, 10 parts of ferrous sulfate, 0.01 part of sodium citrate, 0.5 part of vitamin, 0.5 part of ammonium selenite, 0.1 part of selenomethionine, 1 part of sodium selenate, 0.1 part of malic acid and 0.5 part of chitin. The vitamins can be vitamin C, vitamin B, etc. for regulating the growth of Camellia oleifera.

After the selection of the camellia oleifera seedlings and before the field planting, the method further comprises the following steps:

root-forcing of oil-tea camellia seedlings: placing the oil tea seedlings in 20% potassium permanganate aqueous solution for soaking for 20min, washing, then placing the oil tea seedlings in a root promoting solution for soaking for 5h, taking out the oil tea seedlings, and draining for later use; the root-promoting liquid comprises the following components in parts by weight: 5 parts of indoleacetic acid, 2 parts of bigill, 1 part of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate and 40 parts of water. After the camellia oleifera seedlings are disinfected by potassium permanganate, the division and the extension of camellia oleifera seedling cells can be promoted by the treatment of the root promoting liquid.

The selenium ore is selenium ore containing selenium and one or more of zinc, molybdenum, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, copper, chromium and silicon, wherein the selenium content is not lower than 200 mug/kg. The selenium ore contains various metal elements essential to plants, and is beneficial to the rapid and balanced growth of the camellia oleifera.

The selenium-rich amino acid consists of selenomethionine, selenocysteine and gamma-glutamyl selenium methyl selenocysteine in a mass ratio of 1:0.8:1.5: 0.1.

The organic acid is composed of tartaric acid, salicylic acid and succinic acid in a mass ratio of 1:0.8: 0.1.

The biogas slurry contains Aphanothece lachnospora, Aureobasidium koreanum, Moses sacculus mildew and Pediobolus macrocarpus, and the spore densities of the Aphanothece lachnospora, the Aureobasidium koreanum, the Moses sacculus mildew and the Pediobolus macrocarpus are respectively 200/ml, 100/ml, 80/ml, 120/ml and 100/ml. The biogas slurry contains various probiotic groups such as Aphanothece obliquus and the like, is favorable for fully degrading various metal elements in the digested selenium ore, and is favorable for fully absorbing, generating and developing the nutrient elements by the camellia oleifera.

Example 2

A planting method of selenium-rich camellia oleifera is characterized by comprising the following steps:

land improvement: selecting sandy land with gradient within 25 degrees as soil to be ploughed uniformly, and then applying a land modifier according to 60 kg/mu for naturally keeping for 3 d; applying the land improving agent again according to 50 kg/mu, uniformly ploughing, naturally keeping for 15d, applying 1800 kg/mu of selenium-rich farmyard manure, and raking fine land to obtain improved land;

the land improver is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 8 parts of gypsum, 8 parts of brown soil, 3 parts of phosphogypsum, 15 parts of ferrous sulfate, 25 parts of sulfur powder, 15 parts of weathered coal, 30 parts of water, 8 parts of zinc sulfate, 0.8 part of chitin, 0.3 part of carboxymethyl chitosan, 0.02 part of heparin, 0.03 part of sodium alginate, 0.08 part of chitosan, 0.03 part of sulfate ester, 0.02 part of phosphate ester and 1.5 parts of acetic acid;

the preparation method of the selenium-rich farmyard manure comprises the following steps:

step A: firstly, crushing 4 parts by weight of tripterygium wilfordii and 2.5 parts by weight of phoenix tree leaves to 80 meshes, then heating and refluxing 50 parts by weight of ethanol with the mass concentration of 85%, 75% and 55% at 55 ℃ for 8 hours, collecting final residues to obtain first residues, and combining extracting solutions obtained by refluxing each time to obtain a first extracting solution;

and B: mixing 15 parts of soybean meal, 15 parts of selenium-rich corn straw powder and 8 parts of watermelon vine powder, crushing the mixture to 80 meshes, adding first residues and 400 parts of water, stirring the mixture for 15 hours, adding 3 parts of EM (effective microorganisms) bacteria, 2 parts of cellulase producing bacteria and 3 parts of protease producing bacteria by weight, placing the mixture in an environment with the temperature of 30 ℃ and the relative humidity of 70%, and standing the mixture for 15 days to form a first mixed material;

and C: uniformly mixing 70 parts by weight of biogas slurry, 40 parts by weight of syrup, 4 parts by weight of pig blood, 4 parts by weight of selenium ore, 13 parts by weight of selenium-rich amino acid, 3 parts by weight of selenium yeast and 1.5 parts by weight of selenocarrageenan, and sealing and standing for 5 days at the temperature of 25 ℃ and the relative humidity of 75% to obtain a second mixed material;

step D: mixing the first mixed material, the second mixed material and the first extracting solution, adding 8 parts by weight of organic acid and 15 parts by weight of composite bacteria, carrying out anaerobic fermentation for 15 days at the temperature of 28 ℃ and the relative humidity of 75%, and inactivating to obtain the selenium-rich farmyard manure; the composite bacteria comprise trichoderma viride, rhizopus japonicus and aspergillus niger in a mass ratio of 1:0.8: 1.2.

The planting method of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera further comprises the following steps:

selecting oil tea seedlings: selecting nursery stocks with the trunk diameter of 5 cm; digging out the seedlings with roots, cutting off 2/5 fibrous roots, cutting off 1/4 length of main roots to obtain camellia oleifera seedlings for later use;

planting: excavating planting holes with the depth of 35cm and the diameter of 20cm in the improved land according to the specification of the plant spacing of 3m and the line spacing of 3m, and planting camellia oleifera seedlings;

and (3) water and fertilizer management: after field planting, watering once when the water content in the root soil of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera is lower than 19%; applying a mixture containing 15 parts by weight of compound fertilizer, 12 parts by weight of selenium-rich nutrient solution and 40 parts by weight of clear water to the root of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera at a ratio of 1.5 kg/plant every 25 days; after the selenium-rich camellia oleifera blooms and fruits, diluting the selenium-rich nutrient solution by 25 times with clear water, and spraying the diluted solution on the leaf surfaces of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera at a ratio of 0.6 kg/plant; diluting the selenium-rich nutrient solution by 80 times with clear water in the fruit mature period, spraying the diluted selenium-rich nutrient solution on the leaf surfaces of the selenium-rich camellia oleifera trees according to the proportion of 0.4kg per plant, and stopping application 20 days before the fruits mature; the selenium-rich nutrient solution is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 30 parts of water, 1.5 parts of acetic acid, 15 parts of ferrous sulfate, 0.015 part of sodium citrate, 1.5 parts of vitamin, 0.8 part of ammonium selenite, 0.3 part of selenomethionine, 1.5 parts of sodium selenate, 0.2 part of malic acid and 1 part of chitin.

After the selection of the camellia oleifera seedlings and before the field planting, the method further comprises the following steps:

root-forcing of oil-tea camellia seedlings: placing the oil tea seedlings in 25% potassium permanganate aqueous solution for soaking for 30min, washing, then placing the oil tea seedlings in a root promoting solution for soaking for 8h, taking out the oil tea seedlings, and draining for later use; the root-promoting liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 7 parts of indoleacetic acid, 3 parts of bigill, 2 parts of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate and 60 parts of water.

The selenium ore is selenium ore containing selenium and one or more of zinc, molybdenum, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, copper, chromium and silicon, wherein the selenium content is not lower tha