CN110074023A - A kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation method - Google Patents

A kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110074023A
CN110074023A CN201910483916.XA CN201910483916A CN110074023A CN 110074023 A CN110074023 A CN 110074023A CN 201910483916 A CN201910483916 A CN 201910483916A CN 110074023 A CN110074023 A CN 110074023A
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water
seed
pond
fry
bait
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CN110074023B (en
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田吉腾
张庆文
席瑞
潘明超
张天时
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation methods, belong to aquaculture field, and the method includes parent population selection and strengthens, natural spawning and collection, hatching, bait culture and reinforcing, seed rearing and commodity offspring seed.The method makes full use of green fin black scraper Puffer nature life habit and its biological characteristics; solves the small-bore agreeable to the taste bait of kind fry such as green fin black scraper Puffer; the adherent death of larva and juvenile; cultivate the problems such as seed is inefficient; simultaneously high-quality seed can be provided for a variety of aquaculture models; can it is time saving, laborsaving, effectively reduce cost, can provide strong support for the scale seed breeding of green fin black scraper Puffer, fine-variety breeding, preserving seed, artificial increasing cultivation, enhancement releasing etc..

Description

A kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to aquatic product sprout Cultivating techniques field, specifically a kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation method.
Background technique
Green fin black scraper Puffer (Navodonseptentrionalis G ü nther) belongs to Tetraodontiformes, removes from office Molidae, black scraper Puffer category. Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces and Fujian one are with title peeling fish, black scraper;The ground such as Shandong, Liaoning, Hebei claim pig fish, Pi Jiangyu, bread fish, burn carbonado. Belong to warm water demersal fishes, feeding habits are miscellaneous, like cluster, and Burden-Swimming Ability of KM is weaker.
In recent years, since many unfavorable factors such as overfishing and water pollution are to green fin black scraper Puffer ecological environment and germplasm Resource produces bigger effect, its stock number is caused to fail increasingly, and market price is increasingly soaring, cause this characteristic marine product have by Walk the trend in market of fading out.The seed rearing of green fin black scraper Puffer, artificial increasing cultivation are highly valued, and biography has been carried out in some areas System coal-burning boiler larvae-rearing, pond culture etc., but green fin black scraper Puffer biological characteristics are fully understood due to lacking, not only Energy consumption is high, and production effect is also unsatisfactory.
Currently, green fin black scraper Puffer is mostly to cultivate seed using modes such as artificial inseminations, exist during seed breeding high The case where energy consumption, technical difficulty are big, and high operation cost and a large amount of person properties put into, causes the important fishery of this decline to provide indirectly Source variety source amount is difficult to be restored in time.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is that providing a kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation method, the method is abundant Using green fin black scraper Puffer nature life habit and its biological characteristics, for there are open-mouthed baits in green fin black scraper Puffer seed breeding Be difficult to resolve certainly, the problems such as mid-dead rate is high, emergence rate is not high, overcome high cost, high energy consumption, high labor intensity etc. in the prior art Problem, the present invention solve the small-bore agreeable to the taste bait of kind fry such as green fin black scraper Puffer, and seed effect is cultivated in the adherent death of larva and juvenile The problems such as rate is not high, while high-quality seed can be provided for a variety of aquaculture models, can it is time saving, laborsaving, effectively reduce cost, can It is provided effectively for the scale seed breeding of green fin black scraper Puffer, fine-variety breeding, preserving seed, artificial increasing cultivation, enhancement releasing etc. Support.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
A kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation method, it is characterised in that the method includes parent population selection and strengthens, from So oviposition and collection, hatching, bait culture and reinforcing, seed rearing and commodity offspring seed, the specific steps are as follows:
1) parent population selection and reinforcing:
Parent population require selection individual is larger, body colour is good, it is not damaged, without deformity, disease-free wound, it is energetic, healthy and strong active 2~ The wild green fin black scraper Puffer in 3 age nature sea areas, starts the selection and cultivation of green fin black scraper Puffer parent population in the first tenday period of a month in mid-March to May, Every 10 side water body puts 80~100 tail of parent population quantity in a suitable place to breed, and female-male proportion is 2:1 or 3:1;
Temperature in parent fish rearing pond is maintained at 18~22 DEG C, day water exchange capacity 100%~200%, natural lighting, adjustment Intensity of illumination avoids direct light within the scope of 1000~2000lx, removes bottom of pond residual bait and excrement with suction bottom device sooner or later;
It feeds in parent population hot housing and is grabbed including fresh oyster, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Chlamys farreri, clam worm and hawk Bait including shrimp, feeding rate 2~6% (weight ratio);
2) natural spawning and collection:
During parent population is strengthened, parent population gonad development degree is inspected periodically, preferable parent population abdominal distention is developed, profile is bright It is aobvious, it is soft and flexible;Light pressure then has milky sperm or the outflow of Chinese red ovum, and development so far can be in parent Ovum collection device is put into fishpond;
Collecting fertilized eggs method: ovum collection device is placed in parent fish pond, after parent population voluntarily lays eggs 12 hours, is taken out Ovum collection device, collected fertilized eggs, which move into aquaculture pond, is hatched;
3) hatch:
Green fin black scraper Puffer incubating oosperm condition: water quality is cleanliness without any pollution, through oneself of husky filter and ultraviolet radiation for sterilizing and disinfecting Right seawater, does not change water during hatching, cultivate in aquaculture pond, initial 40~50cm of the depth of water, and 19~22 DEG C of water temperature, salinity 32~ 33 ‰, pH 7.8~8.2, uninterrupted micro- inflation keep cultivating Dissolved Oxygen in Water (DO) >=5mg/L, 1000~2000lx of illumination; It observes development of fertilized ova situation under the microscope daily, and removes the dirt of the water surface in time;Water temperature is developed with newly hatched larvae to be delayed Slowly 23~26 DEG C are increased to and maintains this temperature in cultivating process behind;
After fertilized eggs are hatched completely, ovum collection device is pulled out from aquaculture pond in time, during which, continuous micro- inflation, Prelarva feeds open-mouthed bait after hatching 48 hours, initial stage day amount of water 10~15% (volume ratio) is sent out with the growth of seed later It educates and is gradually increased quantity of exchanged water to the uninterrupted running water technology of whole day;
4) bait culture and reinforcing:
Feed series used in green fin black scraper Puffer seed breeding are as follows: SS wheel animalcule → artemia nauplii → artificial microparticle Mixed feed → shellfish meat converts bait and adjustment feeding volume according to the development of green fin black scraper Puffer and growing state in due course;
Bait is strengthened: SS wheel animalcule bead algae solution and splitting pot algae hot housing 6~12 hours, collects wheel animalcule and fed;
It after the artemia nauplii hatched is collected decladding, is put into new hatching barrel, every Fang Shui adds 30 grams and splits pot algae Powder and other micronutrient elements, big inflation hot housing 6~12 hours, are then fed;
5) seed rearing:
1. water environmental control seed rearing requires the pure and fresh stabilization of water quality, gradually add new water to the depth of water within 5~8 days after prelarva opening 120cm takes equality of temperature to change water mode, and rate of water exchange is 10%~20%, is gradually increased quantity of exchanged water with the growth of fry, when 30 age in days Rate of water exchange increases to 50%, and later with the increase of the growth of fry and food ration, rate of water exchange is gradually increased to 50%~100%;Water Temperature control system is between 18~26 DEG C, as the growth and development of larva and juvenile gradually rises, water temperature diurnal variation should be lower than 1 DEG C, pH7.0~ 8.2, dissolved oxygen (DO) >=5mg/L guarantees fry normal growth;It cultivates by 35~40 days, density and time-division is cultivated according to juvenile fish Pond, pond are transferred to the intermediate culture of seed;
