CN106386607A - A graded multi-crop pond culture method for procambarus clarkii - Google Patents

A graded multi-crop pond culture method for procambarus clarkii Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106386607A
CN106386607A CN201610847796.3A CN201610847796A CN106386607A CN 106386607 A CN106386607 A CN 106386607A CN 201610847796 A CN201610847796 A CN 201610847796A CN 106386607 A CN106386607 A CN 106386607A
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batch
shrimp
procambrus clarkii
pond
aquaculture
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徐建荣
韩晓磊
陈中伟
张曼琳
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Changshu Institute of Technology
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Changshu Institute of Technology
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention provides a graded multi-crop pond culture method for procambarus clarkii and belongs to the field of aquaculture. The method comprises the steps of self-producing of larvae, culture of large-size larvae, culture pond preparation, and adult procambarus clarkii culture for 3-4 crops one year. Based on the characteristics of stress resistance and extensive adaptability of procambarus clarkii, graded multi-crop pond culture is carried for procambarus clarkii; the method solves the problem of supply shortage of procambarus clarkii in the autumn and winter market, makes full use of culture facilities, carries out graded multi-crop pond culture, guarantees sufficient market supply throughout the year, maximizes the economic benefits of culture and meets the consumption requirements of people for procambarus clarkii throughout the year.

Description

A kind of many batches of pond of Procambrus clarkii classification cultural method
Technical field
The present invention relates to aquaculture field, more particularly to a kind of many batches of pond of Procambrus clarkii classification cultural method.
Background technology
Procambrus clarkii originates in North America, is commonly called as Lobster, Procambarus clarkii, ant shrimp, crayfish etc., belongs to Arthropoda in classification Crustachia Malacostraca Decapoda mqb section, nineteen twenty-nine is introduced into China, widely distributed in China at present.
Procambrus clarkii often inhabits in the freshwaters such as stream, lake, reservoir, pond, marsh and rice field, misses potter Inhabit in the waters that pasture and water grow thickly or organic debrises and humus enrich, there is stronger ability of burrowing, often upper and lower in the water surface On the slope of 10-20cm by the foot of a chela burrow perch, survive the winter and breed.Procambrus clarkii happiness secretly keeps in dark place, and perches place with season The mobile phenomenon of section property, spring water temperature rises, and how in shallow water area activity, summer high temperature, enters profundal zone daytime, evening is then most It is gathered in phytal zone or thick grass and looks for food, winter enters in cave survives the winter.
The existence water temperature of Procambrus clarkii is 1-40 DEG C, and the most suitable growth water temperature is 21-28 DEG C, when water temperature is less than 12 DEG C, Growth is suppressed, and when water temperature is less than 10 DEG C, will slip in hole and survive the winter.Dissolved oxygen amount in more than 3mg/L, when dissolved oxygen amount is less than Will bank be climbed up one after another to breathe the oxygen in the air during 1mg/L.
Procambrus clarkii belongs to omnivorousness.Squab germling is with its own yolk as nutrition;The juvenile prawn stage, with wheel animalcule, branch Angle class and aquatic insect germling etc. are food;Become shrimp can catch shell-fish, Mollusca, aquatic insect germling, pasture and water, plant Root, stem and leaf, the humus on underwater mud top layer and organic debrises etc..Procambrus clarkii happiness is ingested at the bottom, how to carry out at night, When water temperature is less than 10 DEG C, is less than 1.5mg/L higher than 35 DEG C or water body dissolved oxygen amount, ingest and significantly reduce.In bait deficiency, density mistake When big, energy cannibalism, shelling or the soft shell shrimp of shelling is being easiest to be killed and devour.
Under its native environmental conditions, Procambrus clarkii needs the 7-12 monthly age to reach sexual maturity, the breeding season in 7-12 month, Post-coitum early then a couple of days, evening, then the several months can lay eggs.Once, egg production peak time is in 9-11 month for spawning in a year.Egg laying amount is at least Tens, how can be to 500-1000 grain, the bigger egg laying amount of individuality is more.Under the conditions of 10-15 DEG C, hatching larvae membrane needs 40- 50 days, when 22 DEG C, need 19-20 days, when 28-30 DEG C, only need get final product hatchling within 9-12 days.
