CN105557595B - A kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed - Google Patents

A kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed Download PDF

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CN105557595B
CN105557595B CN201610036343.2A CN201610036343A CN105557595B CN 105557595 B CN105557595 B CN 105557595B CN 201610036343 A CN201610036343 A CN 201610036343A CN 105557595 B CN105557595 B CN 105557595B
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fry
water
days
fine
qinling mountains
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CN105557595A (en
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邵俭
危起伟
王丰
郭威
吴金明
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Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute CAFS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed, and step is:A, artificial incubation;B, fry opening is fed;C, incubation tank is removed to cultivate;Rational density is put in a suitable place to breed;D, Fen Chi is raised and train:It selects agreeable to the taste bait, tame and docile food control, be carried out at the same time the daily management and disease prevention of science.According to Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite biological characteristics, full artificial regulatory is carried out from water temperature, illumination, dissolved oxygen etc., and make fry physically fit, well-balanced using food intake regulation, standardized management, bait utilization is high, environmental resistance is strong, the advantages that disease resistance is strong, greatly improved Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite hatchability of fertile eggs, filial generation fish growth rate and survival rate;Filial generation fish body is healthy and strong, well-balanced, has stronger environmental resistance and premunition, and the generation of deformity has been greatly reduced.Method is simple, and operability is strong, and practical application is good, is completely suitable for the large-scale production of seed, for the protection of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite species resource and its Natural Population restore.

Description

A kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed
Technical field
The invention belongs to endangered wildlife plasm resource protection technical fields, are more particularly to a kind of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seedling The breeding method of kind, in terms of the recovery of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite Natural Population and artificial conservation.
Background technology
Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite (Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis) is commonly called as spending fish, multicolored fish, plum blossom fish, is subordinate to Belong to salmon shape mesh (Saloniformes), salmonidae (Salmonidae) is China endemic species, the land envelope type cold water fish of local distribution Class.Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite distribution is extremely narrow, and habitat condition is stringent, and natural population is rare, and it is too white to be only distributed in the Qinling Mountains The Heihe of mountain Mine Dong Lu, the stone river of northern foot, the Xushuihe Shui He of southern foot and too Baihe, the thousand river tributaries in Long County and Gansu the Upper Reaches of Wei River And tributary (Shaanxi Province animal institute etc., 1987).Due to nature and the double influence of human factor, Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite inhabites and survives Environment deteriorates increasingly, and germ plasm resource is seriously destroyed, and has been put into the wild protection animal of national two level (happy Pei fine jades and Chen Yi The fine jade, 1998), the protection of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite is had been very urgent.With artificial propagation, rearing of fingerling and various cultivation sides Formula reaches its maturity, and China, which increases, in addition payes attention to endangered species protection, becomes protection using full artificial culture and scientific management Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite resource becomes most effective means.But since fine-scaled graphite individual miniaturization in the Qinling Mountains is serious, sexal maturity resource Amount falls sharply, and habitat conditions is harsh, and kind trip is jumped in the impatient hot-tempered, happiness of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite in addition, and skin mucus is few, and body is by thin squama, irritability The features such as strong, easily scratch onset is lethal (Shi De bright etc., 2012) for individual.Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite is carnivorous cold water fish, female The absolute fish brood amount of fish is small;Sexal maturity generally requires 3~4 years, and 500g fishes growth cycle is generally in 4~5 years.In natural environment its Rate of fertilization, hatching rate and survival rate are low, and the speed of growth is slow, growth cycle is long, artificial domestication is more difficult;This increases Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite The difficulty that germ plasm resource is restored.In recent years, by practical exploration for many years, a kind of ripe, efficient Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seedling is worked out Kind is cultivated and the domestication techniques of science, improves the seed speed of growth and survival rate.
Invention content
In view of the above problems, the purpose of the invention is to provide a kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed, gram The problems such as having taken the high mortality and the slow speed of growth in the fine-scaled graphite artificial breeding environment of the Qinling Mountains, greatly improved Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite Hatchability of fertile eggs, the growth rate and survival rate of filial generation fish;Filial generation fish body is healthy and strong, well-balanced, have stronger environmental resistance and Premunition, and the generation of deformity has been greatly reduced.Method is simple, and operability is strong, and practical application is good, is completely suitable for seedling The large-scale production of kind, for the protection of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite species resource and its Natural Population restore.
