CN104542407B - Two-stage cultivation method for loach offspring seeds - Google Patents

Two-stage cultivation method for loach offspring seeds Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104542407B
CN104542407B CN201510046221.7A CN201510046221A CN104542407B CN 104542407 B CN104542407 B CN 104542407B CN 201510046221 A CN201510046221 A CN 201510046221A CN 104542407 B CN104542407 B CN 104542407B
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loach
water
seedling
cultivation
days
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CN104542407A (en
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王永杰
王银东
陈红莲
江海龙
甘小顺
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Fisheries Research Institute of Anhui AAS
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Fisheries Research Institute of Anhui AAS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a two-stage cultivation method for loach offspring seeds. The two-stage cultivation method includes a primary cultivation stage and a secondary cultivation stage. The primary cultivation stage includes putting newly hatched loach offsprings in a net cage for cultivation and providing palatable feed; the secondary cultivation stage includes putting the loach offsprings subjected to primary cultivation in a pond in the peak season of rotifer, providing the palatable feed, reducing feeding quantity of the feed during the conversion period from branchial respiration to intestinal respiration of the loach offsprings, preventing parasites timely in the later period of cultivation, maintaining sufficient oxygen content of water, and completing the cultivation process of the loach offspring seeds until the length of the loach offsprings reaches 4-5cm. Compared with the prior art, the two-stage cultivation method has the advantages that survival rate of the loach offsprings is increased to more than 40% from present less than 10% in average, and the method is applicable to cultivation of the loach offspring seeds and has a broad application prospect.

Description

The method that a kind of loach fry two grades is cultivated
Technical field
The present invention relates to aquaculture field, the side that a kind of loach fry two grades is cultivated Method.
Background technology
Misgurni anguillicaudati (Misgurnus arguillicaudatus) be under the jurisdiction of Cypriniformes, Cobitidae, Misgurni anguillicaudati belong to small-sized Economic freshwater Fish, are one of the best raw materials of processing animals egg albumen powder, are also Export of Chinese Aquatic Products One of principal item.Misgurni anguillicaudati fine and tender taste, delicious flavour, its meat contains protein 18.45%~20.7%, fat 2.7%~2.8%, ash 1.6%~2.2%, every 100 grams of meat 70IU Han vitamin A, adenine phosphate 40 μ g, Calcium 51mg, phosphorus 154mg, ferrum 3mg, and there is higher unsaturated fatty acid.Misgurni anguillicaudati has certain medicinal Effect, has middle regulating and qi tonifying, effects such as relieving alcoholic intoxication of quenching one's thirst.Misgurni anguillicaudati be distributed widely in rivers and creeks, irrigation canals and ditches, paddy field, In the waters such as pond, lake and reservoir, due to going from bad to worse of overfishing and habitat, wild resource Having suffered to destroy, natural production is greatly reduced.The existing wild Misgurni anguillicaudati annual production of China at 40~500,000 tons, and Domestic market Misgurni anguillicaudati annual requirement is at more than 300 ten thousand tons, and current artificial cultivation amount only has more than 20 ten thousand tons, Korea S and The annual requirements such as Japan are more than 200,000 tons, and disparities between supply and demand highlight.
The wild seedling of the seed that the current loach breeding of problem that Misgurni anguillicaudati industry development exists is put in a suitable place to breed mainly capture Kind, breeding lacks and degenerates, the national disordered flow of seed passes to and the seed of separate sources is at growth performance On unstability limited the sustainable development of current Misgurni anguillicaudati industry.The biggest specification loach fry is trained Educating the stage, because of factor restrictions such as open-mouthed bait, feeding habits transformation, water environment changes, average survival is 10% Hereinafter, cause the cultivation of commodity loach to still rely on and fish for wild Misgurni anguillicaudati.
