CN102823533A - Low-salt overwintering and breeding method of portunus trituberculatus - Google Patents

Low-salt overwintering and breeding method of portunus trituberculatus Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102823533A
CN102823533A CN2012103516198A CN201210351619A CN102823533A CN 102823533 A CN102823533 A CN 102823533A CN 2012103516198 A CN2012103516198 A CN 2012103516198A CN 201210351619 A CN201210351619 A CN 201210351619A CN 102823533 A CN102823533 A CN 102823533A
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crab
winter
portunus trituberculatus
overwintering
salt
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CN2012103516198A
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高保全
刘萍
李健
王学忠
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention provides a low-salt overwintering and breeding method of portunus trituberculatus. The method comprises the following steps that: manual seed selection parent crabs without any diseases are selected; low-salt seawater is used for carrying out parent crab overwintering and juvenile crab breeding, so as to avoid causing diseases and vertical disease transmission in an overwintering and breeding period; during the overwintering period, underground bittern and fresh water are used for mixing and preparing low-salt seawater for the overwintering, so as to cut off a transmission path of the diseases; baits are reasonably matched, and have complete nutrition, so as to accelerate the healthy development of parent crab embryos; the seawater with the 2 per mill salt degree is adopted to carry out juvenile crab breeding to simulate a natural environment which is suitable for egg laying of the parent crabs and juvenile crab growth, so that the yield and the quality of the juvenile crabs are improved; and the salt degree and the temperature of the sweater in a breeding pool are adjusted to be same as those of an outdoor cultivating pool at the time of 24 hours before the juvenile crabs are output, so as to avoid causing stress reaction due to that the environment is greatly changed. According to the low-salt overwintering and breeding method of the portunus trituberculatus, the overwintering survival rate and the juvenile crab yield of the portunus trituberculatus are improved and the outdoor cultivation survival rate is greatly improved; and the low-salt overwintering and breeding method of the portunus trituberculatus can be widely applied to sea-near sea areas and river mouth regions and has the obvious economic benefits.

Description

A kind of less salt of Portunus trituberculatus Miers is survived the winter and seedling-cultivating method
Technical field
The invention belongs to the swimming crab artificial seed and cultivate technical field, the less salt that is specifically related to a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers is survived the winter and seedling-cultivating method.
Background technology
Portunus trituberculatus Miers (Portunus trituberculatus) is a kind of important marine economic animal, because its growth is fast, individual greatly, meat flavour is delicious, liked by the masses, has very high economic worth.Therefore it launches as culturing object gradually, and cultured area is 500,000 mu at present, and output reaches 100,000 tons, has become one of leading kind of China's sea farming.China's Portunus trituberculatus Miers seed annual requirement is about 1,500,000,000 tails at present; But in recent years; Parent crab overwintering survival rate is low, and seed output, quality have downward trend, in the Weifang Prefecture, Shandong; Swimming crab seed per unit area yield average out to 10,000 tails/cube water body before and after 2000, and average in recent years per unit area yield is merely 4000 tails/cube water body.Analyze reason and mainly contain following two aspects: possibly be that the wild close crab of fishing for is carried infectious virus on the one hand; Possibly be that water resource worsens on the other hand, disease is serious during the seed rearing.
Summary of the invention
The problems referred to above to Portunus trituberculatus Miers seed rearing in the prior art; The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of less salt of Portunus trituberculatus Miers to survive the winter and seedling-cultivating method; The present invention selects artificially breeding parent crab for use, survives the winter and measure such as less salt seed rearing through less salt, and seed output is improved 25.01%; Culture survival rate and improve 26.37%, solved that the wild close crab batch production seed rearing that exists in the prior art yields poorly, ropy problem.
For realizing the foregoing invention purpose, the present invention adopts following technical proposals to be achieved:
The low sea brine of a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers is survived the winter and seedling-cultivating method, and it may further comprise the steps:
(1) close crab is selected: select that appendage is complete, body surface is bright and clean, do not carry that the Portunus trituberculatus Miers artificially breeding of cause of disease is individual to be close crab;
(2) indoor wintering: shop, wintering pond bottom 10-15cm fine sand, close crab is sterilized to wintering pond, close crab before going into the pond, leaves bait table; Adopt the seawater of 20 ‰ salinity to survive the winter;
(3) larval rearing: when the pro crab abdomen blackish gray egg mass, egg membrane of Zoea heartbeat reach 150-170 times, it will be pro-crab promptly remove from the winter pool, into 20 ‰ salinity seawater larval rearing tank, feeding sterilized animal feed and plant food;
(4) juvenile crab goes out the pond: paedomorphosis to II phase children crab is in the time of the 2nd day, will culture salinity in the pond, the temperature adjustment is identical with external salinity and temperature, and the interior salinity amplitude of variation of 24h is controlled in 10 ‰; II phase children crab through the mode of photo-induction, was pulled healthy juvenile crab out in the time of the 3rd day.