In order to realize above-mentioned purpose, the present invention uses following technical measures:
A kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed, step are:
1) artificial incubation:
A) to (28~31 days) by the end of March of mating period to mid-April (13~17 days), to the thin squama in the wild Qinling Mountains of cultivation Salmon carries out artificial induced spawning, fertilized eggs is poured into the incubation tank being protected from light and hatched, water temperature regulation and control at 10~12 DEG C, the depth of water for 10~ 20cm, dissolved oxygen are higher than 8mg/L, and flow is sticked so that fish-egg is not viscous as degree, and pH is 7.8~8.4;
B) it is daily to reject dead ovum, and slight jitter incubation tank in time, fertilized eggs is made equably to be layered on slot bottom, daily morning and evening Crude salt (NaCl contents are poured into water inlet:>=90%) 2~3kg.(crude salt is edible salt, but compared with its somewhat lower purity, particle compared with Greatly)
2) fry opening is fed:
A) start within second day the high steady VC of full pool spilling head after fry opening, spilled once every 7~10 days, the amount of splashing for 1~ 2g/m3
B) when 80~90% fry schistostomas 4~5 days, the intensification of fry body colour occur, while yolk bag absorbs volume ratio and accounts for The 1/3~2/3 of initial volume carries out opening and feeds, and open-mouthed bait uses the artemia nauplii through fortification, feeds density It for 8~10/ml, feeds once, continuously feeds 3~5 times every 5~10min, observe by the naked eye to 80~95% fries mouthful After having bait in pharyngeal cavity or enteron aisle, interval 2h is fed once, is fed daily 8 times or so, no more than 10 times;
3) incubation tank is removed to cultivate:
A) it is that 50~60% fries are cruised after Model Establishment that punching parade, which occurs, in 90% fry, all removes incubation tank, goes to Fish basin or net cage are cultivated, and are put before seedling and are carried out cleaning and sterilizing to fish basin or net cage, fry stocking rate for 5000~7000 tails/ m3, 0.01~0.05m of water flow316 DEG C of/s, water temperature <, the depth of water are 30~35cm, and dissolved oxygen is higher than 6mg/L, and pH is 7.8~8.4; Fry yolk bag disappearance 1/3~2/3 starts to gradually increase natural lighting, and half masking is gradually transitions again to part by completely obscured Masking, glazed area is by 0%~50%~70%;Intensity of illumination works as fish by 5~10lx~100~200lx~200~400lx When seedling body length is more than 5cm, glazed area can be increased to 90%, intensity of illumination≤800lx, and light application time is long by the natural lighting time Degree is gradually transitions 12h again to 16h ,≤18h;
B) after 3~5 days for three days on end, crude salt (NaCl contents are poured into water inlet daily morning and evening:>=90%) 3~ 5kg;Betagen Solution water body disinfection was carried out every 5~7 days, does not cut off the water, splashes in water inlet, using a concentration of 3~ 5ml/m3, it is used continuously 3 days, rainy days deactivates;
D) fish basin or net cage are cleared up daily morning and evening, chooses deformity and dead fry, clear up fish basin bottom part fish faeces and miscellaneous Object;It notes abnormalities and carries out fry physical examination, record data;
E) fry is grown to 1.5~2cm, is mixed using (≤1mm) is minced through fortification artemia nauplii and water earthworm Object is fed, and is slowly fed in water inlet position, every 2h/ times, is fed daily 7~9 times, feeding volume with 15~ 20min carries out feeding again next time subject to eating up, as fry growth increases early (6:00) evening (20:00) single feeding volume increases Measure is the 5% of fry increased weight or 8% or 10%;
4) a point pond is raised and train:
A) when fry body length reaches 3cm, a point pond is carried out to fry every 20~30 days, fry body length difference is less than 2cm Be grouped together, choose the individual of specification difference in time, prevent fry from killing and devouring mutually, water temperature≤16 DEG C, the depth of water be 30~35cm, Dissolved oxygen is higher than 6mg/L, and pH is 7.8~8.4;After 3~5 days for three days on end, daily morning and evening water inlet pour into crude salt 3~ 5kg;Betagen Solution water body disinfection was carried out every 5~7 days, does not cut off the water, splashes in water inlet, using a concentration of 3~ 5ml/m3, it is used continuously 3 days, rainy days deactivates;Fish basin or net cage are cleared up daily morning and evening, choose deformity and dead fry, cleaning Fish basin bottom part fish faeces and sundries;It notes abnormalities and carries out fry physical examination, record data, residual bait is removed before each bait throwing in; Fish basin or net cage are no longer protected from light, and local setting used in sunshade board is hidden in fry, and water earthworm is through 1~2mg/L Enrofloxacin water After solution impregnates 18~22min, the cotton gauze package of disinfection is suspended on water surface for fry by food;
B) it when cultivation fry body length reaches more than 3cm, is fed using water earthworm and artifical compound feed, water earthworm 10% that (≤1.5cm) feeding volume is fry weight is minced, artifical compound feed feeding volume is 3~5g/, thousand tails, every It 2h/ times, feeds daily 8 times;
C) when fry body length reaches more than 5cm, 18 DEG C, depth of water 35-50cm of water temperature <, dissolved oxygen is higher than 6mg/L, and pH is 7.8~8.4, light application time is increased using artificial light source, round the clock ratio≤18:6, intensity of illumination is not more than 800lx, all feeds Artifical compound feed is fed 4~6 times daily, and each feeding volume is subject to 30min and is eaten up, and daily early (6:00~7:00) it is late (19:00~20:00) increase single feeding volume;
Described is that the artemia nauplii that will newly hatch is transferred in culture tank through fortification artemia nauplii, close It spends for 100~300/ml, 0.5~1h of addition spirulina powder (0.5~1g/L) reinforcing;
The water earthworm is with after 15~20min of Enrofloxacin aqueous solution soaking of a concentration of 1~2mg/L, with clear Water minces again after eluriating;
The man-made feeds be particulate artifical compound feed, main component:Thick protein >=50%, crude fat >= 8%, crude fibre≤3%, coarse ash≤17%, trace element >=3.5%, calcium≤3%, lysine >=3.5%.