2. light control is in 5000lx hereinafter, being with 2000lx~3000lx when light control green fin black scraper Puffer seed rearing Preferably, light makes every effort to uniform, soft, avoids strong light and direct light;
3. water changing method prelarva hatched in 30 days, in night no light, the small net of bottom siphon is used after shoal of fish dispersion Case changes water mode, then avoids fry adherent using small-bore pipe siphon method daytime;Integrally reach 0.8~1cm more to fry It changes large cage and changes water, when fry entirely reaches 2cm or more, using perennial draingage culture or the culture side of 50%-100% quantity of exchanged water Formula;
4. feeding bait in right amount according to fry intestines turgor daily after the green fin black scraper Puffer newly hatched larvae opening of feeding method Material is respectively fed once sooner or later daily, and for wheel animalcule always in 8~10/ml, feeding method has group according to prelarva daytime in holding water body Poly- behavior is carried out and is fed in shoal of fish compact district fixed point, while adding chlorella or concentration algae solution in pond daily, protects water colour Light green is held, keeping bead concentration of algae in water is 10 × 104~30 × 104ind/ml;
5. bait converts after SS wheel animalcule feeds 15~20 days, increase the feeding volume of artemia nauplii, wheel animalcule and artemia It feeds 5-7 days simultaneously, observes whole fries and all ingested artemia, the enteron aisle presentation Chinese red of fry, can stop under microscope Wheel animalcule is fed, addition chlorella is simultaneously stopped;Artemia feeds 2~3/ml of density;When fry reaches 2.5~3cm, cooperation is fed Feed;It is first repeatedly of fixed place and time on a small quantity to feed in bait conversion process, gradually domestication culture;Company while feeding mixed feed It is continuous to feed artemia or scallop meat, until all fries adapt to mixed feed of ingesting, hello artemia can be stopped, feed 5~8 daily It is secondary, it feeds 8%~15% that doses is fish body weight day, inhales bottom sooner or later, remove the granular bait for fish that bottom of pond is scattered;
6. point pond reaches 3~5cm when fry body length, a point pond is carried out;Cultivation density when fish body weighs 5~8g/ tail is 200~ 300 tails/m3, cultivation density when fry weight 20~40g/ tail is 100~150 tails/m3
6) commodity offspring seed fry body it is long reach 5 centimetres or more can be in intermediate rearing pond, sea pond or seawater cage It is cultivated, into marketable fish forming stage.
The present invention compared with prior art the utility model has the advantages that
1, compared with traditional offspring breeding method, the present invention makes full use of green fin black scraper Puffer biological characteristics, utilizes sand The nature seawater of the processing such as filter, disinfection, does not need boiler heating seawater, embodies the seed breeding theory of green;Of the invention Parent population bait and prelarva open-mouthed bait use fresh food or workshop to cultivate bait, are keeping sufficient nutrition supply basis On, have to the hatching rate of parent population ovum quality and seed and is obviously improved;The use of mixed feed is reduced, good cultivation is kept Water environment changes water mode by bottom small-sized net cage to directly reduce the average daily quantity of exchanged water of aquaculture pond, avoids seed adherent dead It dies and by water impact, reduces the death rate, increase weed survival rate.To sum up, seed breeding cost, ecological efficient can be greatly reduced Promotion fry quality and quantity, create good economic benefit.
2, compared with the breeding of non-sticky ovum fish fry, the reproductive habit of green fin black scraper Puffer has been found out, egg apparatus placement will be adopted In parent fish pond, efficient the step of collecting fertilized eggs, eliminating the hatching of previous fish fry breeding and utilizing incubator can be convenient, After the completion of hatching, will be attached to the empty chorion adopted on egg apparatus can be directly taken out, and eliminate the operating procedure of decladding.Pass through timing Ovum collector is picked and placed, so that the insemination ovum of acquisition is achieved the effect that synchronous development, hatching, cooperates suitable water temperature and cultivation The specification size of condition, fry is also relatively uniform, can cultivate high-quality healthy seedling and improve the hatching rate of seed and survive Rate.