Further improvement to technique scheme: adopt subsurface brine, fresh water to be deployed into the seawater of 20 ‰ salinity in said step (2) and (3).
Further improvement to technique scheme: close crab sterilization method is in the said step (2): every cube of water body 200-300ml polyhexamethylene carbamidine disinfecting liquid dipping 15 minutes.
Further improvement to technique scheme: the wintering pond sterilization method is in the said step (2): soak 12-24h with the 0.5ppm ClO 2 solution earlier, 1h is soaked with liquor potassic permanganate in the back, and wintering pond is cleaned with liquor potassic permanganate in the back; Rinse well with fresh water at last, can use after the airing.
Further improvement to technique scheme: during said seed rearing, animal bait is fresh and alive wheel animalcule or halogen worm, and vegetal bait is prawn slice, spirulina powder or chlorella.
Further improvement to technique scheme: make in the said step (3) that chlorella density reaches 400,000/milliliter in the seed rearing pond; Throw something and feed respectively according to young quantity and to rub broken prawn slice, spirulina powder with the hands: per 50,000 young, 1g need respectively throw something and feed;
Daily feeding animal feed 6 to 8 times, in Zoea stage Ⅰ rotifers 3 ~ 5 / ml; Ⅱ of rotifers 4 ~ 6 / ml, Artemia nauplii 20 / ml; III 5-7 of rotifers / ml, Artemia nauplii 40 / ml; Ⅳ 7-9 of rotifers / ml, Artemia nauplii 60 / ml; big eyes a daily average of 10-20 larvae fed Artemia adult / tail, Ⅰ crab daily average of 20 Artemia fed into the body / tail, Ⅱ of crab per day Artemia fed 30 adult / tail.
Further improvement to technique scheme: the time of throwing something and feeding is morning during 8-9, and at 12 o'clock at noon, afternoon is during 3-4, at dusk during 6-7, and at 12 o'clock in evening and 4 o'clock mornings.
Compared with prior art; Advantage of the present invention and good effect are: the present invention selects the artificially breeding parent crab of not carrying any disease for use; Adopt low sea brine to carry out that close crab survives the winter, seed rearing, can suppress breeding, the growth of part cause of disease, reduce disease and take place; Improve overwintering survival rate, can avoid causing during the overwintering culture generation and the vertical transmission of disease; Overwintering period adopts subsurface brine, the low sea brine of fresh water allotment to survive the winter, and cuts off the route of transmission of disease; Diet collocation is reasonable, and nutrition is complete, promotes close crab embryo health to grow; Take the seawater of 20 ‰ salinity to carry out seed rearing, imitate the natural environment of close crab row children, young growth, reduce the generation of disease, improve output, the quality of seed; Seed goes out 24h before the pond, with seawater salinity, temperature in the nursery pond transfer to the outdoor breeding pond in identical, avoid environment change to cause stress reaction too greatly.
Less salt seedling-cultivating method according to the invention, near the Portunus trituberculatus Miers natural environment, and low sea brine can be avoided breeding, the growth of part disease; The habit that meets swimming crab breeding migration, overwintering migration.Adopt the inventive method can make Portunus trituberculatus Miers parent crab overwintering survival rate raising 15.28%, seed output raising 25.02%, outdoor breeding survival rate improve 26.37%, and can be widely used in offshore sea waters and area, river mouth, have remarkable economic efficiency.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment technical scheme of the present invention is done further detailed explanation.
Embodiment 1
The less salt of a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers of the present invention is survived the winter, seedling-cultivating method specifically may further comprise the steps:
1, close crab is selected: the close crab that the present invention selects is the Portunus trituberculatus Miers of artificially breeding, and the close crab of selection must meet following condition: coefficient of condition is high, appendage is complete, body surface is bright and clean, energetic, do not have any mechanical damage; Specification is big, body weight >=250g, Quan Jiakuan >=155mm; (WSSV) detects to milky disease, vibriosis, balantidiasis and white spot syndrome virus, guarantees that close crab do not carry above-mentioned specific pathogen.
