CN100372510C - Artificial culture of shrimp parents - Google Patents

Artificial culture of shrimp parents Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100372510C
CN100372510C CNB2005100371110A CN200510037111A CN100372510C CN 100372510 C CN100372510 C CN 100372510C CN B2005100371110 A CNB2005100371110 A CN B2005100371110A CN 200510037111 A CN200510037111 A CN 200510037111A CN 100372510 C CN100372510 C CN 100372510C
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China
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shrimp
parent
days
female
pond
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CN1745725A (en
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江世贵
周发林
黄建华
马之明
叶乐
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South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences
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South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The present invention relates to the complete artificial culturing method of prawn parents, which comprises the following steps: selected prawn parents are cultured in a strengthening mode by ripener-enriched breed additive, and produced fertilized eggs are artificially cultured into seed prawns; the healthy seed prawns are cultured in a culturing pool for 90 to 120 days; male prawns with body length of at least 11.5cm and weight of at least 20g are selected, and female prawns with body length of 12.5cm and weight of at least 25 g are selected as the seed prawns which are put into the culturing pool to be cultured for 120 to 150 days; male prawns with body length of at least 13.5cm and weight of at least 35g and female prawns with body length of 17.5cm and weight of at least 80g are selected as spare prawn parents from the strong prawns with an age of 240 to 300 days and are put into a spare prawn parent culturing pool to being cultured for 60 to 120 days; prawn parents of crossed female prawns and male prawns with full spermatophores, which have healthy appearance and complete organs and have no wounds are selected from the spare prawn parents with an age of at least 300 days; prawns which do not carrying WSSV and MBV viruses are selected as complete artificial seed prawn culturing parents by PCR detecting technology. The maturation ratio of the prawn parents cultured by the present invention after spawning induction is from 50% to 86%.

Description

Total man worker cultivates the method for Penaeus monodon parent
Technical field
The present invention relates to the method that a kind of total man worker cultivates the Penaeus monodon parent, be applicable to and from the Penaeus monodon of pond culture, select the parent that is used for the artificial seedling rearing.
Background technology
Shrimp culture is the pillar industry of China and even whole world culture fishery.Penaeus monodon (Penaeus monodon) is one of China's three big main cultured prawn kinds.At present, the seed of Penaeus monodon produces needed ripe parent and mainly relies on to fish for from natural population and obtain.But because the variation of wild Penaeus monodon stock number, people can't rely on and fish for the stable supply that guarantees the Penaeus monodon parent and on time, supply as required; Simultaneously, because white spot syndrome virus (White Spot SyndromeVirus, abbreviation WSSV) propagation, the ratio of carrying white spot syndrome virus in the WSSV natural reservoir (of bird flu viruses) in wild Penaeus monodon and the environment is very high, is difficult to guarantee the quality of wild Penaeus monodon parent; In addition, if can not artificial culture's Penaeus monodon parent, just can't carry out the prevalent variety cultivation of Penaeus monodon.
China breaks through whole artificial propagation already in other prawn kind such as Chinese prawn (Penaeus orientalis Kishinoye), the Litopenaeus vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone) introduced in recent years, and on family foundation and breed breeding, obtain certain progress, and the Litopenaeus vannamei improved seeds that abroad obtain by selection-breeding enter the business promotion application stage already.China and some other countries (as Philippine, Thailand, Australia etc.) as far back as last century the eighties just begin the research carrying out the Penaeus monodon whole artificial propagation and grow seedlings, though obtain the breakthrough of whole artificial propagation, but because shortage is to the further investigation of Penaeus monodon sexual maturity rule and breed mechanism thereof, can reach large-scale production and application far away, let alone its family is set up and breed breeding.
Penaeus monodon natural propagation waters belongs to warm marine site, mating period is very long, though also arranged twice the idiophase that reaches some months of concentrating relatively every year, but almost all there is the whole year Penaeus monodon to lay eggs, cause the monthly age complex structure of nature population prawn, make whole population have unconcentrated characteristic of egg-laying season.Therefore, people do not understand fully needed minimum monthly age of Penaeus monodon gonad maturity and the ripe minimum gauge that should reach (body weight and body are long) so far.When adopting artificial cultivating method to cultivate the Penaeus monodon parent, owing to needed monthly age of Penaeus monodon gonad maturity of not knowing to culture out and the ripe specification that should reach (body weight and body are long), therefore, when the Penaeus monodon of selecting breed is used for artificial induced spawning as parent, have blindness, can not guarantee the oxytocic maturing rate.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of breeding method of total man worker's pond culture Penaeus monodon parent, promptly from the different phase of Penaeus monodon growth, constantly selecting fine individual the continuation cultures, utilize healthy breed system and cultural technique as guarantee, final acquisition can supply the method for the Penaeus monodon parent of artificial breeding, with the parent that guarantees to pick out can reach higher maturing rate, fish brood amount, rate of fertilization, thereby guarantee the quality of artificial culture's parent.
Through investigation, the gonad development of Penaeus monodon shows following rule:
(1) under the pond culture condition, the individual specification difference of minimum bio that male Penaeus monodon spermatophore occurs is little, and biological minimum is the long 3.1cm of first, and the long 11.1cm of body is about body weight 20g.The sexual maturity of the female Penaeus monodon of pond culture is the most small-sized takes an examination that to consider to receive the zoon that essence assists (can with male shrimp copulation) be standard, the ripe individual specification of its minimality is about the long 4.5cm of first, the long 15.5cm of body, body weight 59g, under the different breeding environmental condition, the ripe individual specification of its minimality does not have difference.Though cultivate by fortification, the female shrimp (body weight is less than 50g) of little individuality can observe the growth of ovary, is difficult to maturation, lays eggs.