B) reject dead ovum in the step 1) in step in time per daily self-control suction pipe, action needs light and slow, glues glutinous ovum It can gently be blown off with suction pipe, slight jitter incubation tank makes ovum evenly laid out in slot bottom;The modeling that the self-control suction pipe is 3~5ml Expect suction pipe, by open pointed tip cut off again with alcolhol burner toast it is mellow and full, bore be 4~5mm.
The artemia nauplii through fortification carries out 2~3 precipitation suction strainer processing, prevents chorion from being missed by fry Food;The water earthworm fed mince degree and particulate artifical compound feed granular size selection according to actual measurement fry schistostoma size come Judgement.
In the step 3) a) in step as fry growth is stepped up water flow, maximum flow of water amount can be collected with fry Subject to group cruises, increasing night in daytime subtracts, and incrementss are 0.01~0.02m3/s。
A) there is 4 days, yolk bag absorber for 90% fry schistostoma in fry opening time in step in the step 3) Product ratio starts to feed when accounting for the 1/2 of initial volume, and feeding slowly to carry out, to observe in 90% fry ccavum oropharygeum or enteron aisle Have subject to bait, fed every 2h/ times;
It is fed daily in the step 3) 8 times, the time is respectively:6:00,8:00,10:00,12:00,14:00,16: 00,18:00,20:00,22:00,00:00;When fry body length reaches more than 5cm, artifical compound feed is all fed, daily It feeds 5 times, the time is respectively 7:00,11:00,15:00,19:00,23:00.
The step 3) and step 4) monitoring water body whole day fluctuating temperature range≤2 DEG C;Dissolved oxygen is higher than 6mg/L, and pH is excellent It is selected as 7.9~8.2.
The crude salt and Betagen Solution complementary interval use, and carry out conventional water body disinfection, prevent fish disease.Often After 4 days for three days on end, crude salt 4kg is poured into water inlet daily morning and evening;Betagen Solution water body disinfection was carried out every 6 days, no Cut off the water, splash in water inlet, use a concentration of 4ml/m3, it is used continuously 3 days, rainy days deactivates.
The amount of splashing is 1g/m to the high steady VC of full pool spilling head for the first time after the step 3 fry opening3, splashed one every 10 days It is secondary;During seed rearing afterwards, when fry body length reaches 3cm, full pool spilling head amount is 1.2~1.5g/m3, every 8 It spilled once;After fry body length reaches 5cm, full pool spilling head amount is 1.5~2g/m3, spilled once every 7 days.
Described sterilizes fish basin or the disinfection of net cage and cotton gauze using potassium permanganate, and a concentration of 0.1~0.3%.
The povidone iodine is made generally in 10% solution, and as disinfectant, dosage is 3~5ml/m3
The e of the step 3)) in the artemia nauplii feeding volume through fortification be 8~10/ml, water earthworm throw 10% of amount for fry weight is fed, artifical compound feed feeding volume is 3~5g/, thousand tails, every 2h/ times.According to fry Growing state carries out taming and dociling bait material transition, the water earthworm (≤1cm) that artemia nauplii adds to mince after feeding 10~15 days; When fry body length reaches 3cm, water earthworm carries out the appropriate artifical compound feed for mincing (≤1.5cm) and adding microparticle; The feeding volume of water earthworm is gradually decreased later and transits to only suspension water earthworm supplies fry by food;Fry body length reaches 5cm, all Artifical compound feed is fed, completes the full domestication of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite juvenile fish.