2, indoor wintering: November parent crab goes into the pond and survives the winter then; The parent crab need carry out strict sterilization to wintering pond and close crab before going into the pond, and close crab sterilization method is: with close crab every cube of water body 200-300ml Ai Pule (polyhexamethylene guanide) thimerosal dipping 15 minutes; The wintering pond sterilization method is: soak 12-24h with the 0.5ppm ClO 2 solution earlier, 1h is soaked with liquor potassic permanganate in the back, cleans pool wall, gas tube, heating tube etc. with liquor potassic permanganate again, rinses well with fresh water at last, can use behind the airing 72h.Sand is put in order smooth, be separated out the big feeding hack, feeding platform, feeding tray of 20-30% area with brick, be used for bait throwing in, remove residual bait near the discharge outlet place.
After the parent crab went into wintering pond, density only was controlled at every square metre of 3-5; Intensity of illumination is controlled at below the 500lx; Bait is mainly bait such as clam worm, Ruditapes philippinarum, squid, and feeding volume is body weight 3-5%.Adopt natural salt seawater (33 ‰) to survive the winter; Continue 3-4 month indoor wintering.
3, hot housing: in early March, second, the wintering pond water temperature is improved 0.5 ℃ every day, when reaching 21 ± 0.5 ℃, adopt constant temperature culture, bait such as the clam worm of throwing something and feeding, Ruditapes philippinarum, squid are strengthened nutrition, promote embryo health to grow; Feeding volume is the 10-15% of body weight, shows a small surplus with bait and is advisable, and bait sterilization (potassium permanganate) is cleaned before throwing something and feeding, and avoids carrying cause of disease.Hot housing continues 1-2 month.
4, cloth baby pool row: when the pro crab abdomen blackish gray egg mass, egg membrane of Zoea heartbeat reach 150-170 times, it will be pro-crab promptly remove from the winter pool, into larval rearing tank, Seawater is a natural seawater (salinity of 33 ‰).
5, seed rearing: during seed rearing, the fresh food after the sterilization of mainly throwing something and feeding: wheel animalcule, halogen worm etc.Bait and feeding method are following during the seed rearing:
Vaccination algae species, making fry rearing pond algae density of 400,000 / ml; according to the number of larvae feeding amount of shrimp, spirulina powder: Average 50,000 larvae, need each feeding 1g, before feeding silk screen with a suitable aperture grated; daily feeding animal feed 6 to 8 times, in Zoea stage Ⅰ rotifers 3 ~ 5 / ml; Ⅱ of rotifers 4 ~ 6 / ml, Artemia nauplii 20 / ml; III of rotifers 5 ~ 7 / ml, Artemia nauplii 40 / ml; Ⅳ 7-9 of rotifers / ml, Artemia nauplii 60 / ml .
Megalops larva, the young crab fairy shrimp adult of mainly throwing something and feeding, megalops larva 10-20 the fairy shrimp adult/tail of throwing something and feeding average every day, I phase children crab 20 the fairy shrimp adult/tails of throwing something and feeding average every day, II phase children crab 30 the fairy shrimp adult/tails of throwing something and feeding average every day.
Throw something and feed the morning time during 8-9, and at 12 o'clock at noon, afternoon is during 3-4, and during 6-7, at 12 o'clock in evening and 4 o'clock mornings, available beaker is contained the Chi Shui inspection before throwing something and feeding, and according to bait residue situation, determines next feeding volume at dusk.
6, juvenile crab goes out the pond: seed rearing to II phase children crab with juvenile crab, was derived through nursery pond bottom apopore in the time of the 3rd day.
Instance 2
1, close crab is selected: with instance 1.
2, indoor wintering: go into the pond, time of managing, survive the winter etc., the seawater of only surviving the winter was different with instance 1 fully with instance 1, adopted low sea brine (20 ‰) to survive the winter.
Low sea brine concocting method: extract subsurface brine, fresh water, mix according to a certain percentage, its salinity is adjusted to 20 ‰, be stored in the cistern subsequent use.Utilize this low sea brine to survive the winter, can avoid the propagation of cause of disease in the nature seawater on the one hand; Less salt can reduce the breeding and the growth of some cause of diseases down in addition, reduces the generation of disease.
3, hot housing: with instance 1.
4, cloth pond row children: with instance 1.
5, seed rearing: with instance 1.
6, juvenile crab goes out the pond: with instance 1.
Instance 3
1, close crab is selected: with instance 1.
2, indoor wintering: go into the pond, time of managing, survive the winter etc., the seawater of only surviving the winter was different with instance 1 fully with instance 1, adopted low sea brine (20 ‰) to survive the winter.