The main cause key factor that loach fry survival rate is low be following some: 1) the just flat trip of the loach Seedling on the lower pool Ability extreme difference, is difficult to find agreeable to the taste feedstuff, causes a lot of loach Seedling to be sunken at the bottom of pond suffocate;2) loach Seedling is from gill respiration To intestinal respiration convert period, if Misgurni anguillicaudati eat the fullest, it is easy to cause death;3) the seed rearing later stage, Parasite grows, and is easily caused mortality.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, it is provided that a kind of two grades of cultivation sides of loach fry Method, the loach fry solving prior art cultivates the technical problem that average survival is low.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
The invention provides the method that a kind of loach fry two grades is cultivated, it is characterised in that include that one-level is cultivated Stage and two grades of breeding phases, wherein:
Described one-level breeding phase step includes: the loach Seedling just hatched is placed in net cage and cultivates, and provide agreeable to the taste Feedstuff, after loach Seedling hatches 7~10 days, it is thus achieved that one-level cultivates loach Seedling;
Described two grades of breeding phase steps include: one-level cultivated in the pond that loach Seedling is placed in wheel animalcule peak period, Agreeable to the taste feedstuff is provided, and reduces feedstuff scale of feeding in loach Seedling gill respiration to intestinal respiration conversion period, cultivate the later stage Carry out parasite prevention in time, and keep the abundant oxygen content of water body, to loach Seedling length length to 4~5cm, complete Loach fry cultivating process.
Preferably, described one-level breeding phase comprises the following steps:
I, the loach Seedling just hatched is transferred to net cage from hatchery, described hatchery and the water temperature of raising in cage Difference be maintained at less than 3 DEG C, breeding density be 1500~2500 tails/square metre;The bottom Polypropylence Sheet of net cage spreads Pad, its water surface has water peanut to cover;
II, by the egg yolk boiled or the fish flour sock filtration of 100 mesh, then pour in net cage and throw something and feed;
After III, loach Seedling hatch 7~10 days, it is thus achieved that one-level cultivates loach Seedling;
In described step II, the water surface of net cage arranges sunshade net, it is to avoid direct sunlight.
Preferably, described two grades of breeding phases comprise the following steps:
I, the aquatic zooplankton cultivated in pond, reach 50~100/mL to wheel animalcule density, by one-level Cultivate loach Seedling to be transferred to pond from net cage, carry out two grades of cultivations;When wheel animalcule density is down to 50/below mL Time, the egg yolk after the filtration of supplementary feeding step III and fish flour;
Ii, putting after Seedling second day, the bulk that fish flour and shrimp meal are mixed and made into Misgurni anguillicaudati agreeable to the taste is thrown something and fed;
Iii, put Seedling 8 days after, carry out parasite prevention, meanwhile, reduce the feedstuff feeding amount of every day;Continuously After throwing something and feeding 3~4 days, shrimp meal feedstuff is made the bulk of 0.3mm particle diameter, continue to throw something and feed to putting after Seedling the 15th My god;Put Seedling loach Seedling after 8 days to start to be transferred to concurrent management intestinal respiration by gill respiration, but do not perfect, now loach Seedling Mortality rate is high, reduces feeding volume and can reduce mortality rate;
Iv, when be found to have loach Seedling complete breathe conversion time, add in feedstuff and mix EM bacterium solution, meanwhile, light of splashing Close bacterium and carry out water transfer, to increase the dissolved oxygen amount of water body;
When v, loach Seedling when 90% complete to breathe conversion, the bulk that shrimp meal feedstuff is made 0.5mm particle diameter is carried out Feed;After feeding 3~4 days, the bulk that shrimp meal feedstuff is made 0.8mm particle diameter continues to feed, long to loach Seedling Metric lattice, to 4~5cm, complete loach fry cultivating process, note parasite prevention in cultivating process.
In described step i, the method cultivating the aquatic zooplankton in pond is cultivated with bean milk for fertilising cultivation The method combined, concrete steps include:
Step one: putting Seedling the last fortnight, calculogenesis is being ashed water and splashes into pond, clean up the pond, cleans up the pond three days After, organic fertilizer, when pH value is down to 9, injects the pool water filtered through 60 eye mesh screens, stands to Calx The efficacy of a drug disappears;
Step 2: bean milk of splashing, in the water of the pool, is emerald green to water body, and transparency is 25~35cm, sooner or later PH difference is between 0.8~1.2, and predominantly wheel animalcule works as wheel animalcule now to have aquatic zooplankton to occur in water body Density when reaching 50~100/mL, i.e. can be used for two grades of cultivations;
Step 3: put first 3 days after Seedling, bean milk of splashing maintains the water body color of pool water, transparency and morning and evening PH is poor;After 3 days, carbamide of splashing maintains the water body color of pool water, transparency and morning and evening pH poor, to ensure water Body environment is without large change, it is to avoid loach Seedling is because adapting to the water bath that changes greatly and mortality.
In described step iii and step v, with avilamycin, loach Seedling is carried out parasite prevention.
