CN111264433A - Method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis fries by saline-alkali water culture - Google Patents

Method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis fries by saline-alkali water culture Download PDF

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CN111264433A
CN111264433A CN202010191393.4A CN202010191393A CN111264433A CN 111264433 A CN111264433 A CN 111264433A CN 202010191393 A CN202010191393 A CN 202010191393A CN 111264433 A CN111264433 A CN 111264433A
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water
pond
shrimps
saline
macrobrachium nipponensis
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孙盛明
郑荣宁
储衍伟
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Shanghai Ocean University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • A01K61/13Prevention or treatment of fish diseases
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • A01K61/17Hatching, e.g. incubators
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/20Animal feeding-stuffs from material of animal origin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/30Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/10Organic substances
    • A23K20/105Aliphatic or alicyclic compounds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/20Inorganic substances, e.g. oligoelements
    • A23K20/24Compounds of alkaline earth metals, e.g. magnesium
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/20Inorganic substances, e.g. oligoelements
    • A23K20/26Compounds containing phosphorus
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/80Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for aquatic animals, e.g. fish, crustaceans or molluscs
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05CNITROGENOUS FERTILISERS
    • C05C11/00Other nitrogenous fertilisers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/80Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking
    • Y02P60/87Re-use of by-products of food processing for fodder production

Abstract

The invention provides a method for culturing macrobrachium nipponensis fries in saline-alkali water, belonging to the technical field of aquaculture, and the culture method comprises the following steps: the water for cultivation is carbonate type saline-alkali water, the salinity is 5-10 per mill, the carbonate alkalinity is 2-6mmol/L, and the ammonia nitrogen content is 0.2-0.5 mg/L; after the saline-alkali water aquaculture pond is disinfected, putting adult female shrimps and male shrimps of macrobrachium nipponensis into the pond, controlling the conditions, feeding feed, and mating and spawning the adult female shrimps and the male shrimps; when fertilized eggs of the egg-carrying shrimps have black eyespots, sprinkling fertilizer and sterilizing; sprinkling soybean milk and cooked egg yolk soaked by traditional Chinese medicine juice with specific component compatibility after the macrobrachium nipponensis larvae are put into the pond; during seedling culture, photosynthetic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria are used for regulating water quality; by adopting the saline-alkali water artificial breeding technology, the breeding survival rate, the transportation resistance and the muscle quality of the macrobrachium nipponensis fries can be improved, and the saline-alkali water artificial breeding and breeding of the macrobrachium nipponensis are successfully realized.

Description

Method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis fries by saline-alkali water culture
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of aquaculture, and particularly relates to a method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis fries in saline-alkali water culture.
Background
The shrimp culture plays an important role in the aquaculture in China, and the culture varieties mainly comprise penaeus vannamei, penaeus monodon, Chinese prawn, freshwater macrobrachium nipponensis, macrobrachium rosenbergii, procambarus clarkii and the like.
Macrobrachium nipponensis (also called freshwater shrimp) is distributed almost all over the country, and habitats are not limited to fresh water bodies, but can live in low salinity water areas at river mouths. The market price of macrobrachium nipponensis is always high, so the breeding enthusiasm of fishermen on the macrobrachium nipponensis is always high. However, the shortage of shrimp larvae production, especially the shortage of high quality shrimp larvae supply, limits the expansion of macrobrachium nipponensis cultivation scale, and has become a bottleneck in the development of macrobrachium nipponensis industry.
China is a big agricultural country, and cultivated land in China is gradually reduced due to industrial development and a traditional irrigation cultivation mode, wherein the agricultural cultivated land is secondarily salinized at a speed of 3% due to traditional irrigation. Therefore, the development of the saline-alkali water fishery not only provides a new idea for the development and utilization of unconventional water resources and the alleviation of water use contradictions, but also promotes the ecological civilized construction of China and realizes the purposes of 'not competing with agriculture for land and water, changing alkali with fishing and increasing yield and efficiency'. The technology of aquiculture by using saline-alkali water in different areas at present is not mature, the saline-alkali water culture parameters of water types such as carbonate, sulfate and chloride types are not established, and particularly, good varieties suitable for different types of saline-alkali water culture are lacked.