(2) spermatophore occur and the time of spermioteleosis relevant with Penaeus monodon growth promoter speed, also relevant with the age in days of male shrimp, the earliest time of the male shrimp spermatophore appearance of pond culture is an age in days about 150 days, its colony is about 250 days at the individual sophisticated time of major part.Individual size and age in days (time) are the sophisticated restrictive factors of female Penaeus monodon.Investigation finds that the sexual maturity age in days of the female shrimp of pond culture Penaeus monodon is 300~360 days, the sexual maturity individuality of the female Penaeus monodon of pond culture is at the long 5.0cm of first, the long 17.5cm of body, more than the body weight 80g, the close shrimp that reaches above requirement is simultaneously hastened parturition the after ripening ratio at 50%-86%, and effect is fine.
By to the whole life cycle of Penaeus monodon, investigation biology of particularly sexual maturity rule, the present invention has designed the method that a cover is applicable to selection-breeding artificial seedling rearing's parent from the Penaeus monodon of pond culture according to the rule trend of Penaeus monodon gonad development, and its step is as follows:
1) carry out following program successively and select high healthy close shrimp:
A) the female shrimp body of wild Penaeus monodon parent shrimp length is more than 20.5cm, and more than the body weight 120g, more than the male shrimp 14.5cm, and more than the body weight 50g; Penaeus monodon that pond culture goes out parent shrimp: male shrimp age in days is more than 250 days, and more than the long 13.5cm of body, more than the body weight 35g; Female shrimp age in days is more than 300 days, and the long 17.5cm of body is above, more than the body weight 80g;
B) outward appearance satisfies simultaneously: the complete no wound of each organ of health, the gill filament are healthy canescence, do not have the red gill and black gill disease, and shrimp body body surface is complete bright and clean, is health and is full of glossy cinerous; The copulation of female shrimp, male shrimp spermatophore is full;
C) before close shrimp is transported indoor close shrimp pond back, isolated foster 3~5 days temporarily in the indoor or outdoors pond;
D) detect through PCR (polymerase chain reaction), prove that the Penaeus monodon of picking out does not carry white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and MBV (MBV);
2) use the accelerating feed additive and carry out the indoor reinforced cultivating of close shrimp, described accelerating feed additive is made of following component in parts by weight:
Highly unsaturated fatty acid 5-25; The astaxanthin 5-10 of purity more than 1.5%;
Cholesterol 5-10; Vitamin C 4-10;
Vitamin E 1-3; Thallus Laminariae (Thallus Eckloniae) powder 50-80;
Described highly unsaturated fatty acid is liquid, and wherein docosahexenoic acid (DHA) adds eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and accounts for 40.0~80.0% of weight, and DHA/EPA is between 2.0~5.0;
Described all the other components all pass through 100 purpose standard screens;
The close shrimp of throwing something and feeding after gained accelerating feed additive is admixed in close shrimp fresh food;
In implementing close shrimp reinforced cultivating process, also to and carry out disease control according to existing conventional method control temperature, salinity, pH, illumination, water quality, extract one-sided optic stalk according to conventional method; Can operate with reference to " prawn seed-rearing rule of operation " known in the art in the implementation process;
3) germling of germ cell that close shrimp produces and hatching carries out germ cell and the processing of nauplius hatching treatment technology, carries out following program successively:
A) lay eggs before the soaking disinfection of close shrimp, 100~300ml/m3 dipped into formalin 1~3 minute;
B) carry out successively: germ cell, clean seawater flushing 2~5 minutes, 100ml/m3 dipped into formalin 1 minute,
0.1ml/m3 povidone iodine (iodine liquid) soaked 1 minute, clean seawater flushing 2~5 minutes;
C) carry out fertilized egg hatching successively, nauplius is collected, clean seawater flushing 2~5 minutes, 100ml/m3
Dipped into formalin 30 seconds~1 minute, the 0.1ml/m3 povidone iodine soaked 30 seconds~1 minute, clean seawater flushing 2~5 minutes;
4) germ cell and nauplius were handled back artificial breeding cultivation more than 30 days, and it is pool cultivated therefrom to select healthy seedling to put into outdoor one-tenth shrimp aquaculture; Choice criteria will meet the following conditions simultaneously:
A) the individual size of shrimp Seedling evenly and body length more than 1.1cm;
B) it is 100% negative that nursery pond randomization 50 tail shrimp Seedlings, PCR detect;
C) shrimp Seedling body surface and appendage cleaning, no dirt and parasite, the bodily form is normal, does not have deformity, and appendage is complete;
D) shrimp Seedling age in days is more than 30 days, and tail fan is opened, the body colour nature, and survival rate is higher than the shrimp Seedling of 30% nursery pond; The feeding activity ability is strong, and the intestines and stomach is full, and the swimming health stretches, and can swim into the bottom from the water surface;
E) emergency reaction test: the sea water that the shrimp Seedling is put into 100ml/m3 formalin concentration soaked 15~30 minutes, and survival rate reaches more than 95%; Put into fresh water and still be put back into the water still normal Seedling kind after 15 minutes of normally growing seedlings after 15 minutes normally, again;
F) hungry experiment: select 50~100 tail Seedlings, put into the clean sea water bucket of no bait, do not inflate, the Seedling kind of survival rate 100% after a day;
5) from outdoor one-tenth shrimp aquaculture pond, culture and select the above and above male shrimp of body weight 20g of the long 11.5cm of body in 90~120 days the one-tenth shrimp, female shrimp is as seed shrimp more than long 12.5cm of body and the body weight 25g;
6) seed shrimp is put into seed shrimp breeding tank, cultures 120~150 days, in the prawn that reaches 240~300 ages in days, selects the above and above male shrimp of body weight 35g of the long 13.5cm of body, and selects long 17.5cm of body and the above close in support shrimp of female shrimp of body weight 80g;
7) reserve parent shrimp is put into reserve parent shrimp aquaculture pond, and during culturing, daily bait also needs according to its food ration except mixed feed, throws something and feeds at least weekly to ice fresh food for 2 times and carry out fortification; Cultured 60~120 days, from wherein selecting outward appearance health, the complete no wound of organ, the gill filament is healthy canescence, does not have the red gill and black gill disease, and body surface is complete bright and clean, be health and be full of glossy cinerous, the copulation of female shrimp, the parent (age in days is more than 300 days) that male shrimp spermatophore is full;
8) the male and female parent is transported tank interior back and is isolated temporarily and support, and detects through PCR, and the Penaeus monodon of picking out does not carry the parent as the artificial seedling rearing of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and MBV (MBV).
