CN101790967B - Culture method of early-breeding seedlings of Charybdis japonica - Google Patents

Culture method of early-breeding seedlings of Charybdis japonica Download PDF

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CN101790967B
CN101790967B CN2010101348803A CN201010134880A CN101790967B CN 101790967 B CN101790967 B CN 101790967B CN 2010101348803 A CN2010101348803 A CN 2010101348803A CN 201010134880 A CN201010134880 A CN 201010134880A CN 101790967 B CN101790967 B CN 101790967B
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pond
crab
water
charybdis
larva
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CN101790967A (en
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许星鸿
阎斌伦
徐加涛
徐国成
吴建新
浦寅芳
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Huaihai Institute of Techology
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention relates to a culture method of early-breeding seedlings of Charybdis japonica, which is characterized by comprising the steps of parent crab culture, egg-carrying crab culture, larva culture and the like. Aiming at the biological characteristics of the breeding of the Charybdis japonica, by utilizing the existing facilities for industrial culture of the seedlings of river crabs and the technical means such as regulation and control of ecological conditions, reasonable feeding, disease control and the like, the invention cultures the early-breeding seedlings of the Charybdis japonica required for culture production, the early-breeding seedlings have longer growth period and large scale in the market, and the economic benefit can be obviously improved. The experiment proves that the invention can realize industrial culture of the early-breeding seedlings of the Charybdis japonica, can solve the problem that seawater ponds in coastal areas are used for culturing the Charybdis japonica depending on natural seedlings, can fully utilize the existing facilities for the culture of the seedlings of shrimps and crabs and seawater culture ponds, improves the economic benefit of seawater culture in the coastal areas, has important economic significance and social significance, and has the characteristics of science, rationality, low investment and high practicability.

Description

A kind of breeding method of this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings
Technical field
The present invention relates to shell-fish seed breeding technical field, the breeding method of the early-breeding seedlings of particularly a kind of this Charybdis of Ri.
Background technology
This Charybdis of Ri (Charybdis japonica) belongs to Crustachia, Portumidae, Charybdis belongs to, the similar mud crab of its profile, and individuality is bigger, bright-colored, is commonly called as that the backer is red, stone lock crab etc.This Charybdis of Ri meat flavour deliciousness, nutritious, and have effects such as heat-clearing, nourishing, detumescence, favored by the consumer.This Charybdis of Ri also has higher industrial value, and its crust is rich in chitin, can extract monosodium glutamate from the crab shell in addition, and the crab shell is ground feed as poultry etc., is the higher large-scale marine products crab class of economic worth, and market demand is very big.Because extremely adopting in recent years excessively captured, make its natural resources amount depleted day by day, far can not satisfy people's demand, supply falls short of demand for product, so must carry out the artificial increasing cultivation of this Charybdis of Ri energetically.The breeding period of this Charybdis of day, the juvenile crab that produces can go on the market at the beginning of next year through the growth about half a year in 5~September, and concentrated listed price is not high.In the at present disclosed relevant patent of shell-fish seed breeding technical field, related to Eriocheir sinensia in the economic crustacean of aquatic products, Portunus trituberculatus Miers, Ke Shi crayfish, Environment of Litopenaeus vannamei Low, freshwater shrimp etc., it is open in the technology of the breeding method of this Charybdis of day early-breeding seedlings still to have nothing to do so far.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is at the deficiencies in the prior art, and a kind of breeding method of new this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings is provided; This method is workable, can cultivate required this Charybdis of the Ri early-breeding seedlings of breeding production, and its vegetative period is long, and the listing specification is big, can significantly improve economic benefit, and can solve the problem of this Charybdis of sea pond breed Ri dependence natural seeding, wild fry of coastal area.