Under full artificial environment, by the daily management of science, put in a suitable place to breed with the artificial incubation of standardization, rational density, It is selected with reference to agreeable to the taste bait, tames and dociles food control and disease prevention, cultivated by 90~120 days and complete the full artificial domestication of seed scale (Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite fry of being subject to reach ingest completely artifical compound feed and adapt to artificial breeding environment).
Compared with prior art, the present invention haing the following advantages and effect:
A kind of breeding method of above-mentioned Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed passes through artificial regulatory envirment factor, the standardization pipe of science Specification is managed, improve Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite hatchability of fertile eggs, fry rearing growth rate and survival rate and significantly reduces its deformity Rate, method is simple, and operability is strong, and practical application is good as the breeding of remaining salmon trout cold water fish, is completely suitable for seedling The large-scale production of kind, for the protection of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite species resource and its Natural Population restore.
A kind of breeding method of above-mentioned Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed, has further the advantage that:
1. with higher hatching rate:The Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite incubating oosperm time is long, and condition is harsh, mainly by water temperature, light According to dissolved oxygen is affected.The present invention, with reference to artificial regulatory means (being shown in Table 1), is carried according to Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite reproductive biology characteristic High hatchability of fertile eggs (being higher than 83%), reduce seed abnormal rate (less than 1%).
Table 1 carries out the artificial regulatory standard of water temperature, illumination and dissolved oxygen according to seed size
Note:Incubating brachymystax lenok seeds water base water quality index in the Qinling Mountains must meet national water quality standard for fishery GB 11607- 1989, pH preferably 7.9~8.2.
2. improve fry growth rate and survival rate:Due to the special habit of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite and living environment, Show that the speed of growth is slow, and the peak mortality phase is apparent during previous Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite fry rearing.The present invention passes through for many years Practical exploration is tamed and dociled stage by stage using three kinds of bait such as the artemia nauplii through fortification, water earthworm and artifical compound feed Food, and combine growth characteristic and best artificial optimization's nurturing an environment is provided, the seed speed of growth and survival rate greatly improved (by 100~120 days seed rearings, the equal body length of fry can reach 6cm;It is calculated with harvesting the long 6cm seeds of equal body, equal survival rate Higher than 64.9%).
3. raising and train the standardization and standardization of operation, cultivate the large-scale artificial of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite and realize, method letter Single, operability is strong, and practical application is good as remaining salmon trout cold water fish artificial increasing cultivation, is completely suitable for seed Large-scale production.
4. by full artificial regulatory means, make the fry of domestication physically fit, well-balanced, bait utilization is high, environment Tolerance is strong, and disease resistance is stronger, can fine reform of nature environment;Scientific management through the several months can carry out artificial fecundation and release, Be conducive to being promoted and recovered for germ plasm resource.
Specific embodiment:
Embodiment 1:
A kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed, using following steps:
(1) artificial incubation:9 to 14 April in 2013, in the national level Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province Long County fine-scaled graphite nature reserve area It is suitable to close in protection station through Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite artificial induced spawning, obtain more than 15000 grain of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite fertilized eggs.Using mountain stream water Water temperature regulation and control are carried out with artificial deep-well;Mountain stream water is introduced into 50m3Sedimentation basin import 20m again3Cistern in simultaneously fill well Water completes temperature by controlling well water flow in real time.When dissolved oxygen is less than 8mg/L, carried out using oxygen increasing pump in cistern Oxygenation, while increase water flow.Water temperature maintains 10 or 11 or 12 DEG C during incubating oosperm, dissolved oxygen 8.05 or 8.25 or 8.45 or 8065 or 80.80 or 8.95mg/L, pH be 8.0 or 8.1, hatching process using being protected from light processing entirely.It is incubating daily morning and evening Change slot water inlet and pour into crude salt (NaCl contents:>=90%) 3kg rejects dead ovum with self-control suction pipe.Hatched with 90% rate of fertilization Membrane is standard, through 415 or 418 or 420 or more than 12500 tail of 422h incubation of membrane fry, hatching rate 83.00%.