3, emergence rate because species it is different can difference, found by Germicidal efficacy, green fin black scraper Puffer prelarva is more daytime In groups, evening polydispersion can make full use of its taxis and round the clock habit for aggregation, carry out bait throwing when concentrating on aggregation in groups Hello, it can be fed at night using light trapping, reach saving bait, reduced forage energy consumption, increase grazing rate, promoted seed and survive The effect of rate and emergence rate.Meanwhile using this habit, can be drained at night or in the case where dark, next day adds water Mode, bottom small-sized net cage changes water mode and the dead wheel animalcule of bottom of pond, impurity residual bait etc. can also be discharged, and improves cultivation pool inner water Environment not only can prevent and avoid the adherent death of fry, also reduce the death rate and disease incidence of seed.
4, the method for the present invention is practical in production practice, save during seed breeding people, it is time saving, laborsaving, save worry, save Money, the method can also apply in the seed rearing work of other similar fish, and it is sticky, partly viscous to be especially suitable for breeding parent population production The property fish species such as ovum or newly hatched larvae individual are smaller, schistostoma is smaller.
Specific embodiment
Technical solution of the present invention is explained below by 2 embodiments, but protection scope of the present invention is not by reality Apply the limitation of example in any form.
Embodiment 1
A kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation method, including parent population selection and reinforcing, natural spawning and collection, hatching, bait Material culture and reinforcing, seed rearing, commodity offspring seed, the specific steps are as follows:
1, parent population selection and reinforcing:
In May, 2016 collects wild 216 tail of parent population, people from Qingdao Hu Jiashan harbour and Golden Beach phoenix island surrounding waters Work, which is raised and train, survives 187 tails.The scale lengths of parent population are 25.2~32.5 centimetres, and weight is 244~574 grams.The green fin of non-breeding season Black scraper Puffer male and female difference is unobvious, from the appearance more difficult identification male and female.It is compared by dissecting sexal maturity parent population, it can simple, intuitive Slave appearance, identified on figure, parent population fish body Aspect Ratio is greatly milter, small for raun.10 side glass reinforced plastic parent populations Put 80~100 tail of quantity in culture pond in a suitable place to breed, female-male proportion is 2:1~3:1, and temperature is maintained at 18~22 DEG C, day water exchange capacity 100%~200%, remove bottom of pond residual bait and excrement with inhaling bottom device sooner or later, using natural lighting, adjust intensity of illumination 1000~ Within the scope of 2000lx, direct light is avoided.
Fresh oyster, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Chlamys farreri, clam worm, hawk are fed in parent population hot housing grabs shrimp Equal bait, feeding rate 2~6%.It facts have proved and ingest well, constitution reinforcing agent and vitamin can be added in right amount in bait, increase Strong parent population constitution, improves sperm and ovum quality.It can be used after wait lay eggs and gradually decrease live bait amount, while increase cooperation The method of feedstuff feeding amount carries out bait domestication, and parent population constantly adapts to mixed feed of ingesting, and can gradually complete bait conversion.Through Temporary feeding cultivation, parent population reinforcing in 25 days are crossed, parent population sexual gland graduallys mature.
2, natural spawning and collection:
The green fin black scraper Puffer oviposition period time is 1 month or so, this fish belongs to multiple ovulation type in batches.By domestication, After fortification and genital regulating, parent population natural spawning.
Collecting fertilized eggs method: 1, gonad development good parent population is put into spawning pond, bottom of pond is put into ovum collector (layer stereo plastic plate, be also possible to sieve basket), allows its voluntarily spawning and fertilization, and parent is taken out from spawning pond after oviposition 12 hours Fish;2, ovum collector is placed in parent fish pond, after parent population voluntarily lays eggs 12 hours, takes out ovum collector, it is collected Fertilized eggs, which move into aquaculture pond, is hatched;3, it is manually fished for using soft net and is attached to parent fish pond bottom of pond, the natural production on pool wall Fertilized eggs.
The 1st kind of method for adopting ovum is easy to cause damage and stress reaction, the 3rd kind of method to will cause one to fertilized eggs parent population The mechanical damage for determining degree, influences hatching rate and survival rate.The 2nd kind of recovery method is taken in practice, is awarded to its extensive oviposition When smart, carry out adopting ovum using layer stereo plastic plate, 12 hours a cycles continuously can uninterruptedly adopt ovum in workshop.