Saline-alkali water is a third water resource different from seawater and fresh water, and due to the complexity and diversity of the saline-alkali water, people and animals cannot drink the saline-alkali water, agriculture cannot be directly utilized, the development utilization rate is less than 2%, and most of the saline-alkali water is in an idle state. The method has the advantages that saline-alkali water fishery is developed, waste saline-alkali soil resources can be changed into valuable, the fragile ecological environment of the area can be improved, and the method has important strategic significance for expanding the agricultural development space, promoting ecological civilization construction and promoting agricultural economic development. Hitherto, mainly breeding fish species such as tilapia, mullet, crucian, carp and the like in saline-alkali water areas, but the breeding period is long and the breeding benefit is low, so that freshwater shrimps suitable for saline-alkali water breeding are not found, and the invention establishes a method system for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis fries by carbonate type saline-alkali water for the first time.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects in the prior art, the invention aims to provide a method for culturing macrobrachium nipponensis seedlings in saline-alkali water, which can apply a proper amount of additional fertilizer in time according to the color and transparency of pond water during the seedling culturing, use soluble organic fertilizer 'rich water peptide II' and ecological chlorella source to culture bait organisms in an enhanced manner, and use photosynthetic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria to purify water quality, thereby solving the problem that the carbonate type saline-alkali water culture in China is lack of suitable macrobrachium species.
A method for culturing macrobrachium nipponensis fries in saline-alkali water comprises the following steps:
(1) sterilizing a culture pond with saline-alkali water to keep the water temperature in the pond at 22-25 ℃, then putting adult female shrimps and adult male shrimps of the macrobrachium nipponense into the pond, keeping the salinity of the pond water at 5-10 per thousand, the alkalinity of carbonate at 2-6mmol/L, the ammonia nitrogen content at 0.2-0.5mg/L, dissolved oxygen at 5-7mg/L and the transparency at 20-30cm, and feeding feed to cultivate the female shrimps and the male shrimps to mate and embrace eggs;
(2) when the fertilized eggs of the egg-carrying shrimps have black eyespots, the fertilizer is sprayed and applied to the whole pond, and meanwhile, the fishing insecticide is used for killing harmful organisms;
(3) when young macrobrachium nipponensis is hatched out and then is put into the pond, the water depth in the pond is 50-70cm, soybean milk is splashed for 2-3 times every day in the whole pond, and cooked egg yolk is fed for 2-3 times every day;
wherein, in the step (3), soybeans in the soybean milk are soaked in the traditional Chinese medicine juice; soaking cooked yolk in the Chinese medicinal liquid, and filtering;
the Chinese medicinal decoction is prepared by extracting 10-12 parts of Glycyrrhrizae radix, 5-8 parts of garlicin, 5-8 parts of herba Houttuyniae, 3-5 parts of pericarpium Citri Tangerinae, 3-6 parts of rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, 3-7 parts of radix astragali, 3-6 parts of Eucommiae cortex and 2-5 parts of flos Lonicerae with water.
Preferably, in the step (1), quicklime is used for sterilization.
Preferably, in the step (1), the ratio of the stocking amount of the adult female shrimps to the stocking amount of the adult male shrimps is 2:1-3: 1.
Preferably, in the step (1), the amount of the feed to be fed is 6-8% of the total weight of the macrobrachium nipponensis.
Preferably, in the step (2), the fertilizer applied is selected from more than one of amino acid fertilizer water paste or chlorella.
Preferably, in step (2), the fishing pesticide is abamectin.