(2) fry is open:Schistostoma occurs the 4th day, and the artemia nauplii opening supported and strengthened of carrying on the work, feeding density is It 8 or 9 or 10/ml, feeds once, continuously feeds 3 times every 10min, observe by the naked eye to 90% fry ccavum oropharygeum or intestines After having bait in road, interval 2h is fed once, is fed 8 times;Second day full pool spilling head high steady VC, 1g/m after opening3;Afterwards It spilled once during seed rearing every 7 or 8 or 9 days, high steady VC, 1.2 or 1.5 or 2g/m3
(3) incubation tank is removed to cultivate:On May 21 the same year, it is that 60% fry establishes mould of cruising that punching parade, which occurs, in 90% fry Cultivation raising in cage is moved to after formula.More than 11600 tail of fry is harvested altogether, is divided into two net cages and is put in a suitable place to breed, each net cage fry stocking rate About 5000 tails/m3.Water temperature in daily monitoring net cage, dissolved oxygen, pH;Temperature is completed by controlling well water flow in real time: When fry body length is less than 5cm, water temperature≤16 DEG C;After fry body length is more than 5cm, 17 DEG C of water temperature <;Whole day fluctuating temperature range ≤ 2 DEG C, when dissolved oxygen is less than 6mg/L, oxygenation is carried out, while increase water flow in cistern using oxygen increasing pump;The depth of water for 25cm or 28cm or 30cm, for dissolved oxygen in 6.82~7.93mg/L, pH is 8.0 or 8.1;Afterwards after 4 days for three days on end, daily morning and evening Crude salt (NaCl contents are poured into net cage or fish basin water inlet:>=90%) 4kg;Betagen Solution water body was carried out after 6 days Disinfection, uses a concentration of 4ml/m3, draw 80ml with disposable syringe and (press cistern volume 20m3×4ml/m3Calculate) gather dimension Ketone iodine solution injects fill and stirred evenly in the bucket of 15L water after, splash, do not cut off the water in cistern water inlet, continuously make With 3 days, rainy days deactivated.When fry is grown to about 2cm, carried out using through fortification artemia nauplii and water earthworm mixture It feeds.After water earthworm impregnates 15~20min with Enrofloxacin aqueous solution (a concentration of 1~2mg/L), after being eluriated with clear water again It is minced (≤1cm), feeding volume is subject to 15min and is eaten up.It is slowly fed in water inlet position, every 2h/ times, daily It feeds 8 times, Feeding time is respectively:6:00,8:00,10:00,12:00,14:00,16:00,18:00,20:00,22:00, 00:00。
(4) a point pond is raised and train:June 28 the same year, fry body length reach more than 3cm, are selected by specification size, and all Fish basin is transferred to be raised and train, fish basin local setting used in sunshade board is hidden in fry, carries out a point pond to fry every 30 days afterwards, Choose the larger individual of specification difference in time;It is fed using water earthworm and artifical compound feed;Water earthworm mince (≤ 1.5cm) feeding volume is the 10% of fry weight, and artifical compound feed feeding volume is thousand tails of 3g/, and every 2h/ times, day feeds The time of 8 times is respectively:6:00,8:00,10:00,12:00,14:00,16:00,18:00,20:00,22:00,00:00.It throws After feeding 10 days, the feeding volume of water earthworm is gradually decreased;By transitting to only suspension potassium permanganate after 10% to the 5% of fry weight The cotton gauze package water earthworm of disinfection.When fry body length reaches more than 5cm, light application time is suitably increased using common tungsten lamp, Thousand tails of artifical compound feed 5g/ are all fed, the time for feeding 5 times daily is respectively 7:00,11:00,15:00,19: 00,23:00;Afterwards daily morning and evening 7:00、19:00 gradually increases feeding volume, feeds every time and is subject to 30min and eats up, and daily 23:00 ~00:00 closes artificial light source.Light source carries out anti-direct light processing, and intensity of illumination is about 600lx.Fish basin is cleared up daily morning and evening, is chosen Go out deformity and dead fry, clear up fish basin bottom part fish faeces, note abnormalities and carry out fry physical examination, record data;Each bait throwing in It is preceding to remove residual bait.Water flow may gradually increase with fry growth, and average water flow is 0.02m3/ s, maximum flow of water amount is about For 0.05m3/ s reduces water flow when feeding and after closing light source, and the depth of water increases to 45cm.It cultivated and completes by 110~120 days The full artificial domestication of seed, the same year September 20 days harvest long more than 8000 tail of 6cm fries of equal body, through artificial regulatory water temperature, fry highest It is 16.8 DEG C to adapt to water temperature, minimum water transparency is suitable for as 5cm, dissolved oxygen 6.18mg/L, without the apparent phenomena of mortality.