The green fin black scraper Puffer parent population of the present embodiment starts natural spawning successively in early June.Acquisition on 10~July 15 June Fertilized eggs carry out seed breeding, and oviposition period is 1 month or so.
3, hatch:
Green fin black scraper Puffer incubating oosperm condition: the nature seawater sterilized in 4m × 3m × 1.2m aquaculture pond with sand filtration It cultivates, initial 40~50cm of the depth of water, 19~22 DEG C of water temperature, salinity 32~33 ‰, pH 7.8~8.2, uninterrupted micro- inflation is kept Cultivate Dissolved Oxygen in Water (DO) >=5mg/L, 1000~2000lx of illumination.Observe development of fertilized ova situation under the microscope daily, And the dirt of the water surface is removed in time.Water temperature is slowly raised to 23~26 DEG C and behind in cultivating process with newly hatched larvae development Maintain this temperature.The hatching water temperature of green fin black scraper Puffer is generally more than 3 days lower than 18 DEG C of brooding times, and water temperature is maintained at 20~22 DEG C The incubation of membrane time was at 1.5~2 days.Hatching terminates the data such as statistics rate of fertilization, hatching rate.
Fertilized eggs are generally hatched in completion in 48~50 hours, and chorion, which remains in, after the completion of hatching adopts on egg apparatus, in time by ovum Sub- collector is pulled out from pond.Period, continuous micro- inflation, newly hatched larvae overall length 2.0mm or so, yolk bag is larger, and early stage consumes Nutriment in yolk bag.Prelarva schistostoma is formed after 48 hrs, and alimentary canal has led to, initial feeding, can feed opening at this time Bait.Initial stage day amount of water 10~15%, is gradually increased quantity of exchanged water to the uninterrupted flowing water of whole day with the growth and development of seed later It cultivates.
4, bait culture and reinforcing:
Feed series used in green fin black scraper Puffer seed breeding are as follows: SS wheel animalcule → artemia nauplii → artificial microparticle Mixed feed (fish is No. 2, No. 3 precious) → shellfish meat, converts bait and adjustment according to the development of green fin black scraper Puffer and growing state in due course Feeding volume.
Bait culture: SS wheel animalcule carries out expanding numerous culture in animal feed workshop, expand before fry is open it is numerous to three-level kind, It cultivates logarithmic growth phase to be fed, 1~4 piece of ovum is hung below single wheel animalcule, wheel animalcule culture can feed yeast cake and chlorella. Artemia nauplii can be hatched for 24 hours by buying high-quality artemia eggs under the conditions of illumination 2000lx, 28~30 DEG C of water temperature, be collected Artemia nauplii, decladding are fed again after the completion of fortification.
Bait is strengthened: wheel animalcule is strengthened, and wheel Eimeria is free of other protozoans and pathogen from the purebred SS wheel animalcule of culture, Wheel animalcule is cleaned into filtering with 300 mesh sieve tulles before feeding every time, microexamination wheel animalcule vigor, if wheel animalcule existence it is bad or A large amount of ghosts are dead, then cannot feed.The healthy SS wheel animalcule of cultivation is placed on 2m3In hatching barrel, bead algae solution is added and splits pot Algae, every side's water body add 30 grams and split pot algae powder, hot housing wheel animalcule 6~12 hours, regather wheel animalcule and fed.
Artemia is strengthened, and after the artemia nauplii hatched is collected decladding, is put into new hatching barrel, every Fang Shui addition 30 Gram pot algae powder and other micronutrient elements are split, then big inflation hot housing 6~12 hours is fed again.
5, seed rearing:
Green fin black scraper Puffer high-efficient method for cultivating fry can solve early period be suitable for open-mouthed bait, mid-term easily it is adherent it is dead, after Phase bait converts low main problem, catches several key points, can greatly promote fry quality and emergence rate.