Become the shrimp aquaculture technology according to conventional prawn culturing technology and rule of operation in the invention process, those skilled in the art can adjust as the case may be, but the present invention is in the specific implementation, should strictly carry out following semi-enclosed healthy aquaculture system and aquaculture management technology:
The semi-enclosed healthy aquaculture system of Penaeus monodon parent shrimp mainly is made up of water reservoir, one-tenth shrimp aquaculture pond, four kinds of different ponds of function of big specification seed shrimp breeding tank and reserve parent shrimp aquaculture pond, though size, shape to the pond do not have specific (special) requirements, we still recommend to use has regular shape (rectangle, square or circle), culture the depth of water and can reach more than the 2m, area is at 1000~6000m 2The combination of high-order pond.The proportion requirement of the area in water storage pond and the gross area of cultivating pool is between 1: 3~10, and the number of the cultivating pool of every kind of difference in functionality is preferably more than two.Those skilled in the art can adjust according to practical situation.
The healthy aquaculture system of implementation process is a kind of aquaculture model of semi-enclosed health, and cultivating pool does not directly contact with the marine site sea water.The effect difference in four kinds of difference in functionality ponds, water reservoir is specifically designed to disinfecting with biological cleaning of breeding water and handles, disinfectant is the chemicals of Aquatic product chloride, bromine commonly used, iodine, high activity bacillus preparation " the sharp element of giving birth to " is used in biological cleaning, also can promote the growth of water reservoir unicellular alga, keep the stable of water environment, and provide good water sources for cultivating pool.The different breeding pond is used for the breed of the different growth of Penaeus monodon specification.Culture the prawn Excreta that whole process uses " the sharp element of giving birth to " of high activity bacillus preparation to come timely degrading cultivation process to produce, remaining feedstuff, the residual body of plankton, Organic substances such as organic debris, mineralising becomes the required nutrient salts of unicellular alga growth, play the breeding growth that promotes good unicellular alga and avoid the sedimentary effect of Organic substance in the pond, reduce organic oxygen consumption of shrimp-cultivation pool effectively, increase the dissolved oxygen in the pond indirectly, guaranteed oxidation operation-ammonification-nitrated-denitrifying normal circulation, reduce ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, harmful substances such as sulfide, suppress harmful pathogen growth breeding, build good ecological environment, it is stable to keep the cultivating pool water environment.
The semi-enclosed healthy aquaculture system of employed Penaeus monodon parent shrimp is to culture the requisite security system of parent selection-breeding in the invention process, although do not use this system also may obtain to culture the Penaeus monodon parent, its success rate may reduce greatly.
Water quality management technology in the implementation process: regularly carry out NO 2-N, NO 3-N, NH 4-N, PO 4The assay of-P, COD (chemical oxygen consumption (COC)), DO (dissolved oxygen), DIN (dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen) and IP chemokineses such as (Phos) is in order to calculate each nutrition assessment index value of water quality.Sampling and sample analysis are all undertaken by the method for regulation in " marine monitoring standard ".Division for the cultivation water trophic level, China does not still have unified standard at present, " water quality standard for fishery (GB-11607-89) " and " sea water quality standard (GB-3097-1997) " that announces with reference to China in the enforcement, the cultivation water standard that table 1 is quoted (two class sea water quality standards).Indivedual or some aquation factors in above-mentioned exceed limited range, and the sea water of handling by water reservoir changes water to cultivating pool.
The cultivation water evaluation criterion
Estimate the factor DO COD DIN IP
Evaluation criterion >5.0 ≤3.0 21.43 0.968
The unit of DO, COD is mg/L in the table, and the unit of DIN, IP is μ mol/L.
It is 1~20 tail/m that Penaeus monodon becomes shrimp aquaculture to put Seedling density 2, preferably putting Seedling density is 5~20 tails/m 2, especially preferably putting Seedling density is 10~15 tails/m 2The seed shrimp cultivation density is 1~10 tail/m 2, preferred breeding density is 3~10 tails/m 2, preferred especially breeding density is 5~8 tails/m 2Reserve parent shrimp aquaculture density is 1~5 tail/m 2, preferred especially breeding density is 3~4 tails/m 2
Although following term is widely known by the people in the art, for the ease of understanding, we will carry out some concise and to the point explanations to these terms.
Herein, " age in days " is meant that the day of laying eggs with close shrimp serves as to calculate initial day; " parent " be meant under field conditions (factors) or artificial culture's condition under, growth reaches a dating and individual specification, the ripe and prawn individuality that can produce offspring of attainability.The development of ovary that " sexual maturity " is meant female close shrimp is obviously observed the full shape of ovary in appearance to IV more than the phase; The seminal vesicle of male close shrimp is grown the obviously seminal vesicle shape of visible white of outward appearance.