Preferably, in the step (3), calcium and phosphorus are supplemented during the period from larva cultivation to mysid cultivation, and an artificial shrimp nest is arranged, so that young shrimps can be sparsely cultivated or sold by a pond when the length of the young shrimps reaches 1-2 cm.
Preferably, in the step (3), photosynthetic bacteria are used to maintain the transparency of the water body at 20-30cm during the process of cultivating the juvenile shrimps, and lactic acid bacteria are used to adjust the pH value of the water body at 7.5-8.6.
Due to the adoption of the scheme, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
firstly, the invention changes the habit of breeding the freshwater breeding seeds in the traditional aquaculture process, and implements saline-alkali water to breed parent macrobrachium nipponensis, so that the macrobrachium nipponensis is always in the saline-alkali water growth environment from spawning, incubation and larva development to breeding, the macrobrachium nipponensis breeding and breeding are avoided to be respectively bred in different water bodies, the macrobrachium nipponensis breeding is promoted to be better adapted to the saline-alkali water breeding mode, more importantly, the invention adopts the oviparous shrimp eyespot period to carry out fertilization and insect killing, provides sufficient living body bait and good breeding environment for the hatched flea-shaped larva, shortens the growth period of the macrobrachium nipponensis breeding seeds bred in the saline-alkali water, successfully realizes the artificial breeding and breeding of the macrobrachium nipponensis in the saline-alkali water field, and has promotion effect on expanding the saline-alkali water area utilization, thereby promoting the fishery income increase and fisherman efficiency increase in the saline-alkali area.
Secondly, compared with the traditional freshwater seedling raising technology, on the basis of establishing the evaluation method of the saline-alkali tolerance of the macrobrachium nipponensis, the macrobrachium nipponensis is screened out and cultured in pond water with the tolerance salinity of 5-10 per thousand, the alkalinity of 6 less than or equal to mmol/L and the pH value of 7.5-8.6, and photosynthetic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria are adopted to adjust the transparency and the pH value of a water body, so that the survival rate of seedlings is improved by 10 percent, and the artificial breeding and culture of the saline-alkali water of the macrobrachium nipponensis are successfully realized.
Thirdly, in the process of seedling raising and breeding in saline-alkali water, the traditional Chinese medicine juice is selected from specific materials for compatibility, so that the immunity of the macrobrachium nipponensis larvae is enhanced, the use of antibiotics and preventive medicines is avoided, and the pollution of aquaculture to the environment is reduced; in addition, the soluble amino acid fertilizer water paste and the ecological chlorella are used for fertilizing, so that the shrimp larvae have high survival rate, transportation resistance and muscle quality.
In conclusion, the breeding of the macrobrachium nipponensis increases new breeding objects in saline-alkali water areas, and compared with the traditional breeding species, the macrobrachium nipponensis has the characteristics of strong pathogen resistance, high survival rate, long-distance transportation resistance, high economic benefit and the like.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a graph showing the change of tissue structure (A, B) and apoptosis (C, D) of Macrobrachium nipponensis according to the present invention at different carbonate alkalinity.
FIG. 2 is a statistical graph of the apoptosis rate of macrobrachium nipponensis according to the present invention under different carbonate alkalinity.
Detailed Description
The invention provides a method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis fries in saline-alkali water culture.