1. water environmental control.Seed rearing requires the pure and fresh stabilization of water quality, gradually adds new water extremely within 5~8 days after prelarva opening 120cm takes equality of temperature to change water mode, and rate of water exchange is 10%~20%, is gradually increased quantity of exchanged water with the growth of fry, when 30 age in days 50% is increased to, later with the increase of the growth of fry and food ration, rate of water exchange is gradually increased to 50%~100%.Water temperature control Between 18~26 DEG C, as the growth and development of larva and juvenile gradually rises, water temperature diurnal variation should be lower than 1 DEG C, and pH7.0~8.2 are molten It solves oxygen and is greater than 5mg/L, guarantee fry normal growth.It cultivates by 35~40 days, density and time-division pond is cultivated according to juvenile fish, fall pond, It is transferred to the intermediate culture of seed.
2. light control.Green fin black scraper Puffer seed likes mild light, and Larva and fry is mostly bunched activity on water body surface layer, to light Intensity has certain selectivity, and when night and early morning, dusk light are weaker, larva and juvenile is bunched at bright place, and in light in the daytime Then bunch compared with shady place when strong, fry is in dispersed in water in situation that night is unglazed, is not bunched.Green fin black scraper Puffer seed training For illumination general control in 5000lx hereinafter, being advisable with 2000lx~3000lx, light makes every effort to uniform, soft when educating, and avoids strong light And direct light.
3. water changing method.Due to the fry very little that green fin black scraper Puffer has just hatched, by 10 days culture fry growth rates It is usually no more than 100%, fish body is soft before 30 days, does not form keratin skin coating, changes during water in the presence of easily adherent dead Situations such as dying can change water mode using bottom siphon small-sized net cage after shoal of fish dispersion, may be used daytime in night no light Small-bore pipe siphon method integrally reaches 0.8~1cm or so to fry and can replace large cage and change water to avoid fry adherent, The training method of perennial draingage culture or 50%-100% quantity of exchanged water can be used when fry entirely reaches 2cm or more.
4. feeding method.After green fin black scraper Puffer newly hatched larvae opening, bait is fed according to fry intestines turgor in right amount daily Material is respectively fed once sooner or later daily, and for wheel animalcule always in 8~10/ml, feeding method has group according to prelarva daytime in holding water body Poly- behavior is carried out and is fed in shoal of fish compact district fixed point, can increase the probability that fry ingests, reduces energy consumption of ingesting.Daily simultaneously The living body chlorella voluntarily cultivated or commodity concentration algae solution are added in pond, so that water colour is kept light green, are kept small in water Ball concentration of algae is 10 × 104~30 × 104Ind/ml, only SS wheel animalcule does not provide bait, may also function as and strengthens bait, reinforced battalion Feeding effect.
5. bait converts.After SS wheel animalcule feeds 15~20 days, a small amount of artemia nauplii, wheel animalcule and artemia can be fed It feeds 5-7 days simultaneously, observes whole fries and all ingested artemia, the enteron aisle presentation Chinese red of fry, wheel animalcule under microscope Stopping is fed, and chlorella can also stop adding.Early period, artemia individual wanted smaller (artemia of hatching 24 hours), and the later period is with fish The increase artemia individual of body can increase and feed after strengthening, and feed 2~3/ml of density.When fry reaches 2.5~3cm, just Mixed feed can be fed.It is first repeatedly of fixed place and time on a small quantity to feed in bait conversion process, gradually domestication culture;It is allowed to fry Adapt to mixed feed of actively ingesting.Artemia or scallop meat are continuously fed while feeding mixed feed, until all fries are suitable Should ingest mixed feed, can stop to feed artemia.It feeds 5~8 times daily, feeds 8%~15% that doses is fish body weight day, sooner or later Bottom is inhaled, the granular bait for fish that bottom of pond is scattered is removed.
6. dividing pond.Reach 3~5cm when fry body is long, pond can be divided.With the growth of green fin black scraper Puffer, need and the time-division Pool cultivated, fry breeding density also from large to small, keeps green fin black scraper Puffer size specification in same aquaculture pond neat, not only can be with It prevents big fish from killing and devouring small fish, but also can be improved efficiency of feed utilization.Density when fish body weighs 5~8g/ tail be 200~300 tails/ m3, density when fry weight 20~40g/ tail is 100~150 tails/m3
6, commodity offspring seed:
Cultivation time of the green fin black scraper Puffer from newly hatched larvae to commodity offspring seed is 50~80 days, and specification is 5~7 centimetres.Fish Seedling body length, which reaches 5 centimetres or more, to be cultivated in intermediate rearing pond, sea pond or seawater cage, support into marketable fish At the stage.