Below be some countries or local regulation or the standard that reference is implemented in implementation process:
DB 44/136 Penaeus monodon cultural technique standard parent shrimp
DB 44/T 137 Penaeus monodon cultural technique standard artificial propagation techniques
DB 44/T 138 Penaeus monodon cultural technique standard larval culture technology
DB 44/T 139 Penaeus monodon cultural technique standards eat the shrimp breeding technology
GB 11607 water quality standard for fishery
NY/T 394 pollution-free food fertilizer usage criterias
NY 5051 pollution-free food aquiculture fresh water water quality
NY 5052 pollution-free food sea-farming water water quality
NY/T 5059-2001 pollution-free food prawn culturing technical specification
NY 5071 pollution-free food drugs used in aquiculture service regeulations
NY 5072 pollution-free food fishing mixed feed threshold limit valuess.
Beneficial effect of the present invention: the present invention is from the different phase of Penaeus monodon growth, constantly selecting fine individual the continuation cultures, utilize healthy breed system and cultural technique as guarantee, final acquisition can be for the Penaeus monodon parent of artificial breeding, hasten parturition effect and the close shrimp in wild source that has guaranteed the parent of the pond artificial cultivation the picked out effect of hastening parturition is identical or approaching, avoided when selecting the Penaeus monodon parent shrimp of artificial cultivation, the uncertainty of the blindness of selecting and the effect of hastening parturition, hasten parturition the after ripening ratio at 50%-86% in the parent that is used for artificial breeding that the present invention selects from the pond culture Penaeus monodon, and effect is fine.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 cultivates the block flow diagram of Penaeus monodon parent shrimp technology path for total man worker.
Fig. 2 is Penaeus monodon parent shrimp healthy aquaculture system one semi-enclosed healthy aquaculture system figure.
The specific embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with drawings and Examples.
Embodiment 1
1) the high healthy wild Penaeus monodon parent shrimp of choosing:
A) from the wild Penaeus monodon in marine site, Sanya, Hainan of catching, select close shrimp, require female shrimp body length more than 20.5cm, and more than the body weight 120g, more than the male shrimp 14.5cm, and more than the body weight 50g;
B) outward appearance satisfies simultaneously: the complete no wound of each organ of health, the gill filament are healthy canescence, do not have abnormal pathological changes such as the red gill and black gill disease, and shrimp body body surface is complete bright and clean, is health to be full of glossy cinerous; The copulation of female shrimp, male shrimp spermatophore is full;
C) before close shrimp is transported indoor close shrimp pond back, isolated foster 3~5 days temporarily in the indoor or outdoors pond;
D) detect through PCR, the Penaeus monodon of picking out does not carry white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and MBV (MBV);
2) healthy close shrimp is through 100ml/m 3The formalin sterilization of concentration 3 minutes moves into close shrimp indoor culture chamber and carries out the indoor reinforced cultivating of close shrimp, and the close shrimp of throwing something and feeding admix the accelerating feed additive in close shrimp fresh food after, and the accelerating feed additive is made of following component in parts by weight:
Highly unsaturated fatty acid 5-25; The astaxanthin 5-10 of purity more than 1.5%;
Cholesterol 5-10; Vitamin C 4-10;
Vitamin E 1-3; Thallus Laminariae (Thallus Eckloniae) powder 50-80;
Described highly unsaturated fatty acid is liquid, and wherein docosahexenoic acid (DHA) adds eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and accounts for 40.0~80.0% of weight, and DHA/EPA is between 2.0~5.0;
Described all the other components all pass through 100 purpose standard screens;
3) in implementing close shrimp reinforced cultivating process, also to and carry out disease control according to existing conventional method control temperature, salinity, pH, illumination, water quality, extract one-sided optic stalk according to conventional method; Can operate with reference to " prawn seed-rearing rule of operation " known in the art in the implementation process, but the present invention should strictly control in following link: the germling of germ cell that shrimp produces and hatching carries out germ cell and nauplius hatching treatment technology is handled, and carries out following program successively:
A) lay eggs before the soaking disinfection of close shrimp, 100ml/m3 dipped into formalin 2 minutes;
B) carry out successively: germ cell, clean seawater flushing 3 minutes, 100ml/m3 dipped into formalin 1 minute, 0.1ml/m3 povidone iodine (iodine liquid) soaked 1 minute, clean seawater flushing 3 minutes;
C) carry out fertilized egg hatching successively, nauplius is collected, clean seawater flushing 3 minutes, and 100ml/m3 dipped into formalin 30 seconds, 0.1ml/m3 povidone iodine (iodine liquid) soaked 30 seconds, clean seawater flushing 3 minutes;
4) germ cell and nauplius are handled after after artificial breeding cultivated 32 days (age in days), the growing pond of therefrom selecting healthy seedling to put into semi-enclosed healthy breading system was cultured, and the selection of healthy seedling will meet the following conditions simultaneously:
A) the individual size of shrimp Seedling evenly and body length more than 1.1cm;
B) it is 100% negative that nursery pond randomization 50 tail shrimp Seedlings, PCR detect;
C) select shrimp Seedling body surface and appendage cleaning, no dirt and parasite, the bodily form is normal, does not have deformity, and appendage is complete;
D) more than 30 ages in days, tail fan is opened, body colour nature, and survival rate is higher than the shrimp Seedling of 30% nursery pond; The feeding activity ability is strong, and the intestines and stomach is full, and the swimming health stretches, and can swim into the bottom from the water surface;
E) emergency reaction test: the shrimp Seedling is put into 100ml/m 3Soaked 20 minutes in the sea water of formalin concentration, survival rate reaches more than 95%; Put into fresh water and be put back into the water still normal Seedling kind after 15 minutes of normally growing seedlings after 15 minutes normally, again;
F) hungry experiment: select 50~100 tail Seedlings, put into the clean sea water bucket of no bait, do not inflate, the Seedling kind of survival rate 100% after a day;