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to realize by following technical scheme.The present invention is a kind of breeding method of this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings, is characterized in, its step is as follows:
(1) cultivating the pond prepares: carry out disinfection to cultivating the pond with potassium permanganate, the sterilization back is cultivated the pond with seawater scouring and is removed potassium permanganate; Laying depth is the sand of 8~15cm on 1/2~3/4 area at the bottom of cultivating the pond then, and the cultivation pond at husky place, shop is not provided with discharge outlet; Building veil with sterile tile, hollow brick or bamboo raft at the bottom of husky cultivation pond, shop is used for close crab and perches; In cultivating the pond, inject the seawater of dark 60~80cm, salinity 26~30, pH 8.1~8.5;
(2) close crab is cultivated: get physically fit, that appendage is complete, the long 5cm of shell is above this Charybdis of Ri parent crab, the male and female ratio is 3: 1, with 200~300mg/L formalin sea water solution dipping bath sterilization and put into after flushing with clean water and cultivate the pond and carry out close crab and cultivate, cultivating density is 2~3/m 2Parent's crab nurturing period illumination<1000 luxs, the trace inflation; When cultivating, the parent crab cultured 2~3 days with natural temperature earlier; Keep constant temperature after rising to 14 ℃ with 0.5~1 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, this cultivation time in stage is 20~25 days; Further water temperature being risen to gradually 20 ℃ then cultivated 15~20 days; Throw something and feed during cultivation based on the bait of scallop meat, daily ration, feeding quantity is 10~25% of a close crab body weight; The close crab of oogenesis is moved to storage pond, holding pond;
(3) cultivation of ovigerous crab: the condition that is provided with of ovigerous crab storage pond, holding pond is not perhaps spread sand with cultivating the pond; Ovigerous crab is gone into the pond after sterilization; Cultured 2~3 days with natural temperature earlier; Keep constant temperature after rising to 23 ℃ with 0.5~1 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, this stage cultivated 12~14 days; The abundance of food of throwing something and feeding is 2~10% of an ovigerous crab body weight; Check the embryonic development situation, when the embryo is dark-grey black, heartbeat and reaches average 170~180 times/min, prepare to move the pond;
(4) nursery pond is prepared: with potassium permanganate nursery pond is carried out disinfection, the sterilization back is washed away nursery pond with 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas and is removed potassium permanganate, inject 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas to the depth of water 70~80cm in nursery pond, 22~23 ℃ of initial water temperatures are thrown in 2~5g/m then 3EDTA 2Na salt to be to eliminate heavy metal ion, throw in again the unit cell algae to density 12~150,000/m 3Water body, and in nursery pond, hang cage;
(5) larval culture: the ovigerous crab of step (3) being prepared to move the pond with nystatin or the potassium permanganate sea water solution dipping bath that carries out disinfection, clean the back with seawater then and drop into row children in the cage, every cage is thrown in one, and with near being placed in the same pond of ovum form and aspect; Young density in nursery pond reaches 10~150,000/m 3During water body, ovigerous crab is moved on to continuation row children in another nursery pond; The Magna zoea larva of discharging develops into megalops larva behind 6 phase molt metamorphosis, megalops larva is an I phase children crab through cultivating i.e. metamorphosis; Behind each issue Magna zoea larva molt metamorphosis, water temperature is improved 0.5~1 ℃; After all metamorphosis was megalops larva, stopping to heat made water temperature progressively reduce to natural temperature; The intensity of illumination of larval culture is 3000~10000 luxs, water salinity 26~27, pH 8.1~8.4; Change water during cultivation on demand, inflate and throw something and feed; After the metamorphosis of Magna zoea larva is megalops larva, in nursery pond, set up polythene net sheet or scallop cultivation cage, adhere to for the young;
(6) You Charybdis cultivate: before the abnormal Wei of megalops larva You Charybdis, fall the pond; Re-use net sheet or scallop cultivation cage and make attachment, day quantity of exchanged water 100%; Nurturing period, cultivate or move to the Tu Chi cultivation according to size and the time-division pond of young Charybdis, can do seed to young Charybdis and sell.
In the breeding method of above-described this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings, if no special instructions, bait throwing in, disease control rationally, change water inflation operations such as (oxygen) and all adopt conventional method to need routinely to carry out.
In the step (5) of the breeding method of above-described this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings, the concentration of the nystatin sea water solution that the sterilization dipping bath is used is preferably 30~40g/m 3, the concentration of potassium permanganate sea water solution is preferably 8~12g/m 3
In the step (5) of the breeding method of above-described this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings, when 6 phase of Magna zoea larva molt metamorphosis is cultivated, do not change water during Magna zoea larva I phase and II phase, add water 8~12cm every day and trace is inflated; Begin to change water from the Magna zoea larva III phase, and increase quantity of exchanged water and aeration quantity gradually; Each phase quantity of exchanged water is respectively: the Magna zoea larva III phase is 15~25%; The Magna zoea larva IV phase is 25~35%; The Magna zoea larva V phase is 45~55%; The Magna zoea larva VI phase 75~85%; The temperature difference is less than 0.5 ℃ when changing water; The Magna zoea larva VI after date phase begins to be inflated to by force Chi Shuicheng boiling shape.