The method for cultivating the macrobrachium nipponensis fries by the saline-alkali water comprises the following steps:
(1) sterilizing a culture pond with saline-alkali water to kill pathogenic microorganisms and harmful organisms, keeping the water temperature in the pond at 22-25 ℃, then putting adult female shrimps and adult male shrimps of the macrobrachium nipponense into the pond, keeping the salinity of the pond water at 5-10 per thousand, the alkalinity of carbonate at 2-6mmol/L, the ammonia nitrogen content at 0.2-0.5mg/L, dissolved oxygen at 5-7mg/L and the transparency at 20-30cm, and feeding feed to breed the female shrimps and the male shrimps to mate and embrace eggs;
(2) when the fertilized eggs of the egg-carrying shrimps have black eyespots, the fertilizer is sprayed and applied to the whole pond, and meanwhile, the fishing insecticide is used for killing harmful organisms;
(3) when young macrobrachium nipponensis is hatched out and then is put into the pond, the water depth in the pond is 50-70cm, soybean milk is uniformly sprinkled in the whole pond for 2-3 times every day after the young macrobrachium nipponensis is put into the pond, 1-2kg of soybean is used every mu every day, and the soybean is soaked by the traditional Chinese medicine juice to prepare the soybean milk; feeding cooked egg yolk 2-3 times per day, and filtering with 100-mesh 120-mesh nylon bolting silk after soaking the cooked egg yolk in the Chinese medicinal decoction, wherein the dosage is 2-3 per mu.
In the step (1), a single-factor gradient experiment is adopted, 5 salinity gradients such as 0, 5 thousandths, 10 thousandths, 15 thousandths and 20 thousandths are set, the survival rate and the metabolic enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase) are used as evaluation indexes, and the survival rate of 5-10 thousandths is obviously higher than that of other treatment groups. As shown in FIG. 2, when the carbonate alkalinity was >6mmol/L, it was found that hepatopancreas tubules of Macrobrachium nipponensis were deformed and hepatocytes were apoptotic by using tissue section and in situ end marker staining (TUNEL) method, and the apoptosis rate of Macrobrachium nipponensis cells was significantly higher under the alkalinity of 9mmol/L than when they survived under the alkalinity of 6mmol/L, as indicated by the right arrow in D of FIG. 1, and thus, the carbonate alkalinity was 2-6 mmol/L.
In the step (1), quicklime is used for sterilization during sterilization.
In the step (1), the ratio of the stocking amount of the adult female shrimps to the stocking amount of the adult male shrimps is 2:1-3:1, and the stocking amount of the adult female shrimps and the stocking amount of the adult male shrimps can be 4-7 kg/mu and 1-2 kg/mu respectively.
In the step (1), the amount of the feed is 6-8% of the total weight of the macrobrachium nipponensis.
In the step (2), the fertilizer applied is selected from more than one of soluble amino acid fertilizer water paste or chlorella.
Specifically, the 'fertilization when seeing eyespot' is one of the key technologies for improving the survival rate of seedling. When the shrimp eggs are transparent and two black spots (1 pair of compound eyes) are found in the eggs (5-6 days from the film emergence of flea larvae), 50-100kg of soluble organic fertilizer 'fat water peptide II' and 30-50kg of ecological chlorella are splashed in the whole pool per mu. As the flea larva at the first stage which is just hatched takes the yolk of the flea larva as nutrition, the flea larva is molted and transformed into the larva at the second stage after 2 to 3 days, and the flea larva starts to feed on algae, rotifer and the like. After one week of fertilization, the rotifer peak period is positive, sufficient palatable bait is provided for the larvae, the nutrition intake in the larval stage can be greatly improved, and the survival rate can be improved compared with the macrobrachium nipponensis larvae which do not use organic fertilizer and chlorella or are not used in the eyespot period.
In the step (2), the fishing pesticide is abamectin.
Meanwhile, the second key technology of the invention for improving the survival rate of the seedlings is 'sterilization when seeing eyespots'. When the shrimp eggs are transparent and two black spots (1 pair of compound eyes) are found in the eggs (5-6 days from the flea larvae to form membranes), 10% of abamectin is uniformly sprinkled in the whole pool, the using amount is 20 ml/mu, and the female shrimp larvae are stimulated to develop the membranes.
In fact, in step (3), after a large number of flea larvae in stage I appear in the pond, 1-2kg of dry soybeans are used every mu every day, the soybeans are ground into 50kg after being soaked for 24h by Chinese herbal medicines, and the soybeans are sprinkled in the whole pond for 2-3 times.