5) outdoor growing pond is more than the depth of water 2m, area 5000m 2High-order pond, putting Seedling density is 10~15 tails/m 2From outdoor growing pond, culture and select the above and above male shrimp of body weight 20g of the long 11.5cm of body in 90~120 days the one-tenth shrimp, female shrimp is as seed shrimp more than long 12.5cm of body and the body weight 25g;
6) seed shrimp of picking out is put into seed shrimp breeding tank, and it is depth of water 2m, area 4000m 2High-order pond, putting Seedling density is 5~8 tails/m 2Cultured 120~150 days, and in the prawn that reaches 240~300 ages in days, selected the above and above male shrimp of body weight 35g of the long 13.5cm of body, and select long 17.5cm of body and the above close in support shrimp of female shrimp of body weight 80g;
7) reserve parent shrimp is put into reserve parent shrimp aquaculture pond, more than its depth of water 2m, and area 2000m 2High-order pond, putting Seedling density is 3~4 tails/m 2The daily bait of reserve parent shrimp also needs according to its food ration except mixed feed, and at least 2 times (meal) the above ice fresh food (icing bright small fish etc.) of throwing something and feeding weekly carries out fortification.Cultured 60~120 days, with shrimp pot trapping from wherein selecting close shrimp, totally 150 tails (female: 92, hero: 58) require: outward appearance health, the complete no wound of each organ of health, age in days 313 days, the copulation of female shrimp, male shrimp spermatophore are full, and the gill filament is healthy canescence, there is not the red gill, abnormal pathological changes such as black gill disease, shrimp body body surface is complete, bright and clean, is healthy, is full of glossy cinerous; The gill filament is healthy canescence, does not have the red gill and black gill disease, and body surface is complete bright and clean, is health and is full of glossy cinerous, more than the long 14.5cm of the individual body of male shrimp and more than the body weight 45g; More than the long 17.5cm of the individual body of the sexual maturity of female shrimp and more than the body weight 80g;
8) selected close shrimp is transported tank interior back and isolates temporarily and support, and with special-purpose close shrimp shipping bags, transports and store the clean sea water to 1/3 in pond bag, parent shrimp frontal eminence puts the plastics tubule, looks close the size of shrimp, puts into 4~10 tails for every bag, charge into pure oxygen, closely transportation need not lowered the temperature, and avoids the discomfort of close shrimp to gradient of temperature; If remote transportation is preferably put into special-purpose foam plastic reservoir with close shrimp shipping bags, can suitably the transport of water temperature drop be hanged down 2~3 ℃, and in foam plastic reservoir, put pouch ice in case water temperature rises suddenly.Yun Shu effect is fine like this, and survival rate almost reaches 100%; The selected close shrimp of this example through 1 hour the transportation, transport back indoor after, survival rate 100% is with 100~300 ml/m 3Dipped into formalin is put into the preprepared cement pit and is isolated foster temporarily after 3 minutes; Support after 3 days temporarily, get a little gill sample by tail, carrying out PCR detects, PCR detects close shrimp for WSSV, MBV feminine gender and is used for reinforced cultivating and hastens parturition, detect the final acquisition in back and do not carry healthy female shrimp 63 tails of WSSV and MBV virus, male shrimp 31 tails, the healthy close shrimp of acquisition is supported after 2 days temporarily, carry out reinforced cultivating according to putting into the parents culture pond as artificial seedling rearing's parent behind the boiling hot one-sided optic stalk of conventional method tweezer, it the results are shown in following table:
Embodiment 1 parent selection-breeding and the accelerating situation of laying eggs
It is (female: hero) initially to select close shrimp It is (female: hero) to transport dead shrimp (tail) It is (female: hero) to support death (tail) temporarily PCR detects superseded (female: hero) Final healthy parent (tail) is (female: hero)
92∶58 0∶0 6∶5 23∶22 63∶31
The accelerating female shrimp (tail) of performing the operation Postoperative death shrimp (tail) The female shrimp number of gonad development (tail) The female shrimp number (tail) of laying eggs For the first time total egg laying amount (ten thousand)
60 5 39 36 1263
Embodiment 2
Also be from the wild Penaeus monodon in marine site, Sanya, Hainan of catching, to select close shrimp, each step is with embodiment 1, it is (female: 87 to select close shrimp 150 tails altogether in reserve parent shrimp pond, male: 63), female shrimp 57 tails of healthy parent of WSSV and MBV virus are not carried in final acquisition, male shrimp 37 tails are put into the parents culture pond as artificial seedling rearing's parent and are carried out reinforced cultivating, and it the results are shown in following table:
Embodiment 2 parent selection-breeding and the accelerating situation of laying eggs
It is (female: hero) initially to select close shrimp It is (female: hero) to transport dead shrimp (tail) It is (female: hero) to support death (tail) temporarily It is (female: hero) that PCR detects superseded (tail) Final healthy parent (tail) is (female: hero)
87∶63 1∶2 4∶4 25∶20 57∶37
The accelerating female shrimp (tail) of performing the operation Postoperative death shrimp (tail) The female shrimp number of gonad development (tail) The female shrimp number (tail) of laying eggs For the first time total egg laying amount (ten thousand)
55 3 42 40 1433
Embodiment 3
From the wild Penaeus monodon in marine site, Sanya, Hainan of catching, selected close shrimp in 2~May in 2003, each step is with embodiment 1, select altogether close shrimp 1350 tails (female: 792, hero: 558), selected close shrimp through 3 hours the transportation, transport back indoor after, survival rate 98.3%, healthy female shrimp 543 tails of WSSV and MBV virus are not carried in final acquisition, and male shrimp 331 tails are supported after 2 days temporarily, carry out reinforced cultivating according to putting into the parents culture pond as artificial seedling rearing's parent behind the boiling hot one-sided optic stalk of conventional method tweezer, it the results are shown in following table:
The parent of embodiment 3 is selected situation
It is (female: hero) initially to select close shrimp It is (female: hero) to transport dead shrimp (tail) It is (female: hero) to support death (tail) temporarily It is (female: hero) that PCR detects superseded (tail) Final healthy parent (tail) is (female: hero)
792∶558 13∶10 16∶15 220∶202 543∶331
In the close shrimp of above-mentioned health, according to individual size be divided into the long 16.0~18.0cm of body and more than the long 18.0cm of body two kinds of specification parents strengthen accelerating respectively and test, see Comparative examples A and B.