The present invention has the advantage that compared to existing technology and the invention provides a kind of loach fry two grades cultivation Method, the method, by hatching early stage drawings cage rearing, and providing the methods such as agreeable to the taste feedstuff, improves The loach Seedling survival rate of hatching early stage;Breathing the conversion stage, by water body environment control, and reducing and raise Feed number of times, decrease mortality rate, finally make the survival rate of loach Seedling bring up to 40% from average the 10% of prior art Above, be suitable to loach fry and cultivate, have broad application prospects.
Detailed description of the invention
Elaborating embodiments of the invention below, the present embodiment is premised on technical solution of the present invention Under implement, give detailed embodiment and concrete operating process, but protection scope of the present invention It is not limited to following embodiment.
Embodiment 1
The method that the loach fry of the present embodiment two grades is cultivated, comprises the following steps:
(1) one-level is cultivated:
I, being transferred to net cage from hatchery by the loach Seedling just hatched, the area of described net cage is 10m2~20m2, The degree of depth is 35~45cm, to provide small size pond environment to grow for loach Seedling;Keep hatchery and the water temperature difference of net cage Below 3 DEG C, breeding density be 1500~2500 tails/square metre;The bottom of net cage Polypropylence Sheet place mat, its The water surface has 35% water peanut to cover, it is to avoid loach Seedling is sunken at the bottom of pond suffocate;The two ends of net cage set up water inlet and water outlet separately Mouthful;The water surface of net cage arranges sunshade net, it is to avoid direct sunlight;
After II, loach Seedling hatch 3 days, body is about 3~4mm, and pectoral fin launches, and starts to transfer flat trip to from sidestream, Now the yolk of loach Seedling has absorbed complete, needs to ingest from the external world, and loach Seedling flat trip ability now, Bore only 50 μm, is difficult to find agreeable to the taste bait under natural environment, causes loach shoot survival percent to reduce;Therefore, Thering is provided agreeable to the taste bait is the key improving the survival of loach Seedling;Method particularly includes: the egg yolk boiled or fish flour are contained in In 100 mesh thin,tough silk bags, pinch in basin and wash out suspension, suspension is poured in net cage and throws something and feeds, even feed 2~ 3 days, can make up loach Seedling because of flat trip ability and bore little and be difficult to the problem looked for food;
III, through the cultivations of 7~10 days, loach Seedling spends opening critical days, and body length reaches 1.0cm, it is thus achieved that One-level cultivates loach Seedling, can be used for two grades of cultivations.
(2) two grades of cultivations:
The cultivation of aquatic zooplankton in i, pool water:
Step one: selecting area is 1.8 mu, and the full water degree of depth is the pond of 60cm, puts Seedling the last fortnight with 500 Jin calculogenesis ashing water is splashed, and cleans up the pond, and the depth of water splashed is 25~30cm;Clean up the pond the 3rd day, work as pH value When being 10, organic fertilizer chicken manure 150 jin, uniformly splash Yu Tangzhong, places 1~2 day, treats that pH value is down to When 9, inject the pool water filtered through 60 eye mesh screens, be filled to 45~50cm deep;After 7~10 days, put Seedling examination Water, after 1 day, loach Seedling is without difference, it was demonstrated that the Calx efficacy of a drug disappears;
Step 2: in bean milk of splashing extremely above-mentioned pool water, splash continuously 2 days, splash 3 jin every time;Through 4~ After 5 days, water body is emerald green, and transparency is 25~35cm, and pH difference is between 0.8~1.2 sooner or later, beats Sample water body is observed, it is possible to find having aquatic zooplankton to occur, perusal is slight white point, sees under microscope Examine as wheel animalcule, when the density of wheel animalcule reaches 50~100/mL in the water of the pool, i.e. can be used for two grades of cultivations;
Step 3: the one-level of step III is cultivated loach Seedling and is transferred in pond, the wheel in the water of the periodic monitor pool Worm density, if wheel animalcule density is down to 50/below mL, supplement throw something and feed step III filtration after egg yolk and Fish flour, throws something and feeds 4 times for one day;Along with the prolongation of feeding time, water colour can be the most thin out, and transparency increases, Now, bean milk of splashing in time is to maintain water colour, and the method that bean milk is splashed is: splashes noon once, sprinkles every time Spill 3 jin;