Procambrus clarkii is a kind of high protein, low-fat health food, rich in multiple essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acidss Sour (DHA, EPA), trace element and mineral, are favored by domestic and international consumer deeply.
Due to the rapid growth of Procambrus clarkii apparent consumption and export processing quantity, its wild resource quantity is anxious Reduce sharply few, therefore, the yield being increased Procambrus clarkii by artificial cultivating method has been become and meets export processing and consumption city One of important channel of field demand.But current Procambrus clarkii artificial cultivation is subject to seed supply, culture benefit and cultural technique etc. The restriction of condition is it is impossible to annual supply market.
Content of the invention
1. technical problem to be solved
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of many batches of pond of Procambrus clarkii classification cultural method, to solve Certainly in prior art Procambrus clarkii cultured output low it is impossible to the problem in year-round provision market.
2. technical scheme
For solving the above problems, the invention provides a kind of many batches of pond of Procambrus clarkii classification cultural method, described many Stubble cultural method comprises the steps:
A. from numerous seed:Annual 8-10 month Selection parent carries out artificial induction oogenesis, and collection shrimp with ovums is heated and hatched children Body;
B. cultivate large size seedling seed:At the beginning of 2 months next year first arrival 3 months, select the Procambrus clarkii children hatched in a part of step a Body, carries out temperature control cultivation at a temperature of 25-28 DEG C, cultivates into the large size seedling seed of first 4-5, remaining germling is divided into two Part, all temperature be 5-8 DEG C, conservation gives over to cultivation second batch and the 3rd batch of large size seedling seed under conditions of oxygen supplement in 24 hours;
C. prepare cultivating pool:Proceed by pond disinfection 2 months, eliminate harmful animal, plantation pasture and water, basal dressing cultivation water quality Dwell the preparation of food organisms with culture bottom;
D. first becomes shrimp aquaculture:March puts into first large size seedling seed cultivated in step b in step c and prepares Good pond, every mu of quantitative putting Seedling 8000-10000 tail, control water temperature 15-30 DEG C, oxygen supplement in 24 hours, feed the former chela of kirschner daily The mixed feed of shrimp body weight 3%-6%, throws weekly chilled trash fish, and daily ration, feeding quantity is the 10%- of Procambrus clarkii body weight 15%, cultivate 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches the listing specification of 20-30 tail/jin, you can receive shrimp, list marketing;
E. second batch becomes shrimp aquaculture:In advance the second batch Procambrus clarkii larval culture of conservation in step b is become second batch The large size seedling seed of 4-5, becomes shrimp to receive shrimp at first and terminates to put into second batch large size seedling seed at once, the same step of aquaculture management D, cultivates 40-50 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, starts to receive shrimp, list marketing;
F. the 3rd batch becomes shrimp aquaculture:In advance the 3rd batch of Procambrus clarkii larval culture of conservation in step b is become the 3rd batch The large size seedling seed of 4-5, becomes shrimp to receive shrimp in second batch and terminates to put into the 3rd batch of large size seedling seed, the same step of aquaculture management at once D, cultivates 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, starts to receive shrimp, list marketing.
Further, select in the 3rd batch of Procambrus clarkii germling of conservation from step b, a part gives over to cultivation the 4th Criticize large size seedling seed, carry out the 4th batch after becoming shrimp aquaculture to terminate at the 3rd batch and become shrimp aquaculture:In advance by the 4th of conservation in step b the Batch Procambrus clarkii larval culture becomes the large size seedling seed of the 4th crowd of 4-5, becomes shrimp to receive shrimp at the 3rd batch and terminates to put into the at once Four batches of large size seedling seeds, aquaculture management with step d, cultivates 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, start to receive shrimp, on City sells.1 year foster 3-4 stubble, many batches of cultivation, annual supply, meet export processing and consumer market demand.