Comparative examples A
Select specification: the long 16.0~18.0cm of female shrimp body, body weight 60.0~85.0g, the long 13.5~15.0cm of male shrimp body, body weight 35.0~50.0g carries out grouping experiment.Before the grouping, every tail is tested female shrimp excise one-sided optic stalk.Experimental group comprises female shrimp of 40 tails and the male shrimp (the male and female ratio is 2: 1) of 20 tails, and three parallel laboratory test groups are established in experiment, throw something and feed and add the fresh food of close shrimp accelerating feed additive.Matched group comprises female shrimp of 40 tails and the male shrimp (the male and female ratio is 2: 1) of 20 tails, establishes three parallel group equally, the standby fresh food of directly throwing something and feeding.Experimental group and matched group breeding condition are identical.Through reproduction test in 35 days, the female shrimp gonad development of experimental group Penaeus monodon ratio is 64.5 ± 6.4%, maturing rate 57.5 ± 4.4%, the total amount 3422.4 ten thousand of laying eggs, shrimp 138 tails of always laying eggs are inferior, and average every tail is laid eggs 248,000 at every turn, total nauplius is several 2056.9 ten thousand, average incubation rate 60.1 ± 5.1%; Male shrimp maturing rate 76.5 ± 6.8%.The female shrimp gonad development of matched group Penaeus monodon ratio is 14.7 ± 2.4%, maturing rate 9.0 ± 2.5%, the total amount 192.5 ten thousand of laying eggs, shrimp 11 tails of always laying eggs are inferior, and average every tail is laid eggs 175,000 at every turn, total nauplius is several 96.3 ten thousand, average incubation rate 50.1 ± 4.0%; Male shrimp maturing rate 60.5 ± 4.3%.
Comparative example B
Select specification and reach the long 18.0cm of female shrimp body, more than the body weight 80.0g, the long 14.5~15.8cm of male shrimp body about body weight 45.0~60.0g, carries out grouping experiment.Before the grouping, every tail is tested female shrimp excise one-sided optic stalk.Experimental group comprises female shrimp of 30 tails and the male shrimp (the male and female ratio is 2: 1) of 15 tails, and three parallel laboratory test groups are established in experiment, throw something and feed and add the fresh food of close shrimp accelerating feed additive.Matched group comprises female shrimp of 30 tails and the male shrimp (the male and female ratio is 2: 1) of 15 tails, establishes three parallel group equally, the standby fresh food of directly throwing something and feeding.Experimental group and matched group breeding condition are identical.Through reproduction test in 35 days, the female shrimp gonad development of experimental group Penaeus monodon ratio is 89.6 ± 4.1%, maturing rate 86.0 ± 4.4%, the total amount 4705.8 ten thousand of laying eggs, shrimp 138 tails of always laying eggs are inferior, and average every tail is laid eggs 341,000 at every turn, total nauplius is several 2978.8 ten thousand, average incubation rate 68.3 ± 5.1%; Male shrimp maturing rate 77.5 ± 5.7%.The female shrimp gonad development of matched group Penaeus monodon ratio is 26.7 ± 2.4%, maturing rate 18.0 ± 3.5%, the total amount 470.0 ten thousand of laying eggs, shrimp 20 tails of always laying eggs are inferior, and average every tail is laid eggs 235,000 at every turn, total nauplius is several 235.2 ten thousand, average incubation rate 50.1 ± 4.3%; Male shrimp maturing rate 60.5 ± 4.2%.