Described sterilizes fish basin or the disinfection of net cage and cotton gauze using potassium permanganate, and a concentration of 0.1~0.3%;
The povidone iodine is made generally in 10% solution, and as disinfectant, dosage is 3~5ml/m3
The steady VC of the height is the steady VC of height of the favorite biotechnology production of jiangsu wuxi, and dosage is 1.0~2g/m3
Embodiment 2:
A kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed, using following steps:
(1) artificial incubation:On April 16th, 2014 to May 18, in Shaanxi Province Taibai County conservation of wildlife station white clouds gorge By Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite artificial induced spawning in base, more than 55000 grain of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite fertilized eggs is obtained.Using urban river water and artificial well Water temperature regulation and control are carried out, urban river water is introduced into 100m3Sedimentation basin import 15m again3Cistern in fill well water simultaneously, increase and decrease well Water flow come complete temperature regulation and control.When dissolved oxygen is less than 8mg/L, oxygenation is carried out, while increase flow in cistern using oxygen increasing pump Amount.Water temperature maintains 10 or 11 or 12 DEG C during incubating oosperm, and dissolved oxygen is in 8.05 or 8.15 or 8.25 or 8.45 or 8.62mg/ L, pH are 7.9 or 8 or 8.1 or 8.2, and hatching process uses and is protected from light processing entirely.Daily morning and evening crude salt is poured into incubation tank water inlet (NaCl contents:>=90%) 2kg rejects dead ovum with self-control suction pipe;
(2) fry is open:Using 90% rate of fertilization incubation of membrane as standard, about incubated through 408 or 428 or 440 or 460 or 480h Dissolve more than 46500 tail of film fry, hatching rate is up to 83.63%.When schistostoma occurs the 5th day, with the artemia through fortification without section children Body is open, and feeds density as 10/ml, feeds once, continuously feed 5 times every 5min, observe by the naked eye to 80% fry After having bait in ccavum oropharygeum or enteron aisle, interval 2h is fed once, is fed daily 8 times;Second day full pool spilling head height after fry opening Steady VC, 1g/m3;It spilled once during seed rearing afterwards every 7 or 8 or 10 days, high steady VC, 1 or 1.5 or 2g/m3
(3) incubation tank is removed to cultivate:On June 20 the same year, it is that 50% fry establishes mould of cruising that punching parade, which occurs, in 90% fry Fish basin is moved to after formula.Harvest more than 41000 tail of fry altogether, be divided into 6 fish basins and put in a suitable place to breed, each fish basin fry stocking rate for 6000~ 7000 tails/m3.Daily monitoring fish water in basin temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH;Temperature is completed by controlling well water flow in real time:Work as fish When seedling body length is less than 5cm, water temperature≤16 DEG C;After fry body length is more than 5cm, 18 DEG C of water temperature <;Whole day fluctuating temperature range≤3 DEG C, when dissolved oxygen is less than 6mg/L, oxygenation is carried out, while increase water flow in cistern using oxygen increasing pump;Whole day fluctuating temperature range ≤3℃.The depth of water is 30cm, and for dissolved oxygen in 6.05~7.18mg/L, pH is 7.9~8.2;Afterwards after 3 days for three days on end, often Day pours into crude salt (NaCl contents in fish basin water inlet sooner or later:>=90%) 5kg;Betagen Solution water body was carried out every 5 days to disappear Poison uses a concentration of 5ml/m3, draw 60ml with disposable syringe and (press cistern volume 15m3×4ml/m3Calculate) povidone Iodine solution injects fill and stirred evenly in the bucket of 15L water after, splash, do not cut off the water in cistern water inlet, continuous use 3 My god, rainy days deactivates.When fry is grown to about 2cm, thrown using through fortification artemia nauplii and water earthworm mixture Hello.Water earthworm with Enrofloxacin aqueous solution (a concentration of 1~2mg/L) impregnate 15~20min after, after being eluriated with clear water again into Row minces (≤1cm), and feeding volume is subject to 20min and is eaten up.It is slowly fed in water inlet position, it is daily to throw every 2h/ times It feeds 8 times, Feeding time is respectively:6:00,8:00,10:00,12:00,14:00,16:00,18:00,20:00,22:00,00: 00。
(4) a point pond is raised and train:July 18 the same year, fry body length reach more than 3cm, are selected by specification size, and all Fish basin is transferred to be raised and train, fish basin local setting used in sunshade board is hidden in fry, carries out a point pond to fry every 20 days afterwards, Choose the larger individual of specification difference in time;It is fed using water earthworm and artifical compound feed;Water earthworm mince (≤ 1.5cm) feeding volume is the 10% of fry weight, and artifical compound feed feeding volume is thousand tails of 4g/, and every 2h/ times, day feeds The time of 8 times is respectively:6:00,8:00,10:00,12:00,14:00,16:00,18:00,20:00,22:00,00:00.It throws After feeding 5 days, the feeding volume of water earthworm is gradually decreased;By transitting to only suspension potassium permanganate after 10% to the 5% of fry weight The cotton gauze package water earthworm of disinfection.Fry body length reaches more than 5cm, suitably increases light application time using common tungsten lamp, entirely Portion feeds thousand tails of artifical compound feed 5g/, and the time for feeding 5 times daily is respectively 7:00,11:00,15:00,19:00, 23:00;Afterwards daily morning and evening 7:00、19:00 gradually increases feeding volume, feeds every time and is subject to 30min and eats up, and daily 23:00~ 23:30 close artificial light source.Light source carries out anti-direct light processing, and intensity of illumination is about 800lx.Fish basin is cleared up daily morning and evening, is chosen Deformity and dead fry, clear up fish basin bottom part fish faeces, note abnormalities and carry out fry physical examination, record data;Before each bait throwing in Remove residual bait.Water flow may gradually increase with fry growth, and average water flow is 0.01m3/ s, maximum flow of water amount are about 0.03m3/ s reduces water flow when feeding and after closing light source, and the depth of water increases to 50cm.The same year September 30 days, it is long to harvest equal body More than 25000 tail of 6cm fries, through artificial regulatory water temperature, it is 17.3 DEG C that fry highest, which adapts to water temperature, is suitable for minimum water transparency For 10cm, dissolved oxygen 6.02mg/L, without the apparent phenomena of mortality.