Step 4: after putting Seedling 3 days, carbamide of splashing, consumption is 2 jins/time, splashes noon, splashes 2 continuously My god;Putting and there will be cladocera zooplankton in Seedling water body after 3 days, the consumption of Water element is accelerated, water Complexion changedization quickly, is difficult to be maintained by bean milk, and carbamide of splashing can supplement the nitrogen in water body, keep water body in Emerald green, transparency is 25~35cm, and pH difference is between 0.8~1.2 sooner or later;
Ii, put after Seedling second day, fish flour is mixed according to mass ratio 1:1 with shrimp meal, makes Misgurni anguillicaudati agreeable to the taste Bulk is thrown something and fed, and each feeding volume is eaten up with loach Seedling 30~50min and is as the criterion, and throws something and feeds every day 4 times;Put Seedling 6 In water body after it, cladocera growth peaks the phase, and almost without algae in water body, water body is muddy, this Time a length of 1 centimeter of Misgurni anguillicaudati body, indivedual small-sized cladocera of can actively ingesting, but small-sized cladocera limited amount, Fish flour and shrimp meal it is mixed and made into the agreeable to the taste feedstuff of bulk, can make up and cause because of small-sized cladocera limited amount The defect that agreeable to the taste feedstuff is not enough;
Iii, put Seedling 8 days after, carry out parasite prevention with avilamycin, described avilamycin from market buy, Use according to product description;Meanwhile, 4 fish flour of throwing something and feeding every day reduce to every day with shrimp meal mixed fodder Throwing something and feeding 3 times, each feeding volume is constant, throws something and feeds continuously 3~4 days;Then, by fish flour and shrimp meal mixed fodder Replace with shrimp meal feedstuff, and in shrimp meal feedstuff, add the broken material of the 0.3mm particle diameter of 70% weight ratio, make The agreeable to the taste feedstuff of bulk, throws something and feeds to putting after Seedling the 15th day according to the mode of 3 times of throwing something and feeding every day;After putting Seedling 8 days Loach Seedling starts to be transferred to concurrent management intestinal respiration by gill respiration, but does not perfects, and now the mortality rate of loach Seedling is high, reduces Number of times of throwing something and feeding can reduce mortality rate;
Iv, when being found to have loach Seedling and completing to breathe conversion, according to the product of commercially available hundred rich ecological bacterium EM bacterium solution Description, adds in shrimp meal feedstuff and mixes EM bacterium solution, throws something and feeds every day 5 times;Meanwhile, splash photosynthetic noon every day Bacterium carries out water transfer, and the amount of splashing is 5 jins/time, splashes continuously 3 days, to increase the dissolved oxygen amount of water body;
When v, loach Seedling when 90% complete to breathe conversion, the broken material of 0.3mm particle diameter in feedstuff is replaced with The broken material of 0.5mm particle diameter, makes the agreeable to the taste feedstuff of bulk of 0.5mm particle diameter;After feeding 3~4 days, by 0.5mm The broken material of particle diameter replaces with the broken material of 0.8mm particle diameter, continues to feed, and uses Avermectin during feeding Element prevention parasite;After loach Seedling is cultivated 30 days, length length to 4~5cm, can be used as seed and sell or turn The pool cultivates, and completes loach fry cultivating process;Whole cultivating process, the survival rate of loach fry is 43.6%.
The method that Misgurni anguillicaudati of the present invention two grades is cultivated, is by hatching early stage drawings cage rearing, and The methods such as agreeable to the taste feedstuff are provided, improve the loach Seedling survival rate of hatching early stage;Breathing the conversion stage, by right Water body environment controls, and reduces feeding frequency, decreases mortality rate;Cultivate the later stage, notice that parasite prevents; Whole process substantially increases the survival rate of loach Seedling, makes the survival rate of loach Seedling bring up to from prior art average 10% More than 40%, be suitable to loach fry and cultivate, have broad application prospects.