Specifically, the traditional Chinese medicine juice in the cooked egg yolk soaked by the traditional Chinese medicine juice and prepared into the soybean milk is obtained by extracting 10-12 parts of liquorice, 5-8 parts of allicin, 5-8 parts of houttuynia cordata, 3-5 parts of dried orange peel, 3-6 parts of polygonum cuspidatum, 3-7 parts of astragalus mongholicus, 3-6 parts of eucommia ulmoides and 2-5 parts of honeysuckle with water.
Wherein the Glycyrrhrizae radix has anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects, and can protect inflamed throat and trachea mucosa. The liquorice is also named as the aged, sweet grass and Ural liquorice, belongs to perennial herbs, has thick and strong root and rhizome, is a tonifying Chinese herbal medicine, and the liquorice extract and glycyrrhizic acid have the detoxification function similar to glucuronic acid on certain poisons.
Allicin is an organic sulfur compound extracted from the bulb of garlic of the genus allium of the family alliaceae, has wide pharmacological activity and broad antibacterial spectrum, and has good inhibitory effect on gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi.
The herba Houttuyniae is a herb recorded in Chinese pharmacopoeia, is derived from dried aerial part of houttuynia cordata of Saururaceae, and has food calling effect.
Pericarpium Citri Tangerinae, rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, radix astragali and Eucommiae cortex have immunity enhancing effect.
The flos Lonicerae has heat and toxic materials clearing away effects.
The Chinese herbal medicines are compatible together and have no toxic or side effect, and the Chinese herbal medicines are selected and compatible to achieve the effects of attracting food, enhancing immunity and detoxifying, so that aiming at the problems that the molting needs to be performed for more than ten times from the larval stage of the macrobrachium nipponense to the larval stage, the body immunity is weak, and the nutritional elements and the immunopotentiator need to be supplemented from the outside, the technical system for soaking soybeans in the Chinese herbal medicine liquid medicine is specially generated in the cultivation process of the macrobrachium nipponense larval.
In the step (3), calcium and phosphorus are supplemented during the stage of culturing the larvae to mysid, a proper amount of artificial shrimp nests are required to be arranged in the pond for the larvae to inhabit and conceal, and when the larvae grow to 1-2cm, the larvae can be separately cultured in the pond or sold.
In the step (3), photosynthetic bacteria are used for keeping the transparency of the water body to be 20-30cm in the process of cultivating the juvenile shrimps, and lactic acid bacteria are used for adjusting the pH value of the water body to be 7.5-8.6.
The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples.
Example 1:
the method is used for cultivating and breeding the macrobrachium nipponensis fries in saline-alkali water, and a cement pond breeding mode is adopted, so that the effect is good.
In the saline-alkali water cultivation method for the macrobrachium nipponensis seedlings, active healthy male and female macrobrachium nipponensis are selected as parent shrimps and put into a disinfected saline-alkali water cultivation cement pond, the length of the parent shrimps is more than 6cm, the parent shrimps are moved into an indoor temporary cultivation pond according to the male-female ratio of 2:1, and the water temperature during temporary cultivation is 23 ℃; the water quality control indexes are as follows: the salinity is 6 per mill, the carbonate salinity is 4mmol/L, the ammonia nitrogen content is 0.2mg/L, the dissolved oxygen is 6.2mg/L, the fresh and live shellfish and the compound feed are fed, the feeding amount is 6 percent of the weight of the parent shrimps, and after half a month of cultivation, the macrobrachium nipponensis starts mating and spawning.
When fertilized eggs of the egg-carrying shrimps appear in a black eyespot period, 80kg of soluble amino acid fertilizer water paste and 40kg of ecological chlorella are sprinkled in the whole pond per mu. At the same time, 10% of abamectin is uniformly sprinkled in the whole pool, and the using amount is 20 ml/mu.
