CN101375678B - Method for culturing fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis - Google Patents

Method for culturing fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101375678B
CN101375678B CN2008101568933A CN200810156893A CN101375678B CN 101375678 B CN101375678 B CN 101375678B CN 2008101568933 A CN2008101568933 A CN 2008101568933A CN 200810156893 A CN200810156893 A CN 200810156893A CN 101375678 B CN101375678 B CN 101375678B
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water
pond
erythroculter ilishaeformis
individual
feeding
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CN101375678A (en
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何义进
刘勃
周群兰
戈贤平
谢骏
蒋国春
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Freshwater Fisheries Research Center of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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Freshwater Fisheries Research Center of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures

Abstract

The invention relates to a method of culturing Erythroculter ilishaeformis fish fries of large specifications. The method comprises the following steps: stocking the fish fries of Erythroculter ilishaeformis adult fishes in the water area which is relatively small and easily controlled with the reasonable density; providing rich water, stress management, and the feeding of fish meals; controlling the water environment and the disease occurrences in the culturing process; and obtaining the Erythroculter ilishaeformis fish fries with the average weight of each one being above 50g after 120-150 days of culture, and the specification being 15-18cm. Compared with the other inorganic and organic water fertilizing methods, the invention adopts the fertilizing method of using the zymotechnics of multiplicity of microbe groups, so as to reduce the pollution to the feeding environment of the pond by fertilizer water and achieve the purpose of emission reduction. In addition, the content of various beneficial bacterium groups in the pond is increased through the fertilizing method of using the zymotechnics of multiplicity of microbe groups, thus being favorable to the culturing of food organisms, thereby decreasing the number of pathogens, and reducing the occurrence of various diseases.