Embodiment 4
In May, 2004, with the offspring of wild Penaeus monodon parent shrimp in the example 3 through first filial generation parent shrimp that pond culture is cultivated, under artificial-strengthening is cultivated, the second filial seedling that the offspring who breeds after the sexual maturity obtains through the artificial culture, and process PCR detection is defined as healthy seedling.Render to the red husky pond culture in Hainan, rise in March, 2005, and from the second filial parent (known 303 ages in days) that pond culture goes out, satisfy sexually matured needs fully: male shrimp age in days should be more than 250 days; Female shrimp age in days reached more than 300 days.Trap close shrimp with shrimp pot, the standard of tentatively selecting close shrimp is: male Penaeus monodon individuality is more than the long 14.5cm of the individual body of sexual maturity of female Penaeus monodon, more than the body weight 45g; More than the long 17.5cm of the individual body of the sexual maturity of female Penaeus monodon, more than the body weight 80g.Select altogether close shrimp 197 tails (female: 128, hero: 69), selected close shrimp through 1 hour the transportation, transport back indoor after, survival rate 100% is with 100~300 ml/m 3Dipped into formalin is put into the preprepared cement pit and is isolated foster temporarily after 3 minutes.Support temporarily after 3 days, get a little gill sample by tail, carry out PCR and detect, PCR detects close shrimp for WSSV, MBV feminine gender and is used for reinforced cultivating and hastens parturition.Detect the back and obtain not carry healthy female shrimp 85 tails of WSSV and MBV virus, male shrimp 36 tails.The healthy shrimp that obtains is supported after 2 days temporarily, behind the boiling hot one-sided optic stalk of conventional method tweezer, puts into the parents culture pond and carries out reinforced cultivating, and it the results are shown in following table:
Embodiment 4 parent selection-breeding and the accelerating situation of laying eggs
It is (female: hero) initially to select close shrimp It is (female: hero) to transport dead shrimp (tail) It is (female: hero) to support death (tail) temporarily PCR detects superseded (female: hero) Healthy close shrimp (tail) is (female: hero)
128∶69 0∶0 3∶2 40∶31 85∶36
The accelerating female shrimp of performing the operation The postoperative death shrimp The female shrimp number of gonad development The female shrimp number of laying eggs For the first time total egg laying amount
(tail) (tail) (tail) (tail) (ten thousand)
70 5 51 48 1723
Embodiment 5
With the second filial healthy seedling of cultivating in the example 3, render to the red husky pond culture in Hainan.Each step is with embodiment 1.In May, 2005, the second filial parent that red husky pond culture goes out from Hainan (known 360 ages in days of age), satisfy sexually matured needs fully: male shrimp age in days should be more than 250 days; Female shrimp age in days reached more than 300 days.Trap close shrimp with shrimp pot.The standard of tentatively selecting close shrimp is: male Penaeus monodon individuality is more than the long 14.5cm of the individual body of sexual maturity of female Penaeus monodon, more than the body weight 45g; More than the long 18.5cm of the individual body of the sexual maturity of female Penaeus monodon, more than the body weight 90g.Select altogether close shrimp 173 tails (female: 107, hero: 66), selected close shrimp through 1 hour the transportation, transport back indoor after, dead 5 tails (3 female 2 heros), survival rate 97% is with 100~300ml/m 3Dipped into formalin is put into the preprepared pond and is isolated foster temporarily after 3 minutes.Support temporarily after 3 days, get a little gill sample by tail, carry out PCR and detect, the PCR detection is used for reinforced cultivating for WSSV, MBV negative patient and hastens parturition.Detect the back and obtain not carry female shrimp 83 tails of healthy parent of WSSV and MBV virus, male shrimp 41 tails.The healthy shrimp that obtains is supported after 2 days temporarily, behind the boiling hot one-sided optic stalk of conventional method tweezer, puts into the parents culture pond and carries out reinforced cultivating, and it the results are shown in following table:
Embodiment 5 parent selection-breeding and the accelerating situation of laying eggs
It is (female: hero) initially to select close shrimp It is (female: hero) to transport dead shrimp (tail) It is (female: hero) to support death (tail) temporarily It is (female: hero) that PCR detects superseded (tail) Healthy close shrimp (tail) is (female: hero)
107∶66 3∶2 2∶0 19∶23 83∶41
The accelerating female shrimp (tail) of performing the operation Postoperative death shrimp (tail) The female shrimp number of gonad development (tail) The female shrimp number (tail) of laying eggs For the first time total egg laying amount (ten thousand)
80 4 57 54 2011
The above results shows, a kind of selecting from the Penaeus monodon colony of pond culture provided by the present invention can be for the method for oxytocic parent, what can effectively guarantee the parent picked out can reach higher maturing rate, fish brood amount, rate of fertilization, thereby guarantees the quality of artificial culture's Penaeus monodon.
The present invention is not limited in the scope of above-mentioned specific embodiment, above-mentioned embodiment only is in order to culture Penaeus monodon parent's shrimp method and process is described in detail to of the present invention selecting, and has the selection method of identical function also to belong to the part of content of the present invention.In fact, those skilled in the art are according to the description of preamble, just can be according to needs (pond, Yu Ponds) under different breeding environment conditions separately, select the Penaeus monodon parent from the breed Penaeus monodon that meets above-mentioned condition, these adjustment all should be in the scope of the claims by the appended claims herein.

