CN105918168B - Exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water artificial cultivating method - Google Patents

Exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water artificial cultivating method Download PDF

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CN105918168B
CN105918168B CN201610264198.3A CN201610264198A CN105918168B CN 105918168 B CN105918168 B CN 105918168B CN 201610264198 A CN201610264198 A CN 201610264198A CN 105918168 B CN105918168 B CN 105918168B
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shrimp
water
saline
pond
alkali water
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CN105918168A (en
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李健
刘萍
李吉涛
柳飞
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

A kind of artificial cultivating method of exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water, belongs to technical field of aquaculture, when pond, natural temperature reaches 10 DEG C or more, the female shrimp of the long 5cm or more of body and male shrimp is put into saline-alkali water cultivating pool, putting quantity in a suitable place to breed is respectively 6~10g/m2, water salinity 10~30, carbonate alkalinity is in 4mmol/L or less;It is described at shrimp aquaculture management: pond water quality physical and chemical index pH value 7.5~9.6 is controlled during cultivation, dissolved oxygen is greater than 5mg/L, and salinity 3~35,25~40cm of transparency, carbonate alkalinity is in 5.5mmol/L or less.The present invention realizes the artificial breeding of saline-alkali water exopalaemon carinicauda, and cultivation survival rate can be improved by increasing the new cultivation object of saline-alkali water using artificial culture technology of the invention;The present invention is utilized for expanding saline-alkali water, is built a resource-conserving society, solves the problems, such as agriculture, rural areas and farmers, is ensured that national food security has important meaning.