After young macrobrachium nipponensis is just hatched out, the water depth is 60cm when the young macrobrachium nipponensis is put into the pond, soybean milk is uniformly sprinkled in the whole pond for 3 times every day after the young macrobrachium nipponensis is put into the pond, 1kg of soybean is used every mu every day, and the soybean is soaked in the traditional Chinese medicine juice to prepare the soybean milk; the cooked egg yolk is fed for 2 times every day, and the Chinese medicinal decoction of the cooked egg yolk is soaked and filtered by using 100-mesh nylon bolting silk, the dosage is 3 per mu, wherein the Chinese medicinal decoction is obtained by extracting 12 parts of liquorice, 6 parts of allicin, 6 parts of houttuynia cordata, 4 parts of dried orange peel, 4 parts of giant knotweed rhizome, 4 parts of astragalus mongholicus, 4 parts of eucommia ulmoides and 3 parts of honeysuckle with water. The turning over of the shrimp fries after the shrimp fries are hatched, namely the shrimp fries need 8-10 days in the mysid stage, the shrimp fries are molted for at least 8-9 times in the period, the demand of the shrimp fries on calcium and phosphorus in the water body is high, and the calcium and phosphorus double-supplement AD3E powder (containing E cod-liver oil) is supplemented for one time in 3 days, so that the physique of the shrimp fries after the molting is improved.
Applying a proper amount of additional fertilizer in time according to the color and transparency of pond water during seedling raising, using photosynthetic bacteria to keep the water transparency of 25cm during seedling raising, using lactic acid bacteria to adjust the pH value of the water, using amino acid fertilizer water paste and an ecological chlorella source to strengthen culture bait organisms to promote the growth and development of macrobrachium nipponensis larvae, enhancing physique and improving survival rate, and enabling the specifications of the macrobrachium nipponensis taken out of the pond to be more regular; in the later stage of seedling raising, a proper amount of non-biological artificial shrimp nests are required to be arranged in the pond for the young shrimps to inhabit and conceal, and when the length of the young shrimps reaches 1cm, the young shrimps can be thinly raised or sold in the pond. The invention compares saline-alkali water culture with fresh water culture in the test process, and the specific results are shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 conditions of the experimental group and the control group
After 42 days of cultivation, the method of the embodiment 1 is adopted to cultivate the newly hatched macrobrachium nipponensis larvae, and the survival rate of the macrobrachium nipponensis larvae grown into commercial shrimp seedlings is improved by about 10 percent compared with the traditional fresh water cultivation method.
Example 2:
in a breeding base of macrobrachium nipponensis in a new coastal area of Tianjin, 2 ponds with basically consistent conditions are selected, water is injected into the pond at a depth of 79 cm, the gradient is 1:3, and the macrobrachium nipponensis seedling culture ponds with independent water inlet and drainage systems respectively have the areas of 3.5 mu (1# and 2#, which are control groups) and 4 mu (3# and 4# which are experimental groups), and the experimental scheme is shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2 Macrobrachium nipponense cultivation experimental protocol
After 42 days of cultivation, shrimp seedlings are caught in 25 days after 7 months, and the specific harvesting conditions are shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3 yield and specification of Macrobrachium nipponensis fry in different cultivation modes
Table 3 shows that by timely killing harmful organisms, soaking soybeans in Chinese herbal medicines, supplementing calcium and phosphorus required by crustaceans, and using a vitamin C stress sprinkling agent before fishing, the molting growth of macrobrachium nipponense seedlings can be effectively promoted, and the specification and the yield are improved. Without the treatment of the method, the macrobrachium nipponensis offspring seed has extremely low fruiting yield, low living rate and intolerance to long-distance transportation.
After the shrimp larvae are cultured for 42 days, the specific muscle amino acid composition and texture characteristic conditions of the shrimp larvae are shown in tables 4 and 5.