Compared with prior art, The present invention be directed to this Charybdis of Ri reproductive biology characteristics, utilize the existing utility of river crab factorial seedling growth, cultivate the early-breeding seedlings of required this Charybdis of Ri of breeding production.It is long vegetative period to obtain the comparable wild seedling of early-breeding seedlings by the present invention, and specification is big during to listing, can significantly improve economic benefit.The present invention has started this new way of artificial early-breeding seedlings for the seed source of this Charybdis of mariculture Ri, day this Charybdis seed of capacity high-quality can be provided for coastal aquaculture family, make full use of shrimp crab culture facility and seawater aquaculturing pond, improve the economic benefit of neighbouring province coastal area maricultures such as Jiangsu Province and Shandong, promote fisherman's increase wealth, solving employment, have important economic implications and social effect.
Embodiment
Below further describe concrete technical scheme of the present invention,, and do not constitute restriction its right so that those skilled in the art understands the present invention further.
Embodiment 1.A kind of breeding method of this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings, its step is as follows:
(1) cultivating the pond prepares: carry out disinfection to cultivating the pond with potassium permanganate, the sterilization back is cultivated the pond with seawater scouring and is removed potassium permanganate; Laying depth is the sand of 8cm on 1/2 area at the bottom of cultivating the pond then, and the cultivation pond at husky place, shop is not provided with discharge outlet; Building veil with sterile tile, hollow brick or bamboo raft at the bottom of husky cultivation pond, shop is used for close crab and perches; In cultivating the pond, inject the seawater of dark 60cm, salinity 26, pH 8.1;
(2) close crab is cultivated: get physically fit, that appendage is complete, the long 5cm of shell is above this Charybdis of Ri parent crab, the male and female ratio is 3: 1, and with the sterilization of 200mg/L formalin sea water solution dipping bath and put into after flushing with clean water and cultivate the pond and carry out close crab cultivation, cultivation density is 2/m 2Parent's crab nurturing period illumination<1000 luxs, the trace inflation; When cultivating, the parent crab cultured 2 days with natural temperature earlier; Keep constant temperature after rising to 14 ℃ with 0.5 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, this cultivation time in stage is 25 days; Further water temperature being risen to gradually 20 ℃ then cultivated 15 days; Throw something and feed during cultivation based on the bait of scallop meat, daily ration, feeding quantity is 10% of a close crab body weight; The close crab of oogenesis is moved to storage pond, holding pond;
(3) cultivation of ovigerous crab: the condition that is provided with of ovigerous crab storage pond, holding pond is not perhaps spread sand with cultivating the pond; Ovigerous crab is gone into the pond after sterilization; Cultured 2 days with natural temperature earlier; Keep constant temperature after rising to 23 ℃ with 0.5 the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, this stage cultivated 12 days; The abundance of food of throwing something and feeding is 2% of an ovigerous crab body weight; Check the embryonic development situation, when the embryo is dark-grey black, heartbeat and reaches average 170 times/min, prepare to move the pond;
(4) nursery pond is prepared: with potassium permanganate nursery pond is carried out disinfection, the sterilization back is washed away nursery pond with 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas and is removed potassium permanganate, inject 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas to depth of water 70cm in nursery pond, 23 ℃ of initial water temperatures are thrown in 2g/m then 3EDTA 2Na salt is thrown in the unit cell algae to 120,000/m of density again to eliminate heavy metal ion 3Water body, and in nursery pond, hang cage;
(5) larval culture: the ovigerous crab of step (3) being prepared to move the pond with nystatin or the potassium permanganate sea water solution dipping bath that carries out disinfection, clean the back with seawater then and drop into row children in the cage, every cage is thrown in one, and with near being placed in the same pond of ovum form and aspect; Young density in nursery pond reaches 100,000/m 3During water body, ovigerous crab is moved on to continuation row children in another nursery pond; The Magna zoea larva of discharging develops into megalops larva behind 6 phase molt metamorphosis, megalops larva is an I phase children crab through cultivating i.e. metamorphosis; Behind each issue Magna zoea larva molt metamorphosis, water temperature is improved 0.5 ℃; After all metamorphosis was megalops larva, stopping to heat made water temperature progressively reduce to natural temperature; The intensity of illumination of larval culture is 3000 luxs, water salinity 26, pH 8.1; Change water during cultivation on demand, inflate and throw something and feed; After the metamorphosis of Magna zoea larva is megalops larva, in nursery pond, set up polythene net sheet or scallop cultivation cage, adhere to for the young;
(6) You Charybdis cultivate: before the abnormal Wei of megalops larva You Charybdis, fall the pond; Re-use net sheet or scallop cultivation cage and make attachment, day quantity of exchanged water 100%; Nurturing period, cultivate or move to the Tu Chi cultivation according to size and the time-division pond of young Charybdis, can do seed to young Charybdis and sell.