Description

Exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water artificial cultivating method
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of aquaculture, and in particular to a kind of artificial cultivating method of exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water.
Background technique
Shrimp culture occupies an important position in China's aquaculture, and annual output is up to 2,300,000 tons.Breed variety is to shrimps Based on, the types such as main litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Crustin, Marsupenaeus japonicus including seawater, in addition there are light The types such as freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the Procambius clarkii of water.And Palaemon type is emerging breed variety.
Exopalaemon carinicauda (ExopalaemoncarinicaudaHolthuis, 1950) also known as white shrimp, small white shrimp and winter jasmine shrimp Deng being subordinate to Arthropoda (Arthropoda), Crustachia (Crustacea), Decapoda (Decapoda), Palaemonidae (Palaemonidae), Palaemon (Exopalaemon) is distributed mainly on the shallow sea of China's Mainland bank and Korea peninsula west bank Less salt waters, it is maximum with the Bohai Sea and Huanghai Sea yield, it is the important middle-size and small-size economic shrimps in China.Exopalaemon carinicauda meat is fine and smooth, taste Road is delicious, is a kind of high protein, low fat, the superior seafood product rich in EPA/DHA, Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces one is with per kilogram price 60-80 member. Except for fresh food, exopalaemon carinicauda also can be processed into dried shrimps, because it is in golden yellow, therefore also have the title of " golden gammarid rice ".Exopalaemon carinicauda Have many advantages, such as that growth is fast, environmental suitability is wide, premunition is strong, the breeding cycle is short, be easy raising.In recent years, exopalaemon carinicauda exists It is more than 300,000 mu that China coast, which propagates scale artificially, and the sea pond for being concentrated mainly on the provinces such as Jiangsu, Zhejiang and periphery at present is supported It grows.
China possesses more than 1,000,000,000 mu of saline alkali land resources, and it is wide to develop saline-alkali water fishery space.It is different from seawater, fresh water, by It is influenced in by geology, landforms, weather, the hydrochemical type of saline-alkali water is more complicated;Saline and alkaline Water salinity span is big, salinity From there is presence less than 1 to tens;Since the HCO of higher concentration is kept in saline and alkaline water quality mostly3 -、CO3 2-, so that in saline-alkali water PH and carbonate alkalinity it is higher, pH is generally 8.6 or more, and most saline and alkaline water quality basicity is in 3mmolL-1More than;Furthermore saline and alkaline Water also has the characteristics that oxygen content is low, water quality is thin, planktonic organism quantity is few.Have been reported beach saline land by it is appropriate from Son adjusts or water quality improvement, can cultivating tilapia, mullet, crucian, carp, Penaeus Vannmei etc., but the aquaculture organism speed of growth Slowly, survival rate is low, economic benefit is bad.All in all it is also immature with saline-alkali water to carry out aquaculture technology at this stage, especially It is a lack of the wide excellent variety of suitable environmental suitability.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is to solve technical problem is to provide a kind of exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water cultural method, China strand is solved The problem of saline-alkali water cultivation lacks adapted varieties.
The present invention is completed by following operation sequence:
A kind of artificial cultivating method of exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water, including oogenesis parent shrimp rearing, at shrimp aquaculture management and harvest, The oogenesis parent shrimp rearing: when pond, natural temperature reaches 10 DEG C or more, the female shrimp of the long 5cm or more of body and male shrimp are put into In saline-alkali water cultivating pool, putting quantity in a suitable place to breed is respectively 6~10g/m2, water salinity 10~30, carbonate alkalinity 4mmol/L with Under;It is described at shrimp aquaculture management: pond water quality physical and chemical index pH value 7.5~9.6 is controlled during cultivation, dissolved oxygen is greater than 5mg/ L, salinity 3~35,25~40cm of transparency, carbonate alkalinity is in 5.5mmol/L or less.
A kind of exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water cultural method, it includes oogenesis parent shrimp rearing, at shrimp aquaculture management and harvest.
The oogenesis parent shrimp rearing: cultivating pool needs first to be sterilized with bleaching powder, kills pathogenic microorganisms and harmful organisms; Then according to 500m3Water body applies 80 kilograms of organic fertilizer of the amount rich water fermented, makes water colour in yellow green, when pond natural temperature When reaching 10 DEG C, the long female shrimp of 5cm or more exopalaemon carinicauda of body and male shrimp are put into saline-alkali water cultivating pool, it is each to put quantity male and female in a suitable place to breed For 6~10g/m2, male and female quantitative proportion is 1:1, and the dissolved oxygen in pond water is in 5mg/L or more, salinity 10~30, carbonate bases Degree is in 4mmol/L or less;
It is described at shrimp aquaculture management: exopalaemon carinicauda parent shrimp put in a suitable place to breed after 2~4 weeks can oogenesis, then can be incubated through 2~3 weeks Zoea out;1 centimetre is grown to shrimp, the bait for starting to feed includes artemia adult, dried small shrimp or cake;1.5 lis are grown to shrimp Rice starts to feed prawn Articial bait making, and daily ration of feeding presses prawn weight 8%;
Pond water quality physical and chemical index is detected during cultivation in claimed range, pH value 7.5~9.6, dissolved oxygen is greater than 5mg/ L, salinity 3~35,25~40cm of transparency, carbonate alkalinity is in 5.5mmol/L or less.
Further, the harvest: by cultivation in 3~4 months or so, when exopalaemon carinicauda body is up to 5cm or more, i.e., It can start to be caught out with clapnet or drain water to arrest.
Further, bait is fed during the oogenesis parent shrimp rearing includes iced trash fish, mollusk and clam worm, bait throwing in doses It is the 6~8% of close shrimp weight.
The present invention compared with prior art the utility model has the advantages that
1, it currently, in the main cultivating tilapia of saline and alkaline water area, mullet, crucian, carp, Penaeus Vannmei etc., but cultivates Biological growth speed is slow, survival rate is low, and economic value is not high.The cultivation of exopalaemon carinicauda increases the new cultivation pair of saline-alkali water As, and economic benefit is better than traditional breed variety.
2, exopalaemon carinicauda is strong to resistances such as salinity, pH, carbonate alkalinity, cause of diseases to strong environmental adaptability.The present invention The artificial culture technology of use can improve cultivation survival rate.
3, the present invention changes launches the habit that seed is cultivated in pond in traditional aquaculture process, implement to put in a suitable place to breed Exopalaemon carinicauda parent shrimp makes exopalaemon carinicauda be constantly in an essentially identical growth up to forming from oogenesis, hatching, paedomorphosis Environment avoids traditional two-part (seed rearing and cultivation carry out in different water bodys respectively) aquaculture model due to intermediate water Environment transition and caused by seed stress, improve saline-alkali water exopalaemon carinicauda artificial breeding survival rate, be successfully realized saline and alkaline The artificial breeding of water exopalaemon carinicauda is utilized to saline-alkali water is expanded, and is built a resource-conserving society, is solved the problems, such as agriculture, rural areas and farmers, ensures National food security has important meaning.
Specific embodiment
Below by embodiment, the technical solution of the present invention is further explained, but protection scope of the present invention not by The limitation of embodiment in any form.
Embodiment 1
The cultivation of exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water is carried out in Qingdao Bao Rong Aqua Sciences Inc. within the present embodiment 2014, using water Mud sump aquaculture model, works well.
1, it selecting parent shrimps and temporarily supports: being selected at the beginning of 4 months 2014 from artificial breeding pond and do not carry infectiousness cause of disease, energetic Male and female exopalaemon carinicauda is as close shrimp.The close long 6cm or more of shrimp body moves into indoor storage pond, holding pond, the pond depth of water in sex ration 1:1 ratio 1.2m, the breeding density 50g/m of close shrimp2.To prevent from carrying infectiousness cause of disease, close shrimp enters the Chi Qianxu good fortune of 200mg/L concentration You have Malin soaking disinfection 0.5 hour.
Water temperature is maintained at 11 DEG C or more during brackish water;Water Quality Control Indexes are: salinity 25, ammonia-nitrogen content 0.5mg/L Hereinafter, dissolved oxygen 5mg/L or more;Water 10% is changed daily, feeds the bait such as iced trash fish, mollusk, clam worm, bait throwing in doses is parent The 6~8% of shrimp weight.
2, oogenesis parent shrimp rearing: 3 areas, 1 mu of cement pit saline-alkali water culture pond.Aquaculture pond ponding is arranged before being cultivated at the beginning of 3 months Only, envelope lock shines pond, removes sludge and sundries, the disinfection of chlorine-containing disinfectant full pool spilling head.Aquaculture pond disinfection after 7 days intake, for the first time into Water 50cm.Then according to every 500m3Water body applies 80 kilograms of organic fertilizer of the amount fertile base food organisms fermented, makes the water colour be in Yellow green.When mid-April, pond water temperature reached 15 DEG C, the female male parent shrimp of storage pond, holding pond is moved into saline-alkali water pond, breeding density 6g/ m2, the dissolved oxygen in pond water is in 5mg/L or more, and salinity 17, carbonate alkalinity is in 4mmol/L hereinafter, feeding iced trash fish, software The bait such as animal, clam worm, bait throwing in doses are the 6~8% of close shrimp weight;It is cultivated through 1 wheat harvesting period, exopalaemon carinicauda starts mating, embraces Ovum.
3, at shrimp aquaculture management: growing to 1 centimetre to young shrimp, start to feed cake and dried small shrimp as bait;1.5 are grown to shrimp Centimetre, start to feed prawn Articial bait making, daily ration of feeding presses prawn weight 8%.It is physical and chemical that pond water quality is detected during cultivation Index is in claimed range, pH value 7.5~9.6, and dissolved oxygen is greater than 5mg/L, salinity, 10~20,25~40cm of transparency, carbonic acid Saline and alkaline is in 4mmol/L hereinafter, the raising of short time basicity, little to exopalaemon carinicauda growth and Survival Effects;If basicity increases width It spends greatly, fresh water reduction need to be added.
4, it harvests: water being drained and arrests receipts when exopalaemon carinicauda body is up to 5cm or more by the cultivation of 3 wheat harvesting periods It obtains.120kg/ mus of result crop of cultivation, 7200 yuan/mu of the output value.
Embodiment 2
The present embodiment is cultivated by the prior art in Dongying city Hekou District.In mid-June, 2015 is from natural sea Capture exopalaemon carinicauda parent shrimp is put into saline-alkali water cultivating pool in area, and other cultivating conditions are same as Example 1.At molten during shrimp aquaculture It solves oxygen and is greater than 5mg/L, carbonate alkalinity is in 5.5mmol/L or less.By cultivation in 4 months, exopalaemon carinicauda crop 70kg/ Mu, 4200 yuan/mu of the output value.