Further, every batch of Procambrus clarkii will shift to an earlier date 20-30 days by Procambrus clarkii before carrying out into shrimp aquaculture Larval culture becomes large size seedling seed, and carries out pond disinfection in advance, eliminates harmful animal, plantation pasture and water, basal dressing cultivation water quality and training Dwell the preparation of food organisms in foster bottom.Ensure to put into the unified standard of seed, be easy to aquaculture management, improve surviving of seed Rate;Ready work and the precautionary measures in advance, provide a comfortable living environment for Procambrus clarkii, it is to avoid breeding process The middle pathological changes mortality rate various unnecessary problems occurring, reducing Procambrus clarkii.
Further, in step d, aquaculture management is different in different time sections, and early spring keeps water with simple hot house More than 15 DEG C of temperature, the grass sunshade of summer kind controls below 30 DEG C of water temperature;For oxygen supplement control, to regularly observe the dissolved oxygen in detection water Amount, adjustment oxygen supplement amount and the oxygen supplement time in time;Bait throwing in feeds 2 times daily, and throwing rate of raising day in general March to May is 3%-5%, and 6 Throwing rate of raising the moon to September part day is 5%-6%.Make corresponding adjustment in different time sections for different environmental conditions, favorably In the healthy growth of Procambrus clarkii, increase the fanning economics of Procambrus clarkii.
3. beneficial effect
(1) annual 8-10 month Selection parent carries out artificial induction oogenesis.Laid eggs once within 1 year due to Procambrus clarkii, and sky So under environmental condition, in 7-12 month, egg production peak time was in 9-11 month, so selecting 8-10 the breeding season of Procambrus clarkii The moon carries out artificial induction oogenesis and meets the Nature rule, can guarantee that higher oogenesis success rate.
(2), when carrying out into shrimp aquaculture, every mu of injected volume is 8000-10000 tail, less than the injected volume of other cultural methods, But every batch of the yield of the present invention is up to 300-400 pound/acre, few unlike the yield of other cultural methods, and less input Amount advantageously reduces cost.
(3), when becoming shrimp aquaculture, also throw chilled trash fish weekly in addition to feeding mixed feed, so may advantageously facilitate gram The growth of crayfish, shortens the culture-cycle of Procambrus clarkii.
The present invention utilizes Procambrus clarkii strong stress resistance, the feature of wide adaptability, has carried out grading pool to Procambrus clarkii The cultivation of many batches of the pool, breaks through the few bottleneck of the Procambrus clarkii autumn and winter market source of goods, makes full use of breeding facility, be classified many batches of pond Cultivation, year-round provision market;Promote the maximization of fanning economics, people can be met simultaneously throughout the year and Procambrus clarkii is disappeared Take demand.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with example, the principle of the present invention and feature are described in more detail.
Embodiment 1
A kind of many batches of pond of Procambrus clarkii classification cultural method, comprises the steps:
A. from numerous seed:Last year August starts Selection parent and carries out artificial induction oogenesis, and collection shrimp with ovums is heated and hatched children Body;
B. cultivate large size seedling seed:2 months No. 15, select the Procambrus clarkii germling that hatches in a part of step a, in 25- Carry out temperature control cultivation at a temperature of 28 DEG C, cultivate into the large size seedling seed of first 4-5, remaining germling is divided into two parts, all Temperature be 5-8 DEG C, conservation gives over to cultivation second batch and the 3rd batch of large size seedling seed under conditions of oxygen supplement in 24 hours;
C. prepare cultivating pool:Proceed by pond disinfection by the end of February, eliminate harmful animal, plantation pasture and water, basal dressing cultivation water quality Dwell the preparation of food organisms with culture bottom;
D. first becomes shrimp aquaculture:First large size seedling seed cultivated in step b is put into accurate in step c by late March The pond got ready, every mu of quantitative putting Seedling 8000-10000 tail, control water temperature 15-30 DEG C, oxygen supplement in 24 hours, feed kirschner daily former The mixed feed of crayfish body weight 3%-6%, throws weekly chilled trash fish, and daily ration, feeding quantity is the 10%- of Procambrus clarkii body weight 15%, cultivate 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches the listing specification of 20-30 tail/jin, you can receive shrimp, list marketing, can basis Market quotation list marketing in batches, single batch of per mu yield 300-400 jin;
E. second batch becomes shrimp aquaculture:In advance the second batch Procambrus clarkii larval culture of conservation in step b is become second batch The large size seedling seed of 4-5, late May, first becomes shrimp receipts shrimp to terminate, and puts into second batch large size seedling seed, cultivation pipe at once Reason, with step d, cultivates 40-50 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, starts to receive shrimp, list marketing;
F. the 3rd batch becomes shrimp aquaculture:In advance the 3rd batch of Procambrus clarkii larval culture of conservation in step b is become the 3rd batch The large size seedling seed of 4-5, at the beginning of August, second batch becomes shrimp to receive shrimp to terminate, put into the 3rd batch of large size seedling seed, aquaculture management at once With step d, cultivate 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, start to receive shrimp, list marketing.