Embodiment 2.A kind of breeding method of this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings, its step is as follows:
(1) cultivating the pond prepares: carry out disinfection to cultivating the pond with potassium permanganate, the sterilization back is cultivated the pond with seawater scouring and is removed potassium permanganate; Laying depth is the sand of 15cm on 3/4 area at the bottom of cultivating the pond then, and the cultivation pond at husky place, shop is not provided with discharge outlet; Building veil with sterile tile, hollow brick or bamboo raft at the bottom of husky cultivation pond, shop is used for close crab and perches; In cultivating the pond, inject the seawater of dark 80cm, salinity 30, pH 8.5;
(2) close crab is cultivated: get physically fit, that appendage is complete, the long 5cm of shell is above this Charybdis of Ri parent crab, the male and female ratio is 3: 1, and with the sterilization of 300mg/L formalin sea water solution dipping bath and put into after flushing with clean water and cultivate the pond and carry out close crab cultivation, cultivation density is 3/m 2Parent's crab nurturing period illumination<1000 luxs, the trace inflation; When cultivating, the parent crab cultured 3 days with natural temperature earlier; Keep constant temperature after rising to 14 ℃ with 1 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, this cultivation time in stage is 20 days; Further water temperature being risen to gradually 20 ℃ then cultivated 20 days; Throw something and feed during cultivation based on the bait of scallop meat, daily ration, feeding quantity is 25% of a close crab body weight; The close crab of oogenesis is moved to storage pond, holding pond;
(3) cultivation of ovigerous crab: the condition that is provided with of ovigerous crab storage pond, holding pond is not perhaps spread sand with cultivating the pond; Ovigerous crab is gone into the pond after sterilization; Cultured 3 days with natural temperature earlier; Keep constant temperature after rising to 23 ℃ with 1 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, this stage cultivated 14 days; The abundance of food of throwing something and feeding is 10% of an ovigerous crab body weight; Check the embryonic development situation, when the embryo is dark-grey black, heartbeat and reaches average 180 times/min, prepare to move the pond;
(4) nursery pond is prepared: with potassium permanganate nursery pond is carried out disinfection, the sterilization back is washed away nursery pond with 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas and is removed potassium permanganate, inject 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas to depth of water 80cm in nursery pond, 23 ℃ of initial water temperatures are thrown in 5g/m then 3EDTA 2Na salt is thrown in the unit cell algae to 150,000/m of density again to eliminate heavy metal ion 3Water body, and in nursery pond, hang cage;
(5) larval culture: the ovigerous crab of step (3) being prepared to move the pond with nystatin or the potassium permanganate sea water solution dipping bath that carries out disinfection, clean the back with seawater then and drop into row children in the cage, every cage is thrown in one, and with near being placed in the same pond of ovum form and aspect; Young density in nursery pond reaches 150,000/m 3During water body, ovigerous crab is moved on to continuation row children in another nursery pond; The Magna zoea larva of discharging develops into megalops larva behind 6 phase molt metamorphosis, megalops larva is an I phase children crab through cultivating i.e. metamorphosis; Behind each issue Magna zoea larva molt metamorphosis, water temperature is improved 1 ℃; After all metamorphosis was megalops larva, stopping to heat made water temperature progressively reduce to natural temperature; The intensity of illumination of larval culture is 10000 luxs, water salinity 27, pH 8.4; Change water during cultivation on demand, inflate and throw something and feed; After the metamorphosis of Magna zoea larva is megalops larva, in nursery pond, set up polythene net sheet or scallop cultivation cage, adhere to for the young;
(6) You Charybdis cultivate: before the abnormal Wei of megalops larva You Charybdis, fall the pond; Re-use net sheet or scallop cultivation cage and make attachment, day quantity of exchanged water 100%; Nurturing period, cultivate or move to the Tu Chi cultivation according to size and the time-division pond of young Charybdis, can do seed to young Charybdis and sell.
Embodiment 3.In the step (5) of the breeding method of embodiment 1 or 2 described this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings, the concentration of the nystatin sea water solution that the sterilization dipping bath is used is 30~40g/m 3, the concentration of potassium permanganate sea water solution is 8~12g/m 3
Embodiment 4.In the step (5) of the breeding method of embodiment 1 or 2 or 3 described this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings, when 6 phase of Magna zoea larva molt metamorphosis is cultivated, do not change water during Magna zoea larva I phase and II phase, add water 8~12cm and trace inflation every day; Begin to change water from the Magna zoea larva III phase, and increase quantity of exchanged water and aeration quantity gradually; Each phase quantity of exchanged water is respectively: the Magna zoea larva III phase is 15~25%; The Magna zoea larva IV phase is 25~35%; The Magna zoea larva V phase is 45~55%; The Magna zoea larva VI phase 75~85%; The temperature difference is less than 0.5 ℃ when changing water; The Magna zoea larva VI after date phase begins to be inflated to by force Chi Shuicheng boiling shape.