Claims (4)

1. the methods that a loach fry two grades is cultivated, it is characterised in that include one-level breeding phase and two grades Breeding phase, wherein:
Described one-level breeding phase step includes: the loach Seedling just hatched is placed in net cage and cultivates, and provide agreeable to the taste Feedstuff, after loach Seedling hatches 7~10 days, it is thus achieved that one-level cultivates loach Seedling, particularly as follows:
I, the loach Seedling just hatched is transferred to net cage from hatchery, described hatchery and the water in raising in cage pond The temperature difference is maintained at less than 3 DEG C, breeding density be 1500~2500 tails/square metre;The bottom Polypropylence Sheet of net cage Place mat, its water surface has the water peanut of 35% to cover;
II, by the egg yolk boiled or the fish flour sock filtration of 100 mesh, then pour in net cage and throw something and feed;
After III, loach Seedling hatch 7~10 days, it is thus achieved that one-level cultivates loach Seedling;
Described two grades of breeding phase steps include: one-level cultivated in the pond that loach Seedling is placed in wheel animalcule peak period, Agreeable to the taste feedstuff is provided, and reduces feedstuff scale of feeding in loach Seedling gill respiration to intestinal respiration conversion period, cultivate the later stage Carry out parasite prevention in time, and keep the abundant oxygen content of water body, to loach Seedling length length to 4~5cm, complete Loach fry cultivating process;Particularly as follows:
I, the aquatic zooplankton cultivated in pond, reach 50~100/mL to wheel animalcule density, will pass through One-level is cultivated loach Seedling and is transferred to pond from net cage, carries out two grades of cultivations;When wheel animalcule density is down to 50/mL Time following, the egg yolk after the filtration of supplementary feeding step II and fish flour;
Ii, putting after Seedling second day, the bulk that fish flour and shrimp meal are mixed and made into Misgurni anguillicaudati agreeable to the taste is thrown something and fed;
Iii, put Seedling 8 days after, carry out parasite prevention, meanwhile, reduce the feedstuff feeding amount of every day;Continuously After throwing something and feeding 3~4 days, shrimp meal feedstuff is made the bulk of 0.3mm particle diameter, continue to throw something and feed to putting after Seedling the 15th My god;
Iv, when be found to have loach Seedling complete breathe conversion time, add in feedstuff and mix EM bacterium solution, meanwhile, light of splashing Close bacterium and carry out water transfer;
When v, loach Seedling when 90% complete to breathe conversion, the bulk that shrimp meal feedstuff is made 0.5mm particle diameter is carried out Feed;After feeding 3~4 days, the bulk that shrimp meal feedstuff is made 0.8mm particle diameter continues to feed, long to loach Seedling Metric lattice, to 4~5cm, complete loach fry cultivating process, note parasite prevention in cultivating process.
The method that a kind of loach fry the most according to claim 1 two grades is cultivated, it is characterised in that institute State in step I, the water surface arranges sunshade net.
The method that a kind of loach fry the most according to claim 1 two grades is cultivated, it is characterised in that institute Stating in step i, the method cultivating the aquatic zooplankton in pond combines with bean milk cultivation for fertilising cultivation Method, concrete steps include:
Step one: putting Seedling the last fortnight, calculogenesis is being ashed water and splashes into pond, clean up the pond, cleans up the pond three days After, organic fertilizer, when pH value is down to 9, injects the pool water filtered through 60 eye mesh screens, stands to Calx The efficacy of a drug disappears;
Step 2: bean milk of splashing, in the water of the pool, is emerald green to water body, and transparency is 25~35cm, sooner or later PH difference is between 0.8~1.2, and predominantly wheel animalcule works as wheel animalcule now to have aquatic zooplankton to occur in water body Density when reaching 50~100/mL, i.e. can be used for two grades of cultivations;
Step 3: put first 3 days after Seedling, bean milk of splashing maintains the water body color of pool water, transparency and morning and evening PH is poor;After 3 days, carbamide of splashing maintains the water body color of pool water, transparency and morning and evening pH poor.
The method that a kind of loach fry the most according to claim 1 two grades is cultivated, it is characterised in that institute State in step iii and step v, with avilamycin, loach Seedling is carried out parasite prevention.
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CN105265361B (en) * 2015-11-06 2018-03-09 广西壮族自治区水产科学研究院 Loach fry breeding method
CN105594632A (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-05-25 贺代生 Loach breeding method
CN105409853A (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-03-23 贺代生 Loach fry cultivation method
CN105454111B (en) * 2015-12-17 2017-11-10 安徽省农业科学院水产研究所 A kind of swamp eel is from numerous self-fertile autotrophy method
CN106376499B (en) * 2016-09-19 2019-03-12 三峡大学 A kind of ecological breeding method of loach
CN108713514A (en) * 2018-06-14 2018-10-30 庄传华 A kind of cultural method for preventing loach cun piece death

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CN1177526C (en) * 2002-09-23 2004-12-01 盘山县陈家乡水产技术推广站 Technique for breeding loach fry
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