In the present embodiment, every batch of Procambrus clarkii all shifted to an earlier date 20-30 days by former for kirschner chela before carrying out into shrimp aquaculture Shrimp larval culture becomes large size seedling seed, and carry out in advance pond disinfection, eliminate harmful animal, plantation pasture and water, basal dressing cultivate water quality and Dwell the preparation of food organisms in culture bottom.
In the present embodiment, the aquaculture management in step d is different in different time sections, and early spring uses simple hot house More than 15 DEG C of holding water temperature, the grass sunshade of summer kind controls below 30 DEG C of water temperature;For oxygen supplement control, regularly observe in detection water Dissolved oxygen amount, in time adjustment oxygen supplement amount and the oxygen supplement time;Bait throwing in feeds 2 times daily, day in general March to May throws the rate of raising and is 3%-5%, throwing rate of raising June to September part day is 5%-6%.
Embodiment 2
A kind of many batches of pond of Procambrus clarkii classification cultural method, is with the difference of embodiment 1, above-mentioned steps b In remaining Procambrus clarkii germling be divided into three part conservations give over to cultivation second batch, the 3rd batch and the 4th batch of large size seedling seed; In the present embodiment, many steps after step f:
G. the 4th batch becomes shrimp aquaculture:In advance the 4th batch of Procambrus clarkii larval culture of conservation in step b is become the 4th batch The large size seedling seed of 4-5, mid-October, the 3rd batch becomes shrimp receipts shrimp to terminate, and puts into the 4th batch of large size seedling seed, cultivation pipe at once Reason, with step d, cultivates 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, starts to receive shrimp, list marketing.
Remaining is with embodiment 1.
Those of ordinary skill in the art it should be appreciated that above embodiment be intended merely to illustrate the present invention, And be not used as limitation of the invention, the change as long as in the spirit of the present invention, to embodiment described above Change, modification all will fall in scope of the presently claimed invention.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of many batches of pond of Procambrus clarkii classification cultural method is it is characterised in that comprise the steps:
A. from numerous seed:Annual 8-10 month Selection parent carries out artificial induction oogenesis, and collection shrimp with ovums is heated and hatched germling;
B. cultivate large size seedling seed:At the beginning of 2 months next year first arrival 3 months, select the Procambrus clarkii germling hatching in a part of step a, Carry out temperature control cultivation at a temperature of 25-28 DEG C, cultivate into the large size seedling seed of first 4-5, remaining germling is divided into two Point, all temperature be 5-8 DEG C, conservation gives over to cultivation second batch and the 3rd batch of large size seedling seed under conditions of oxygen supplement in 24 hours;
C. prepare cultivating pool:Proceed by pond disinfection 2 months, eliminate harmful animal, plantation pasture and water, basal dressing cultivation water quality and training Dwell the preparation of food organisms in foster bottom;
D. first becomes shrimp aquaculture:First large size seedling seed cultivated in step b is put into ready in step c by March Pond, every mu of quantitative putting Seedling 8000-10000 tail, control water temperature 15-30 DEG C, oxygen supplement in 24 hours, feed Procambrus clarkii body daily The mixed feed of weight 3%-6%, throws weekly chilled trash fish, and daily ration, feeding quantity is the 10%-15% of Procambrus clarkii body weight, supports Grow 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches the listing specification of 20-30 tail/jin, you can receive shrimp, list marketing;
E. second batch becomes shrimp aquaculture:In advance the second batch Procambrus clarkii larval culture of conservation in step b is become second batch 4-5 Large size seedling seed, become shrimp to receive shrimp at first and terminate at once to put into second batch large size seedling seed, aquaculture management, with step d, is supported Grow 40-50 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, start to receive shrimp, list marketing;
F. the 3rd batch becomes shrimp aquaculture:In advance the 3rd batch of Procambrus clarkii larval culture of conservation in step b is become the 3rd crowd of 4-5 Large size seedling seed, become shrimp to receive shrimp in second batch and terminate at once to put into the 3rd batch of large size seedling seed, aquaculture management, with step d, is supported Grow 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, start to receive shrimp, list marketing.