Embodiment 5.The breeding method test of this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings.
1 materials and methods
1.1 cultivation facility
Utilize the existing equipment of crab seedling rearing field, comprise and cultivate pond, sedimentation basin, boiler, Roots blower etc.Cultivate pond 30g/m 3Potassium permanganate is sterilized a few hours, washes away totally with filtering sea again.The thick fine sand of 2/3 area at the bottom of pond shop 10cm, the mating that is beneficial to close crab with lay eggs.Near leaving 1/3 vacant lot in the discharge outlet place, be used for bait throwing in, change water and remove residual bait.This Charybdis of Ri disposition ferociousness easily causes injuredly because of fight mutually, so must place veil in close crab cultivation pond, available sterile tile, hollow brick or bamboo raft are built.
1.2 the selection of close crab
45 of 135 of female crabs of this Charybdis of day physically fit in purchase on March 2nd, 09, that appendage is complete and male crabs.Because of crustacean gonad development is subjected to individual big or small restriction, so select the above person of the close crab long 5cm of appropriate to the occasion selection shell.Snarl with the foot of a chela of rubber band with close crab when transportation, the multilayer crab pot is put in layering, puts into the bucket that clean sea water is housed again, and oxygenation is transported or wrapped up the dry method transportation in bubble chamber of close crab with wet towel.
1.3 the breeding method of close crab
The dark 70cm 1.3.1 the preparation in cultivation pond and close crab input cultivation pond intake, salinity 26~30, pH 8.1~8.5.The parent crab is going into the Chi Qianxu sterilization, cultivates the pond with putting into after 200~300mg/L formalin dipping bath 10min, the flushing with clean water.The cultivation density of parent crab is 2~3/m 2Illumination<1000 luxs, the trace inflation.
1.3.2 heating mode at the beginning of 3 months close crab to go into the pond water temperature be 4~5 ℃, culturing 3 angels parent crab with natural temperature earlier shakes down, keep constant temperature when rising to 14 ℃ with 0.5~1 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, further water temperature is risen to 20 ℃ gradually at the beginning of 4 months to by the end of March.
1.3.3 bait throwing in every day early, each bait throwing in evening 1 time, based on evening, the bait of throwing something and feeding is based on scallop meat, arrange in pairs or groups a certain amount of clam worm alive, trash fish, shrimp etc., daily ration, feeding quantity is 10~25% of a close crab body weight, is adjusted accordingly according to the situation of ingesting.Bait is rendered to not husky bottom, pond, shop, is convenient to ingest and clear up.
1.3.4 water quality management soil pick-up every day, change water 1 time.Norfloxacin or rifampin 1g/m regularly splash 3, formaldehyde 20g/m 3, to suppress bacterium and parasitic growing.Pull close crab weekly out with potassium permanganate or formaldehyde sterilization pool bed-sit 1 time, after washing away left drug and adding water, put into close crab.
1.4 the cultivation of ovigerous crab
Ovigerous crab is before going into the pond, with putting into storage pond, holding pond after 200~300mg/L formalin dipping bath 10min, the flushing with clean water.The cultivation density of ovigerous crab is 2~3/m 2Earlier culture 3d ovigerous crab is shaked down, keep constant temperature when rising to 23 ℃ with 0.5~1 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate with natural temperature.Morning every day, each bait throwing in evening 1 time, based on evening, this Charybdis of Ri happiness food and nutritious bait such as the scallop meat of throwing something and feeding, the clam worm that lives, daily ration, feeding quantity is 2~10% of an ovigerous crab body weight, is adjusted accordingly according to the situation of ingesting.Cultivate pond depth of water 70cm, salinity 26~30, pH 8.1~8.5, every day soil pick-up, change water, illumination<1000 luxs, trace inflation.Norfloxacin or rifampin 1g/m regularly splash 3, formaldehyde 20g/m 3, to suppress bacterium and parasitic growing.Check the embryonic development situation every day, along with growing progress, the ovum look deepens gradually, by crocus → yellowish-brown → light gray → grey black.When the embryo is dark-grey black, heartbeat reaches average 180 times/min, and the Magna zoea larva twists when frequent in the film, and indication is about to hatching.