Claims (5)

1. method that total man worker cultivates the Penaeus monodon parent is characterized in that: may further comprise the steps:
1) carry out following program successively and select high healthy close shrimp:
The female shrimp body of A, wild Penaeus monodon parent shrimp length is more than 20.5cm, and more than the body weight 120g, more than the male shrimp 14.5cm, and more than the body weight 50g; Penaeus monodon that pond culture goes out parent shrimp: male shrimp age in days is more than 250 days, and more than the long 13.5cm of body, more than the body weight 35g; Female shrimp age in days is more than 300 days, and the long 17.5cm of body is above, more than the body weight 80g;
B, outward appearance satisfy simultaneously: the complete no wound of organ, the gill filament are healthy canescence, do not have the red gill and black gill disease, and body surface is bright and clean, is health and is full of glossy cinerous; The copulation of female shrimp, male shrimp spermatophore is full;
Before C, close shrimp are transported indoor close shrimp pond back, isolated foster 3~5 days temporarily in the indoor or outdoors pond;
D, process polymerase chain reaction detect, and prove that the Penaeus monodon of picking out does not carry white spot syndrome virus and MBV;
2) use the accelerating feed additive and carry out the indoor reinforced cultivating of close shrimp, described accelerating feed additive is made of following component in parts by weight:
Highly unsaturated fatty acid 5-25; The astaxanthin 5-10 of purity more than 1.5%;
Cholesterol 5-10; Vitamin C 4-10;
Vitamin e1-3; Thallus Laminariae (Thallus Eckloniae) powder 50-80;
Described highly unsaturated fatty acid is liquid, and wherein docosahexenoic acid adds eicosapentaenoic acid and accounts for 40.0~80.0% of weight, and docosahexenoic acid/ten carbon 5 alkene acids are between 2.0~5.0;
Described all the other components all pass through 100 purpose standard screens;
The close shrimp of throwing something and feeding after gained accelerating feed additive is mixed thoroughly in close shrimp fresh food;
3) germling of germ cell that close shrimp produces and hatching carries out germ cell and the processing of nauplius hatching treatment technology, carries out following program successively:
The soaking disinfection of A, the preceding close shrimp that lays eggs, 100~300ml/m 3Dipped into formalin 1~3 minute;
B, carry out successively: germ cell, clean seawater flushing 2~5 minutes, 100ml/m 3Dipped into formalin 1 minute, 0.1ml/m 3Povidone iodine soaked 1 minute, clean seawater flushing 2~5 minutes;
C, carry out fertilized egg hatching successively: nauplius is collected, clean seawater flushing 2~5 minutes, 100ml/m 3Dipped into formalin 30 seconds~1 minute, 0.1ml/m 3Povidone iodine soaked 30 seconds~1 minute, clean seawater flushing 2~5 minutes;
4) germ cell after the processing is cultivated more than 30 days through artificial breeding, therefrom selects healthy seedling to put into the outdoor pond culture of forming; The seed choice criteria will meet the following conditions simultaneously:
The individual size of A, shrimp Seedling evenly and body length more than 1.1cm;
It is 100% negative that B, nursery pond randomization 50 tail shrimp Seedlings, PCR detect;
C, shrimp Seedling body surface and appendage cleaning, no dirt and parasite, the bodily form is normal, does not have deformity, and appendage is complete;
D, shrimp Seedling age in days be more than 30 days, and tail fan is opened, the body colour nature, and survival rate is higher than the shrimp Seedling of 30% nursery pond; The feeding activity ability is strong, and the intestines and stomach is full, and the swimming health stretches, and can swim into the bottom from the water surface;
E, emergency reaction test: the shrimp Seedling is put into 100ml/m 3Soaked in the sea water of formalin concentration 15~30 minutes, survival rate reaches more than 95%; Put into fresh water and still be put back into the water still normal Seedling kind after 15 minutes of normally growing seedlings after 15 minutes normally, again;
F, hungry experiment: select 50~100 tail Seedlings, put into the clean sea water bucket of no bait, do not inflate, the Seedling kind of survival rate 100% after a day;
5) from outdoor growing pond, culture in 90~120 days the one-tenth shrimp and select more than the long 11.5cm of body, and the above male shrimp of body weight 20g, female shrimp is as seed shrimp more than long 12.5cm of body and the body weight 25g;
6) seed shrimp is put into seed shrimp breeding tank, cultures 120~150 days, in the prawn that reaches 240~300 ages in days, selects the above and above male shrimp of body weight 35g of the long 13.5cm of body, and selects long 17.5cm of body and the above close in support shrimp of female shrimp of body weight 80g;
7) reserve parent shrimp is put into reserve parent shrimp aquaculture pond, cultures 60~120 days, from wherein selecting outward appearance health, the complete no wound of organ, the gill filament is healthy canescence, does not have the red gill and black gill disease, and body surface is complete bright and clean, be health and be full of glossy cinerous, the copulation of female shrimp, the full parent of male shrimp spermatophore;
8) the male and female parent is transported tank interior back and is isolated temporarily and support, and detects through PCR, and the Penaeus monodon of picking out does not carry the parent as the artificial seedling rearing of white spot syndrome virus and MBV.
2. total man worker according to claim 1 cultivates the method for Penaeus monodon parent, it is characterized in that: the pond of respectively culturing of described parent selection-breeding overall process is in the semi-enclosed breed system, be made up of water reservoir, one-tenth shrimp aquaculture pond, seed shrimp breeding tank, reserve parent shrimp aquaculture pond, the ratio of water reservoir area and other three kinds of pool area sums is 1: 3~10; It is separate that each cultures the pond, and breeding water is earlier through water reservoir, disinfect with biological cleaning after enter other again and culture the pond.
3. total man worker according to claim 1 cultivates the method for Penaeus monodon parent, it is characterized in that: it is 1~20 tail/m that described Penaeus monodon becomes shrimp aquaculture to put Seedling density 2, the seed shrimp cultivation density is 1~10 tail/m 2, reserve parent shrimp aquaculture density is 1~5 tail/m 2
4. total man worker according to claim 1 cultivates the method for Penaeus monodon parent, it is characterized in that: during reserve parent shrimp aquaculture, the daily bait of reserve parent shrimp also needs according to its food ration except mixed feed, throws something and feeds at least weekly to ice fresh food for 2 times and carry out fortification.
5. total man worker according to claim 3 cultivates the method for Penaeus monodon parent, it is characterized in that: it is 10~15 tails/m that described Penaeus monodon becomes shrimp aquaculture to put Seedling density 2The seed shrimp cultivation density is 5~8 tails/m 2Reserve parent shrimp aquaculture density is 3~4 tails/m 2
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