By 40~50 days larval rearings, 22.6 ten thousand tail of active healthy commodity offspring seed of 34~78mm, hatching are cultivated Rate, survival rate, emergence rate are respectively as follows: 93.1%, 80.6%, 65.6%.
Embodiment 2
The present embodiment is different in addition to parent population batch, and other breeding methods are substantially the same manner as Example 1.
In June, 2017 collects wild 317 tail of parent population from Qingdao Lang Yagang harbour surrounding waters, and artificial domestication survives 285 Tail.The scale lengths of parent population are 24.7~35.5 centimetres, and weight is 215-580 grams.Parent population point pond is temporarily supported, because this year is compared with former years The temperature of the same period is high, and reinforced cultivating 7 days or so, early June, parent population began to natural spawning successively.5~June 20 June adopts It receives fertilized eggs and carries out seed breeding, 21~24.2 DEG C of water temperature, oviposition period is or so two weeks.It is trained by 35~45 days seeds It supports, cultivates 33.9 ten thousand tail of active healthy commodity offspring seed of 35~70mm, hatching rate, survival rate, emergence rate are respectively as follows: 95.3%, 85.8%, 72.3%.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of green fin black scraper Puffer offspring seed cultivation method, it is characterised in that the method includes parent population selection and strengthens, natural Oviposition and collection, hatching, bait culture and reinforcing, seed rearing and commodity offspring seed, the specific steps are as follows:
1) parent population selection and reinforcing:
Parent population require selection individual is larger, body colour is good, it is not damaged, without deformity, disease-free wound, energetic, healthy and strong 2~3 active ages The wild green fin black scraper Puffer in natural sea area, starts the selection and cultivation of green fin black scraper Puffer parent population in the first tenday period of a month in mid-March to May, often 10 side's water bodys put 80~100 tail of parent population quantity in a suitable place to breed, and female-male proportion is 2:1 or 3:1;
Temperature in parent fish rearing pond is maintained at 18~22 DEG C, day water exchange capacity 100%~200%, natural lighting adjusts illumination Intensity avoids direct light within the scope of 1000~2000lx, removes bottom of pond residual bait and excrement with suction bottom device sooner or later;
It is fed in parent population hot housing and grabs shrimp including fresh oyster, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Chlamys farreri, clam worm and hawk and exist Interior bait, feeding rate 2~6% (weight ratio);
2) natural spawning and collection:
During parent population is strengthened, parent population gonad development degree is inspected periodically, develops preferable parent population abdominal distention, profile is obvious, hand Sense is soft and flexible;Light pressure then has milky sperm or the outflow of Chinese red ovum, and development so far can be in parent fish pond Inside it is put into ovum collection device;
Collecting fertilized eggs method: ovum collection device is placed in parent fish pond, after parent population voluntarily lays eggs 12 hours, takes out ovum Collection device, collected fertilized eggs, which move into aquaculture pond, is hatched;
3) hatch:
Green fin black scraper Puffer incubating oosperm condition: water quality is cleanliness without any pollution, the natural sea through husky filter and ultraviolet radiation for sterilizing and disinfecting Water does not change water during hatching, cultivate in aquaculture pond, initial 40~50cm of the depth of water, and 19~22 DEG C of water temperature, salinity 32~33 ‰, PH 7.8~8.2, uninterrupted micro- inflation keep cultivating Dissolved Oxygen in Water (DO) >=5mg/L, 1000~2000lx of illumination;Daily Development of fertilized ova situation is observed under the microscope, and removes the dirt of the water surface in time;Water temperature is developed with newly hatched larvae slowly to be risen Up to 23~26 DEG C and this temperature is maintained in cultivating process behind;
After fertilized eggs are hatched completely, ovum collection device is pulled out from aquaculture pond in time, during which, continuous micro- inflation, in prelarva Feed open-mouthed bait after hatching 48 hours, initial stage day amount of water 10~15% (volume ratio), later with the growth and development of seed by Quantity of exchanged water is gradually increased to the uninterrupted running water technology of whole day;