1.5 young hatching
Before the cloth pond with nursery pond 30g/m 3Potassium permanganate is sterilized a few hours, washes away the water inlet of clean back with 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas again, depth of water 80cm, and 23 ℃ of water temperatures are thrown in 2~5g/m 3EDTA 2Na salt is to eliminate the murder by poisoning of heavy metal ion to the young.Throw in unit cell algaes such as Chaetoceros, chrysophyceae, 150,000/m of density 3Water body is thrown in advance so that the Z1 that hatches obtains sufficient bait.Ovigerous crab 40g/m 3Nystatin or potassium permanganate 10g/m 3Dipping bath 30min cleans up back extension cage and arrange the children in nursery pond.5~8 cages are hung in every pond, put an ovigerous crab in every cage, with near being placed in the same pond of ovum form and aspect, the young basic synchronization of the row of making.Young density in nursery pond reaches 150,000/m 3During water body, ovigerous crab is moved on to continuation row children in another nursery pond.
1.6 larval culture
This Charybdis of Ri Magna zoea larva was divided into for 6 phases, and under 23~26 ℃ water temperature condition, per 3~4d molt metamorphosis 1 time lasts and develops into megalops larva about 20d, and it is young crab of I phase that megalops larva is cultivated i.e. metamorphosis through 5~6d.
Behind each Magna zoea larva molt metamorphosis, water temperature is improved about 0.5~1 ℃, to promote its growth.After whole metamorphosis were megalops larva, stopping to heat, it is identical with extraneous water temperature that water temperature is progressively reduced to.Intensity of illumination is controlled at 3000~10000 luxs, avoids the high light direct projection, so as not to cause the young become light, increase mutual residual probability.Water salinity 26~27, pH 8.1~8.4.Do not change water during Z1, the Z2, add water 10cm and trace inflation every day.Begin to change water from the Z3 phase, and increase quantity of exchanged water and aeration quantity gradually.Each phase quantity of exchanged water is respectively: Z3-20%; Z4-30%; Z5-50%; Z6-80%; M-100%.The temperature difference is less than 0.5 ℃ when changing water.The Z6 later stage begins to be strong inflation, the Chi Shuicheng shape that seethes with excitement.
Z1 and Z2 phase are with (20~300,000/m in unit cell algae 3) be main, be aided with (1/m in a small amount of yolk 3), wheel animalcule (5~10/only) etc.Z3~Z6 phase, (10~500,000/m of the artemia naupliis of throwing something and feeding 3); The Z5 later stage is added an amount of copepoda.Shrimp, shellfish meat or the flesh of fish etc. that the M phase throws something and feeds and rubs, ten thousand of about 50~80g/.The controls flexibly such as residual bait of ingesting in situation, the water with the young of each phase feeding volume, bait throwing in every day 6~8 times.
When the Magna zoea larva is abnormal be megalops larva after, in the pond, set up the polythene net sheet, mesh 3mm, netting length equate that with the width in pond the aspect ratio pond degree of depth is lacked 3cm, the lower end is fixed, each pond is hung 4 from above, adheres to, reduces and cut one another's throats for the young.Regularly use medicines such as terramycin, orfloxacin, consumption is at 1~2g/m 3, to suppress the generation of various germs.
1.7 You Charybdis cultivates
Before the abnormal Wei of megalops larva You Charybdis, fall the pond.Still use the net sheet or the scallop cultivation cage of sterilizing to make attachment, day quantity of exchanged water 100%, the fresh fish shrimp of day 4 halogen worm adults of throwing and rubbing.Nurturing period, cultivate or move to the Tu Chi cultivation according to size and the time-division pond of young Charybdis.
(volume is 15m to the I-III nursery pond 3, amount to 6,750,000 young) abnormal survival rate carry out detail statistics, analysis, and compare with the situation of growing seedlings of purchasing ovigerous crab with in May, 08 and June.
2 result of the tests and discussion
2.1 the nurturing period, dead close crab is 24 altogether, survival rate 86.7%.April 16, close crab began oogenesis, shifted to an earlier date 1 month than natural waters.To April 22, have 84 female crab oogenesis, egg laying rate of red swamp is 62.2% of a female crab sum.Average oogenesis amount is 18.7 ten thousand/only.
Temperature is the key factor that influences the aquiculture animal gonad development.Intensification can improve metabolic rate, the quickening gonad development speed of organism, so become technological means commonly used in the production of aquatic livestock seed breeding.This result of the test shows, this Charybdis of Ri also can be under the condition of artificially controlling temperature premature ripening, oogenesis in advance, so just can prolong the time of forming, provide advantage for forming big specification then.In the specific operation process that heats up, note rising to 14 ℃ earlier at the intensification initial stage, keep the regular period and continue to rise to 20 ℃ again, because this Charybdis of Ri can have bigger food ration in the time of 14 ℃, simultaneously can make the yolk material in the egg mother cell obtain sufficient dynamic accumulation again, the high-quality ovum of bud into.If directly be warming up to 20 ℃, can cause that gonad development is too fast, the yolk deposition is not enough in the ovum, the oophyte that is produced is long-pending little, and the quality of seed can be subjected to very big influence.If intensification amplitude in addition is excessive, too high, then can cause the distress reaction of close crab, cause sexual gland to be degenerated.