2. a kind of Procambrus clarkii classification many batches of pond cultural method according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that from step Select a part to give over to the 4th batch of large size seedling seed of cultivation in 3rd batch of Procambrus clarkii germling of conservation in b, become at the 3rd batch Shrimp aquaculture carries out the 4th batch and becomes shrimp aquaculture after terminating:In advance the 4th batch of Procambrus clarkii larval culture of conservation in step b is become The large size seedling seed of the 4th crowd of 4-5, becomes shrimp to receive shrimp at the 3rd batch and terminates to put into the 4th batch of large size seedling seed, aquaculture management at once With step d, cultivate 50-60 days, Procambrus clarkii reaches listing specification, start to receive shrimp, list marketing.
3. a kind of Procambrus clarkii classification many batches of pond cultural method according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that every batch gram Crayfish will shift to an earlier date 20-30 days before carrying out into shrimp aquaculture and Procambrus clarkii larval culture is become large size seedling seed, and Carry out in advance pond disinfection, eliminate harmful animal, water quality cultivated by plantation pasture and water, basal dressing and dwells in the culture bottom beam worker of food organisms Make.
4. a kind of Procambrus clarkii classification many batches of pond cultural method according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that step d In aquaculture management different in different time sections, early spring keeps more than 15 DEG C of water temperature, summer kind grass with simple hot house Sunshade controls below 30 DEG C of water temperature;For oxygen supplement control, to regularly observe the dissolved oxygen amount in detection water, in time adjustment oxygen supplement amount and The oxygen supplement time;Bait throwing in feeds 2 times daily, and throwing rate of raising day in general March to May is 3%-5%, June to September part day throws the rate of raising and is 5%-6%.
CN201610847796.3A 2016-09-26 2016-09-26 A graded multi-crop pond culture method for procambarus clarkii Pending CN106386607A (en)

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CN106857348A (en) * 2017-03-17 2017-06-20 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 A kind of protecting method of freshwater shrimp breeding
CN107593544A (en) * 2017-09-21 2018-01-19 无为县姚沟镇安江水产养殖家庭农场 A kind of cultural method of two seasons lobster
CN111134064A (en) * 2020-02-13 2020-05-12 江苏省淡水水产研究所 Method for 'late breeding' of procambarus clarkii in spring seedlings
CN111771790A (en) * 2020-07-01 2020-10-16 海南善水循环农业开发有限公司 Method for breeding red swamp crayfish

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106857348A (en) * 2017-03-17 2017-06-20 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 A kind of protecting method of freshwater shrimp breeding
CN107593544A (en) * 2017-09-21 2018-01-19 无为县姚沟镇安江水产养殖家庭农场 A kind of cultural method of two seasons lobster
CN111134064A (en) * 2020-02-13 2020-05-12 江苏省淡水水产研究所 Method for 'late breeding' of procambarus clarkii in spring seedlings
CN111771790A (en) * 2020-07-01 2020-10-16 海南善水循环农业开发有限公司 Method for breeding red swamp crayfish

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