TABLE 4 amino acid composition of the muscle of the young macrobrachium nipponensis in different cultivation modes
Note that essential amino acids are denoted by △, non-essential amino acids are denoted by
TABLE 5 texture characteristics of the muscles of the young macrobrachium nipponensis seeds in different cultivation modes
Experimental group Control group
Hardness of 88.56±12.06 72.46±11.14
Elasticity 0.66±0.08 0.51±0.06
Chewiness of the product 18.87±8.33 15.62±7.02
Recovery property 0.17±0.05 0.16±0.04
As can be seen from tables 4 and 5, in the process of saline-alkali water cultivation, the beneficial algae are cultivated by adding the amino acid fertilizer water paste into the ecological chlorella source in the cultivation period, and the muscle amino acid content and the texture characteristics of the macrobrachium nipponense seedlings can be effectively increased. Without the treatment of the method, the macrobrachium nipponensis fry has low muscle amino acid content, low muscle hardness, elasticity and chewiness, and the three indexes are closely related to meat quality and taste.
In conclusion, the shrimp fries cultured by the method have high survival rate, transportation resistance and muscle quality.
The previous description of the specific embodiments is provided to enable any person skilled in the art to make or use the present invention. It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications to these embodiments and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments without the use of the inventive faculty. Therefore, the present invention is not limited to the above-described specific embodiments. Those skilled in the art should appreciate that many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching without departing from the scope of the invention.

Claims (8)

1. A method for culturing macrobrachium nipponensis fries in saline-alkali water is characterized by comprising the following steps: which comprises the following steps:
(1) sterilizing a culture pond with saline-alkali water to keep the water temperature in the pond at 22-25 ℃, then putting adult female shrimps and adult male shrimps of the macrobrachium nipponense into the pond, keeping the salinity of the pond water at 5-10 per thousand, the alkalinity of carbonate at 2-6mmol/L, the ammonia nitrogen content at 0.2-0.5mg/L, dissolved oxygen at 5-7mg/L and the transparency at 20-30cm, and feeding feed to cultivate the female shrimps and the male shrimps to mate and embrace eggs;
(2) when the fertilized eggs of the egg-carrying shrimps have black eyespots, the fertilizer is sprayed and applied to the whole pond, and meanwhile, the fishing insecticide is used for killing harmful organisms;
(3) when young macrobrachium nipponensis is hatched out and then is put into the pond, the water depth in the pond is 50-70cm, soybean milk is splashed for 2-3 times every day in the whole pond, and cooked egg yolk is fed for 2-3 times every day;
wherein in the step (3), soybeans in the soybean milk are soaked in the traditional Chinese medicine juice; soaking the cooked yolk in the Chinese medicinal liquid, and filtering;
the traditional Chinese medicine juice is obtained by extracting 10-12 parts of liquorice, 5-8 parts of allicin, 5-8 parts of houttuynia cordata, 3-5 parts of dried orange peel, 3-6 parts of polygonum cuspidatum, 3-7 parts of astragalus mongholicus, 3-6 parts of eucommia ulmoides and 2-5 parts of honeysuckle with water.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (1), quicklime is adopted for sterilization during sterilization.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (1), the ratio of the stocking amount of the adult female shrimps to the stocking amount of the adult male shrimps is 2:1-3: 1.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (1), the amount of the fed feed is 6-8% of the total weight of the macrobrachium nipponensis.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (2), the fertilizer applied is selected from more than one of amino acid fertilizer water paste or chlorella.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (2), the fishing pesticide is abamectin.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (3), calcium and phosphorus are supplemented during the period from larva cultivation to mysid cultivation, and an artificial shrimp nest is arranged, so that when the length of the larva shrimp reaches 1-2cm, the larva shrimp can be thinly cultivated or sold by a pond.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (3), photosynthetic bacteria are used for keeping the transparency of the water body to be 20-30cm in the process of cultivating the juvenile shrimps, and lactic acid bacteria are used for adjusting the pH value of the water body to be 7.5-8.6.
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