The material base of gonad development derives from bait, so heating up simultaneously, guarantee the nutrition supply of close crab.The food species that this test is thrown something and fed is various, and its nutrient component can be complementary, the comprehensive nutrition of more single bait.Scallop meat, live clam worm, fishes and shrimps meat etc. are protein and the abundant bait of lipid content, meet gonad development and the synthetic demand of yolk of close crab.Especially it is synthetic closely related that the clam worm body contains the hormone of abundant highly unsaturated fatty acid-eicosatetraenoic acid and crustacean body inner control gonad development, so the clam worm alive of throwing something and feeding can promote the gonad development of close crab, and simultaneously again can polluted water.Daily ration, feeding quantity will be controlled flexibly according to residual bait situation every day, is advisable to show a small surplus.
This Charybdis of Ri fighting by nature, too high cultivation density can cause mutually residual causing injury, and survival rate is reduced.The cultivation density of this Charybdis of Ri parent crab is with 2~3/m 2Be advisable, cultivate in the pond close crab simultaneously and place veil, can reduce its mutually residual probability.
2.2 ovigerous crab, amounts to dead 11 in the nurturing period, survival rate is 86.9%, cultivates in row children on May 6 through 14d, and the situation that survives of larval culture sees Table 1.
During this Charybdis of table 1 Ri larval culture each phase the young the situation that survives
Annotate: I represents in this test young through the discharge of reinforced cultivating gained ovigerous crab; II represents the young of ovigerous crab that purchase in May, 08 discharge; III represents the young of ovigerous crab that purchase in June, 08 discharge; Each phase the young the quantity mean value of phase young counting every day for this reason; Survival rate is the result of calculation from Z1 phase to each young phase.Data are through the one-factor analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA) and Duncan check in the table, and there were significant differences (P<0.05) between the different letter representation groups of subscript small letter.
As can be seen from Table 1, utilize the young of discharging through reinforced cultivating gained ovigerous crab to cultivate, 3 nursery ponds have obtained 1,350,000 megalops larvas altogether, and average unit of water body density is 30,000, and survival rate is 20.0%; And the young of ovigerous crab that purchase in May, 08 discharge is cultivated, and has obtained 1,400,000 megalops larvas, and average unit of water body density is 3.11 ten thousand, and survival rate is 20.7%, a little more than the former.The young that utilizes ovigerous crab that purchase June to discharge is cultivated, and each phase larva survive ratio all significantly is lower than preceding two groups, only obtains 900,000 megalops larvas, and average unit of water body density is 20,000, and survival rate is 13.3%.This batch larval culture is in late June to late July, enter high temperature period, the influence that adds heavy rain, red tide worsens seawater quality, though water inlet is through precipitation, filtration treatment, larva survive ratio is still lower, and the motility rate of forming temporarily of this batch ovigerous crab also is lower than May, so day this Charybdis artificial breeding is urgent, can avoid the influence of water temperature height, water quality deterioration.
2.3 in three nursery ponds of II group larval culture, set up the megalops larva of two nursery ponds of polythene net sheet and cultivate through 6d, all obtain about 200,000 of I phase children crabs, average unit of water body density is 1.33 ten thousand, distortion ratio reaches 42.9%.And the megalops larva of not placing in the contrast pond of net sheet all lies prone at the bottom of the pond, only obtains 50,000 of I phase children crabs, and average unit of water body density is 0.33 ten thousand, distortion ratio only 10.7%.Illustrate that the mutual residual phenomenon between megalops larva is serious, must place attachment for its climbing, to reduce mutual residual rate.The person of having ready conditions can use scallop cultivation cage to replace net sheet, better effects if.Strengthen aeration quantity simultaneously, and will guarantee the sufficient supplies of bait.