Low sea brine concocting method: extract subsurface brine, fresh water, mix according to a certain percentage, its salinity is adjusted to 20 ‰, be stored in the cistern subsequent use.Utilize this low sea brine to survive the winter, can avoid the propagation of cause of disease in the nature seawater on the one hand; Less salt can reduce the breeding and the growth of some cause of diseases down in addition, reduces the generation of disease.
3, hot housing: with instance 1.
4, cloth baby pool row: when the pro crab abdomen blackish gray egg mass, egg membrane of Zoea heartbeat reach 150-170 times, it will be pro-crab promptly remove from the winter pool, into larval rearing tank, salinity of 20 ‰, analog nature pro-row juvenile crabs, larvae living environment, and reducing the number of pathogens under low salt reproduction and growth, improve seed yield and quality.
5, seed rearing: with instance 1.
6, juvenile crab goes out the pond: with instance 1.
Instance 4
1, close crab is selected: with instance 1.
2, indoor wintering: go into the pond, time of managing, survive the winter etc., the seawater of only surviving the winter was different with instance 1 fully with instance 1, adopted low sea brine (20 ‰) to survive the winter.
Low sea brine concocting method: extract subsurface brine, fresh water, mix according to a certain percentage, its salinity is adjusted to 20 ‰, be stored in the cistern subsequent use.Utilize this low sea brine to survive the winter, can avoid the propagation of cause of disease in the nature seawater on the one hand; Less salt can reduce the breeding and the growth of some cause of diseases down in addition, reduces the generation of disease.
3, hot housing: with instance 1.
4, cloth baby pool row: when the pro crab abdomen blackish gray egg mass, egg membrane of Zoea heartbeat reach 150-170 times, it will be pro-crab promptly remove from the winter pool, into larval rearing tank, salinity of 20 ‰, analog nature pro-row juvenile crabs, larvae living environment, and reducing the number of pathogens under low salt reproduction and growth, improve seed yield and quality.
5, seed rearing: with instance 1.
6, juvenile crab goes out the pond: seed rearing to II phase children crab taked slowly to add the mode of seawater in the time of the 2nd day, and salinity, temperature in the seed rearing pond are transferred to outdoor breeding lake salt degree, temperature, and general 24h salinity amplitude of variation is 10 ‰; II phase children crab is adopted the way of shading illumination in the time of the 3rd day, most of healthy juvenile crabs are pulled out; Remaining juvenile crab is derived through nursery pond bottom apopore.
The experimental result of embodiment 1-4 is as shown in table 1.
The close crab survival rate of table 1 embodiment 1-4, seed output and seed are cultured the survival rate experimental result
Can contrast through above-mentioned experiment and to find that instance 4 is survived the winter close crab, seed output, seed cultures aspect such as become to live and obviously is superior to embodiment 1-3, the advantage that has is the most outstanding.Therefore with the operation of instance 4 as optimal technical scheme of the present invention.
Portunus trituberculatus Miers ecological breeding method according to the invention is aquaculture Co., Ltd research experiment in Haifeng county, Changyi City, but the method for the invention is not limited to and is applicable to this place.Through the experiment of groping in 3 years, that passes through lab scale, pilot scale facts have proved that this method can increase substantially output, the quality of swimming crab seed, and was widely used in offshore sea waters and area, river mouth, had obtained good economic benefit.
With Haifeng county, Changyi City aquaculture Co., Ltd is example: 30 indoor raising of seedling ponds, amount to 900 cubes of water bodys, and production II phase children crab 5,110,000 tails, output on average improves 25.02%.Therefore this method receives the welcome of vast nursery deeply, has wide promotion prospect.Because whole seed process is a biological breeding, carry out disease monitoring in the whole process in addition, not medication, so this seed physique is strong, and premunition is strong, and the later stage is cultured the survival rate height,
Seeking the proliferation experiment station down with China Aquatic Science Research Institute is example, at outdoor 10 mouthfuls of cultivating pools, amounts to 300 mu of areas; Throw in II phase children juvenile crab kind 3000 tails that this method is cultivated for every mu, on average culture the rate of recapture 12.89%, and other commercial seedlings; Same breeding density, same aquaculture management, the rate of recapture average 10.2%; The seed that this method is cultivated is cultured survival rate and improves 26.37%, remarkable in economical benefits.Therefore this seed receives raiser's welcome deeply, has vast potential for future development.
Above embodiment is only in order to explaining technical scheme of the present invention, but not limits it; Although the present invention has been carried out detailed explanation with reference to previous embodiment, for the person of ordinary skill of the art, still can make amendment to the technical scheme that previous embodiment is put down in writing, perhaps part technical characterictic wherein is equal to replacement; And these modifications or replacement do not make the essence of relevant art scheme break away from the spirit and the scope of the present invention's technical scheme required for protection.