Described sterilizes fish basin or the disinfection of net cage and cotton gauze using potassium permanganate, and a concentration of 0.1~0.3%;
The povidone iodine is made generally in 10% solution, and as disinfectant, dosage is 3~5ml/m3
The steady VC of the height is the steady VC of height of the favorite biotechnology production of jiangsu wuxi, and dosage is 1.0~2g/m3

Claims (6)

1. a kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed, step are:
1)Artificial incubation:
a)To the March 28 ~ 31 of mating period to April 13 ~ 17, artificial induced spawning is carried out to the wild Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite of cultivation, Fertilized eggs are poured into the incubation tank being protected from light and hatched, at 10 ~ 12 DEG C, the depth of water is 10 ~ 20 cm for water temperature regulation and control, and dissolved oxygen is higher than 8 mg/ L, flow are sticked so that fish-egg is not viscous as degree, and pH is 7.8 ~ 8.4;
b)It is daily to reject dead ovum, and incubation tank is shaken, fertilized eggs is made equably to be layered on slot bottom, are poured into daily morning and evening in water inlet 2 ~ 3 kg of crude salt of the % of NaCl contents >=90;
2)Fry opening is fed:
a)Start within second day after fry opening the high steady VC of full pool spilling head, spilled once every 7 ~ 10 days, the amount of splashing is 1 ~ 2 g/m3
b)There is 4 ~ 5 days, the intensification of fry body colour in 80 ~ 90 % fries schistostomas, while yolk bag absorbs volume ratio and accounts for initial volume 1/3 ~ 2/3 carry out opening feed, open-mouthed bait use the artemia nauplii through fortification, feed density for 8 ~ 10/ Ml is fed once every 5 ~ 10 min, is continuously fed 3 ~ 5 times;It observes by the naked eye into 80% ~ 95% fry ccavum oropharygeum or enteron aisle After having bait, 2 h of interval are fed once, are fed daily 8 times, no more than 10 times;
3)Incubation tank is removed to cultivate:
a)It is that 50 ~ 60 % fries are cruised after Model Establishment that punching parade, which occur, in 90 % fries, all removes incubation equipment, goes to fish Basin or net cage are cultivated, and put before seedling and cleaning and sterilizing is carried out to fish basin or net cage, fry stocking rate is 5000~7000 tails/m3, 0.01~0.05 m of water flow316 DEG C of/s, water temperature <, the depth of water are 30 ~ 35 cm, and dissolved oxygen is higher than 6 mg/L, and pH is 7.8 ~ 8.4;Fish Seedling yolk bag, which disappears, 1/3 ~ 2/3 starts to increase natural lighting, and to be gradually transitions illumination strong for the lx of intensity of illumination≤10 completely obscured Spend half masking of 100 ~ 200 lx, glazed area 50%;
b)After 3 ~ 5 days for three days on end, 3 ~ 5 kg of crude salt is poured into water inlet daily morning and evening;Povidone iodine was carried out every 5 ~ 7 days Solution water body disinfection, does not cut off the water, and splashes in water inlet, uses a concentration of 3 ~ 5 ml/m3, it is used continuously 3 days, rainy days stops With;
c)Clear up fish basin or net cage daily morning and evening, choose deformity and dead fry, clear up fish basin or net cage bottom fish faeces and Sundries;It notes abnormalities and carries out fry physical examination, record data;
d)Fry is grown to 1.5 ~ 2 cm, is minced using through fortification artemia nauplii and water earthworm to≤1 mm mixtures It being fed, is fed in water inlet position, every 2 h/ times, fed daily 8 times, feeding volume is eaten up with 15 ~ 20 min, then Feed next time;
4)Point pond is raised and train:
a)When fry body length reaches 3 cm, a point pond is carried out to fry every 20 ~ 30 days, by point of the fry body length difference less than 2 cm Together, choose the individual of specification difference, water temperature≤16 DEG C, the depth of water is 30 ~ 35 cm, and dissolved oxygen is higher than 6 mg/L, pH for 7.8 ~ 8.4, half masking of 100 ~ 200 lx of intensity of illumination, glazed area 50% are gradually transitions 200 ~ 400 lx of intensity of illumination, transparent surface The part masking of product 70%;After 3 ~ 5 days for three days on end, 3 ~ 5 kg of crude salt is poured into water inlet daily morning and evening;Every 5 ~ 7 days into Row Betagen Solution water body disinfection, does not cut off the water, splashes in water inlet, uses a concentration of 3 ~ 5 ml/m3, continuous use 3 My god, rainy days deactivates;Fish basin or net cage are cleared up daily morning and evening, are chosen deformity and dead fry, are cleared up fish basin or net cage bottom fish Class excrement and sundries;It notes abnormalities and carries out fry physical examination, record data, residual bait is removed before each bait throwing in;Fish basin or net cage It is no longer protected from light, setting used in sunshade board is hidden in fry, and intensity of illumination is 200 ~ 400 lx, and water earthworm is through 1 ~ 2 mg/L lactic acid grace promises After husky 18 ~ 22 min of star aqueous solution soaking, water surface is suspended on for fry by food with the cotton gauze package of disinfection;
b)When cultivating fry body length and reaching 3 cm, fed using water earthworm and artifical compound feed, water earthworm mince to≤ 1.5 cm feeding volumes are 10 % of fry weight, and artifical compound feed feeding volume is 3 ~ 5 g/ thousand tails, every 2 h/ times, often Day feeds 8 times;
c)When fry body length reaches 5 cm, 18 DEG C of water temperature <, 35 ~ 50 cm of the depth of water, dissolved oxygen are higher than 6 mg/L, and pH is 7.8 ~ 8.4, Light application time is increased using artificial light source, round the clock ratio≤18:6, intensity of illumination be not more than 800 lx, glazed area 90%, entirely Portion feeds artifical compound feed, feeds daily 4 ~ 6 times, and each feeding volume is eaten up with 28 ~ 32 min, increases single daily morning and evening and throws Feed amount;
Described is that the artemia nauplii that will newly hatch is transferred in culture tank through fortification artemia nauplii, and density is It 100 ~ 300/ml, adds in 0.5 ~ 1 g/L spirulina powders and strengthens 0.5 ~ 1 h;
The water earthworm is washed in a pan with after 15 ~ 20 min of Enrofloxacin aqueous solution soaking of a concentration of 1 ~ 2 mg/L with clear water It is minced again after washing;
The artifical compound feed is particulate artifical compound feed:The % of thick protein >=50, the % of crude fat >=8, crude fibre ≤ 3 %, coarse ash≤17%, trace element >=3.5 %, calcium≤3%, lysine >=3.5%.
2. a kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:
The step 2)Middle a)In with fry growth increase water flow, incrementss be 0.01~0.02 m3/s。
3. a kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The step 3) With 4)Monitor water body whole day fluctuating temperature range≤2 DEG C;Dissolved oxygen is higher than 6 mg/L, and pH is 7.9 ~ 8.2.
4. a kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The crude salt and Betagen Solution complementary interval uses, and carries out conventional water body disinfection, after 4 days for three days on end, is fallen daily morning and evening in water inlet Enter 4 kg of crude salt;Betagen Solution water body disinfection was carried out every 6 days, does not cut off the water, splashes in water inlet, use is a concentration of 4 ml/m3, it is used continuously 3 days, rainy days deactivates.
5. a kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The step 2) The amount of splashing is 1 g/m to the high steady VC of full pool spilling head for the first time after fry opening3, spilled once every 10 days;Fry body length reaches 3 cm When, full pool spilling head amount is 1.2 ~ 1.5 g/m3, spilled once every 8 days;After fry body length reaches 5 cm, full pool spilling head amount is 1.5~2 g/m3, spilled once every 7 days.
6. a kind of breeding method of Qinling Mountains fine-scaled graphite seed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The step 3) D)The middle artemia nauplii feeding volume through fortification is 8 ~ 10/ml, and water earthworm feeding volume is 10 % of fry weight, The step 4)In b)Middle artifical compound feed feeding volume is 3 ~ 5 g/, thousand tails, and inflow is reduced when feeding, is not stopped Water, every 2 h/ times.
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