Claims (3)

1. the breeding method of this Charybdis of day early-breeding seedlings is characterized in that, its step is as follows:
(1) cultivating the pond prepares: carry out disinfection to cultivating the pond with potassium permanganate, the sterilization back is cultivated the pond with seawater scouring and is removed potassium permanganate; Laying depth is the sand of 8~15cm on 1/2~3/4 area at the bottom of cultivating the pond then, and the cultivation pond at husky place, shop is not provided with discharge outlet; Building veil with sterile tile, hollow brick or bamboo raft at the bottom of husky cultivation pond, shop is used for close crab and perches; In cultivating the pond, inject the seawater of dark 60~80cm, salinity 26~30, pH 8.1~8.5;
(2) close crab is cultivated: get physically fit, that appendage is complete, the long 5cm of shell is above this Charybdis of Ri parent crab, the male and female ratio is 3: 1, with 200~300mg/L formalin sea water solution dipping bath sterilization and put into after flushing with clean water and cultivate the pond and carry out close crab and cultivate, cultivating density is 2~3/m 2Parent's crab nurturing period illumination<1000 luxs, the trace inflation; When cultivating, the parent crab cultured 2~3 days with natural temperature earlier; Keep constant temperature after rising to 14 ℃ with 0.5~1 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, heat up and cultivation time constant temperature all stage is 20~25 days; Further water temperature being risen to gradually 20 ℃ then cultivated 15~20 days; Throw something and feed during cultivation based on the bait of scallop meat, daily ration, feeding quantity is 10~25% of a close crab body weight; The close crab of oogenesis is moved to storage pond, holding pond;
(3) cultivation of ovigerous crab: the condition that is provided with of ovigerous crab storage pond, holding pond is not perhaps spread sand with cultivating the pond; Ovigerous crab is gone into the pond after sterilization; Cultured 2~3 days with natural temperature earlier; Keep constant temperature after rising to 23 ℃ with 0.5~1 ℃ the amplitude of heating up day then and cultivate, heat up and constant temperature all stage cultivation 12~14 days; The abundance of food of throwing something and feeding is 2~10% of an ovigerous crab body weight; Check the embryonic development situation, when the embryo is dark-grey black, heartbeat and reaches average 170~180 times/min, prepare to move the pond;
(4) nursery pond is prepared: with potassium permanganate nursery pond is carried out disinfection, the sterilization back is washed away nursery pond with 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas and is removed potassium permanganate, inject 200 mesh sieve tulle filtering seas to the depth of water 70~80cm in nursery pond, 22~23 ℃ of initial water temperatures are thrown in 2~5g/m then 3EDTA 2Na salt to be to eliminate heavy metal ion, throw in again the unit cell algae to density 12~150,000/m 3Water body, and in nursery pond, hang cage;
(5) larval culture: the ovigerous crab of step (3) being prepared to move the pond with nystatin or the potassium permanganate sea water solution dipping bath that carries out disinfection, clean the back with seawater then and drop into row children in the cage, every cage is thrown in one, and with near being placed in the same pond of ovum form and aspect; Young density in nursery pond reaches 10~150,000/m 3During water body, ovigerous crab is moved on to continuation row children in another nursery pond; The Magna zoea larva of discharging develops into megalops larva behind 6 phase molt metamorphosis, megalops larva is an I phase children crab through cultivating i.e. metamorphosis; Behind each issue Magna zoea larva molt metamorphosis, water temperature is improved 0.5~1 ℃; After all metamorphosis was megalops larva, stopping to heat made water temperature progressively reduce to natural temperature; The intensity of illumination of larval culture is 3000~10000 luxs, water salinity 26~27, pH 8.1~8.4; Change water during cultivation on demand, inflate and throw something and feed; After the metamorphosis of Magna zoea larva is megalops larva, in nursery pond, set up polythene net sheet or scallop cultivation cage, adhere to for the young;
(6) You Charybdis cultivate: before the abnormal Wei of megalops larva You Charybdis, fall the pond; Re-use net sheet or scallop cultivation cage and make attachment, day quantity of exchanged water 100%; Nurturing period, cultivate or move to the Tu Chi cultivation according to size and the time-division pond of young Charybdis, can do seed to young Charybdis and sell.
2. the breeding method of this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings according to claim 1 is characterized in that, in step (5), the concentration of the nystatin sea water solution that the sterilization dipping bath is used is 30~40g/m 3, the concentration of potassium permanganate sea water solution is 8~12g/m 3
3. the breeding method of this Charybdis of Ri early-breeding seedlings according to claim 1 is characterized in that, in step (5), when 6 phase of Magna zoea larva molt metamorphosis is cultivated, does not change water during Magna zoea larva I phase and II phase, adds water 8~12cm and trace inflation every day; Begin to change water from the Magna zoea larva III phase, and increase quantity of exchanged water and aeration quantity gradually; Each phase quantity of exchanged water is respectively: the Magna zoea larva III phase is 15~25%; The Magna zoea larva IV phase is 25~35%; The Magna zoea larva V phase is 45~55%; The Magna zoea larva VI phase 75~85%; The temperature difference is less than 0.5 ℃ when changing water; The Magna zoea larva VI after date phase begins to be inflated to by force Chi Shuicheng boiling shape.
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