4) bait culture and reinforcing:
Feed series used in green fin black scraper Puffer seed breeding are as follows: SS wheel animalcule → artemia nauplii → artificial microparticle cooperation Feed → shellfish meat converts bait and adjustment feeding volume according to the development of green fin black scraper Puffer and growing state in due course;
Bait is strengthened: SS wheel animalcule bead algae solution and splitting pot algae hot housing 6~12 hours, collects wheel animalcule and fed;
After the artemia nauplii hatched is collected decladding, be put into new hatching barrel, every Fang Shui add 30 grams split pot algae powder and Other micronutrient elements, big inflation hot housing 6~12 hours, are then fed;
5) seed rearing:
1. water environmental control seed rearing requires the pure and fresh stabilization of water quality, gradually add new water to the depth of water within 5~8 days after prelarva opening 120cm takes equality of temperature to change water mode, and rate of water exchange is 10%~20%, is gradually increased quantity of exchanged water with the growth of fry, when 30 age in days Rate of water exchange increases to 50%, and later with the increase of the growth of fry and food ration, rate of water exchange is gradually increased to 50%~100%;Water Temperature control system is between 18~26 DEG C, as the growth and development of larva and juvenile gradually rises, water temperature diurnal variation should be lower than 1 DEG C, pH7.0~ 8.2, dissolved oxygen (DO) >=5mg/L guarantees fry normal growth;It cultivates by 35~40 days, density and time-division is cultivated according to juvenile fish Pond, pond are transferred to the intermediate culture of seed;
2. when light control green fin black scraper Puffer seed rearing light control in 5000lx hereinafter, be advisable with 2000lx~3000lx, Light makes every effort to uniform, soft, avoids strong light and direct light;
3. water changing method prelarva hatched in 30 days, in night no light, changed after shoal of fish dispersion using bottom siphon small-sized net cage Water mode, daytime then avoid fry adherent using small-bore pipe siphon method;It is big integrally to reach 0.8~1cm replacement to fry Net cage changes water, when fry entirely reaches 2cm or more, using perennial draingage culture or the training method of 50%-100% quantity of exchanged water;
4. feeding bait in right amount according to fry intestines turgor daily, often after the green fin black scraper Puffer newly hatched larvae opening of feeding method It respectively feeds once sooner or later, and for wheel animalcule always in 8~10/ml, feeding method has clustering row according to prelarva daytime in holding water body To carry out and being fed in shoal of fish compact district fixed point, while adding chlorella or concentration algae solution in pond daily, water colour is made to keep light Green, keeping bead concentration of algae in water is 10 × 104~30 × 104ind/ml;
5. bait converts after SS wheel animalcule feeds 15~20 days, increase the feeding volume of artemia nauplii, wheel animalcule and artemia are simultaneously It feeds 5-7 days, observes whole fries and all ingested artemia, Chinese red is presented in the enteron aisle of fry under microscope, can stop feeding Wheel animalcule is simultaneously stopped addition chlorella;Artemia feeds 2~3/ml of density;When fry reaches 2.5~3cm, feeds cooperation and raise Material;It is first repeatedly of fixed place and time on a small quantity to feed in bait conversion process, gradually domestication culture;It feeds continuous while mixed feed Artemia or scallop meat are fed, until all fries adapt to mixed feed of ingesting, can stop to feed artemia, feed daily 5~8 times, It feeds 8%~15% that doses is fish body weight day, inhales bottom, the granular bait for fish that removing bottom of pond is scattered sooner or later;
6. point pond reaches 3~5cm when fry body length, a point pond is carried out;Cultivation density when fish body weighs 5~8g/ tail is 200~300 Tail/m3, cultivation density when fry weight 20~40g/ tail is 100~150 tails/m3
6) commodity offspring seed fry body length, which reaches 5 centimetres or more, to carry out in intermediate rearing pond, sea pond or seawater cage Culture, into marketable fish forming stage.
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