Claims (7)

1. the low sea brine of Portunus trituberculatus Miers is survived the winter and seedling-cultivating method, it is characterized in that it may further comprise the steps:
(1) close crab is selected: select that appendage is complete, body surface is bright and clean, do not carry that the Portunus trituberculatus Miers artificially breeding of cause of disease is individual to be close crab;
(2) indoor wintering: shop, wintering pond bottom 10-15cm fine sand, close crab is sterilized to wintering pond, close crab before going into the pond, leaves bait table; Adopt the seawater of 20 ‰ salinity to survive the winter;
(3) larval rearing: when the pro crab abdomen blackish gray egg mass, egg membrane of Zoea heartbeat reach 150-170 times, it will be pro-crab promptly remove from the winter pool, into 20 ‰ salinity seawater larval rearing tank, feeding sterilized animal feed and plant food;
(4) juvenile crab goes out the pond: paedomorphosis to II phase children crab is in the time of the 2nd day, will culture salinity in the pond, the temperature adjustment is identical with external salinity and temperature, and the interior salinity amplitude of variation of 24h is controlled in 10 ‰; II phase children crab through the mode of photo-induction, was pulled healthy juvenile crab out in the time of the 3rd day.
2. a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers less salt according to claim 1 is survived the winter and seedling-cultivating method, it is characterized in that: adopt subsurface brine, fresh water to be deployed into the seawater of 20 ‰ salinity in said step (2) and (3).
3. a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers less salt according to claim 1 is survived the winter and seedling-cultivating method, it is characterized in that: close crab sterilization method is in the said step (2): every cube of water body 200-300ml polyhexamethylene carbamidine disinfecting liquid dipping 15 minutes.
4. survive the winter and seedling-cultivating method according to claims 1 described a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers less salt; It is characterized in that: the wintering pond sterilization method is in the said step (2): soak 12-24h with the 0.5ppm ClO 2 solution earlier; 1h is soaked with liquor potassic permanganate in the back, and wintering pond is cleaned with liquor potassic permanganate in the back; Rinse well with fresh water at last, can use after the airing.
5. survive the winter and seedling-cultivating method according to claims 1 described a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers less salt, it is characterized in that: during said seed rearing, animal bait is fresh and alive wheel animalcule or halogen worm, and vegetal bait is prawn slice, spirulina powder or chlorella.
6. survive the winter and seedling-cultivating method according to claims 5 described a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers less salts, it is characterized in that: make in the said step (3) that chlorella density reaches 400,000/milliliter in the seed rearing pond; Throw something and feed respectively according to young quantity and to rub broken prawn slice, spirulina powder with the hands: per 50,000 young, 1g need respectively throw something and feed;
Daily feeding animal feed 6 to 8 times, in Zoea stage Ⅰ rotifers 3 ~ 5 / ml; Ⅱ of rotifers 4 ~ 6 / ml, Artemia nauplii 20 / ml; III 5-7 of rotifers / ml, Artemia nauplii 40 / ml; Ⅳ 7-9 of rotifers / ml, Artemia nauplii 60 / ml; big eyes a daily average of 10-20 larvae fed Artemia adult / tail, Ⅰ crab daily average of 20 Artemia fed into the body / tail, Ⅱ of crab per day Artemia fed 30 adult / tail.
7. survive the winter and seedling-cultivating method according to claims 6 described a kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers less salts, it is characterized in that: the time of throwing something and feeding is morning during 8-9, and at 12 o'clock at noon, afternoon is during 3-4, at dusk during 6-7, and at 12 o'clock in evening and 4 o'clock mornings.
CN2012103516198A 2012-09-20 2012-09-20 Low-salt overwintering and breeding method of portunus trituberculatus Pending CN102823533A (en)

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CN104335926A (en) * 2013-07-25 2015-02-11 盘锦光合蟹业有限公司 Juvenile crab wintering method in crab breeding process
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CN104335926A (en) * 2013-07-25 2015-02-11 盘锦光合蟹业有限公司 Juvenile crab wintering method in crab breeding process
CN104335926B (en) * 2013-07-25 2016-08-31 盘锦光合蟹业有限公司 A kind of button crab wintering method in river crab breeding process
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CN104604757B (en) * 2014-06-06 2017-10-10 淮海工学院 A kind of Portunus trituberculatus Miers fry quality detection technique
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CN113349312A (en) * 2021-06-16 2021-09-07 自然资源部第四海洋研究所(中国—东盟国家海洋科技联合研发中心) Anti-fogging bait for industrial blue crab culture and preparation method thereof

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