Claims (2)

1. a kind of artificial cultivating method of exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water, it is characterised in that it includes oogenesis parent shrimp rearing, at shrimp aquaculture Management and harvest, the oogenesis parent shrimp rearing: when natural temperature reaches 10 DEG C or more when pond, by the female of the long 5cm or more of body Shrimp and male shrimp are put into saline-alkali water cultivating pool, and putting quantity in a suitable place to breed is respectively 6 ~ 10g/m2, male and female quantitative proportion is 1:1, water salinity 10 ~ 30, carbonate alkalinity is in 4mmol/L or less;It is described at shrimp aquaculture management: pond water quality physical and chemical index is controlled during cultivation PH value 7.5 ~ 9.6, dissolved oxygen are greater than 5mg/L, and salinity 3 ~ 35,25 ~ 40cm of transparency, carbonate alkalinity is in 5.5mmol/L or less.
2. described a kind of exopalaemon carinicauda saline-alkali water cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:
The oogenesis parent shrimp rearing: cultivating pool needs first to be sterilized with bleaching powder, kills pathogenic microorganisms and harmful organisms;Then According to 500m3Water body applies 80 kilograms of organic fertilizer of the amount rich water fermented, makes water colour in yellow green, natural temperature reaches when pond At 10 DEG C, the female shrimp of exopalaemon carinicauda of the long 5cm or more of body and male shrimp are put into saline-alkali water cultivating pool, putting quantity male and female in a suitable place to breed is respectively 6~10g/m2, male and female quantitative proportion is 1:1, and the dissolved oxygen in pond water is in 5mg/L or more, and salinity 10 ~ 30, carbonate alkalinity exists 4mmol/L or less;
It is described at shrimp aquaculture management: exopalaemon carinicauda parent shrimp put in a suitable place to breed after 2 ~ 4 weeks can oogenesis, then flea shape can be hatched through 2 ~ 3 weeks The young;1 centimetre is grown to shrimp, the bait for starting to feed includes artemia adult, dried small shrimp or cake;1.5 centimetres are grown to shrimp, is started Prawn Articial bait making is fed, daily ration of feeding presses prawn weight 8%;
Pond water quality physical and chemical index is detected during cultivation in claimed range, pH value 7.5 ~ 9.6, dissolved oxygen is greater than 5mg/L, salinity 3 ~ 35,25 ~ 40cm of transparency, carbonate alkalinity is in 5.5mmol/L or less.
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CN111264433A (en) * 2020-03-18 2020-06-12 上海海洋大学 Method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis fries by saline-alkali water culture
CN111436391A (en) * 2020-04-21 2020-07-24 宁波大学 Domestication method for enabling scylla paramamosain fries to adapt to saline-alkali soil water area culture
CN112273299A (en) * 2020-10-22 2021-01-29 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 Breeding method of saline-alkali-tolerant strain of palaemon carinicauda

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