Description

A kind of method of cultivating fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method of cultivating fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis, belong to technical field of aquaculture.
Background technology
Erythroculter ilishaeformis is commonly called as big whitefish, sticks up face, sticks up shell, white silk, Xing Kaida whitefish, stick up Culter, Culter stickleback, stick up white, whitefish, the son that is in a pout floats silver carp etc.The area, Guangdong is commonly called as the Changjiang river and suitable, and the middle reaches, the Changjiang river are commonly called as sticks up white, whitefish, and THE LOWER YANGTZE VALLEY is commonly called as the Taihu Lake whitefish.Formal name used at school Erythroculter ilishaeformis.At the original bigger quantity of the catch in the Yangtze river basin and attached lake, be one of famous " Taihu Lake three is white ", fine and tender taste.In annual June, the Culter fish is plump and sturdy, and is nutritious, just in time is that agricultural is transplanted rice seedlings season, and the littoral successive dynasties pass on from one to another the great fame of " Culter in transplanting " in Taihu Lake, be regarded as in the fish top grade, in the city, Shanghai-Hangzhou and other areas, southern Jiangsu be well received by consumers.
The erythroculter ilishaeformis build is bigger, and common is 2~2.5 kilograms, and the maximum weighs 10~15 kilograms.Body is elongated, and is flat-sided, is wicker leaf shape.The back side is straight, a back part protuberance.Mouth is upper, and lower jaw is hard thick sharply to upwarp, and erects before mouth, makes schistostoma vertical.Eye is justified greatly.Squama is little.Side line is obvious, and is anterior slightly upwards curved, and slightly below, middle part, side is traversed at the rear portion.80~93 pieces of lateral line scales.Abdomeinal fin base portion to anus has the abdomen rib.Dorsal fin has powerful and smooth hard sour jujube, and second sour jujube the most very.The terminal several abdomeinal fin base portions that reach of pectoral fin.Anal fin is grown up, and branch's fin ray 3, branch's fin ray 21~25.The dark fork-shaped of tail fin.Body back of the body light brown, side silver gray, outside of belly silvery white, dorsal fin, tail fin grey black, pectoral fin, abdomeinal fin, anal fin canescence.
During erythroculter ilishaeformis belongs to, the large-scale economic freshwater fish in upper strata, action is swift and violent, is good at jumping, and has a fiery temperament, and is frightened easily.Erythroculter ilishaeformis is the eurythermic fish, 0-38 ℃ of existence water temperature, 3-36 ℃ of pinch drinking water temperature, optimum water temperature 15-32 ℃, 18-30 ℃ of optimum growh water temperature; 20-32 ℃ of breeding water temperature.The erythroculter ilishaeformis growth is slightly given birth to extensive cultivation rapidly, and build is bigger, and maximum individuality reaches more than 15 kilograms.Wild erythroculter ilishaeformis is to be the violent predacious fish of staple food with the live fish, and be staple food with plankton and aquatic insect seedling stage, the small fish shrimp that mainly eats more than 50 grams, and a small amount of young tender plant also eats.The original seed fry that artificial propagation is come out, in nutrition period outside interior nutrition turns to period, one sells until marketable fish, the overall process artificial feed of all can throwing something and feeding.
In the breeding process of erythroculter ilishaeformis, the size of fingerling is closely related for the specification of culturing the back marketable fish, and breeding of large size fingerling helps erythroculter ilishaeformis growth fast in the commodity breeding process, improves the price of deed, reduce feed coefficient, for the fisherman brings bigger economic benefit.But the fingerling body length of at present general erythroculter ilishaeformis is at 13-15cm, if can further improve the breed that the specification of fingerling then more helps adult fish.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome above-mentioned weak point, thereby provide a kind of method of cultivating fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis, at less relatively, the more manageable water surface, put the erythroculter ilishaeformis fry in a suitable place to breed with rational density, be equipped with novel rational rich water technology, stress administrative skill and feedstuff feeding technology, water quality environment, disease in the control seed rearing process take place, and cultivate through 120-150 days, make the specification of erythroculter ilishaeformis fingerling reach 15-18cm, average individuality weighs more than the 50g.
According to technical scheme provided by the invention, a kind of method of cultivating fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis of the present invention, adopt following processing step:
1, the preparation of rich water: its prescription ratio is counted by weight:
(1), gets auxiliary material: 1.5~2.5 parts of feed meals, 0~2 part in peanut powder, 0~2 part of fine rice bran, 4~6 parts in water, 0.2~0.4 part of vinegar, 0.4~0.6 part in brown sugar.
(2), major ingredient: 0.01~0.02 part of Bacillus acidi lactici; 0.03~0.05 part of bacillus subtilis; 0.05~0.07 part in saccharomycete; 0.05~0.07 part of EM bacterium; 0.01~0.02 part of nitrifying bacteria;
(3), auxiliary material and major ingredient are added in the container, container covers with plastic film, is to ferment under 10~20 ℃ of conditions in temperature, and fermentation time 3~5 days is fragrant tart flavour, is the viable bacteria fermentation activated fertilizer, can be used for full pool spilling head.
2, the area in erythroculter ilishaeformis seed rearing pond is a 1-3 mu, and the pond depth of water is generally 1.5-1.8 rice;
3, the water of cleaning up the pond, apply fertilizer: putting the Miao Qianxian water of cleaning up the pond, apply fertilizer: cleaned up the pond with quicklime 100~120 kg/mu in 10-12 days before putting in a suitable place to breed; Full pool spilling head fertilising water, rich water usage amount: 15-20g/m 3
4, seed is put in a suitable place to breed: fry is put in a suitable place to breed in the pond with the density of 0.8~0.9 ten thousand tail/mu; Seed is put the high steady V of back full pool spilling head on the same day in a suitable place to breed C, every mu 300 gram was splashed once in the seed rearing process afterwards in every 10-12 days;
5, tame and docile food control: the mash feed of protein content height (〉=38%) that just begun to throw something and feed, reach 6cm and transfer the expanded pellet diet of throwing something and feeding when above to when cultivating fingerling, just begun slowly to reduce mash feed when changeing material, increased expanded pellet diet, all transferred expanded pellet diet after 5 days to;
6, feeding and management: every morning, the morning, afternoon, each feeding of dusk are once, feeding capacity is as the criterion can eat up in half an hour, measure dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, the content of nitrite of cultivate water weekly, the monitoring cultivate water, and open dissolved oxygen content in the oxygen increasing equipment increase breeding water body.
Described Bacillus acidi lactici concentration is 5 * 10 8Individual/g; The bacillus subtilis bacteria concentration is 1 * 10 9Individual/g; Saccharomycete concentration is 3 * 10 11Individual/g; The EM bacteria concentration is 5 * 10 9Individual/g; Nitrifying bacteria concentration is 1 * 10 8Individual/g.
Described auxiliary material is one or more the compound in feed meal, peanut powder or the fine rice bran.
Compared with the prior art the present invention has the following advantages:
1, the present invention puts the erythroculter ilishaeformis fry in a suitable place to breed with proper density in suitable area waters, be equipped with novel rational rich water technology, stress administrative skill and feedstuff feeding technology, water quality environment, disease in the control seed rearing process take place, through cultivation in 120-150 days, make the specification of erythroculter ilishaeformis fingerling reach 15-18cm.
2, adopted microorganism species fermentation method rich water,, fertilizer water law inorganic with other Comparatively speaking, reduced because of rich water to the pollution that the pond culture environment causes, reach the purpose of reduction of discharging.In addition, by microbial fermentation technology, increase the content of various profitable strains in the pond, thereby reduce the quantity of pathogenic bacteria, help reducing the generation of all kinds of diseases of fry.
3, have a fiery temperament because of erythroculter ilishaeformis, frightened easily, by putting the high steady V that the Guangdong Huizhou Triratna of splashing the same day is produced in a suitable place to breed CReduce the stress reaction of erythroculter ilishaeformis fry, make the new environment of the faster and better adaptation of fry, minimizing stress consume, and helps the growth of seed.
When 4, just having begun to tame and docile food, adopt the mash feed of high protein, accelerate the early stage growth of fry.
Embodiment:
Embodiment one: a kind of method of cultivating fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis of the present invention, and adopt following processing step: its prescription ratio is counted by weight:
The area in the erythroculter ilishaeformis seed rearing pond in Yixing City Yang Xiang town is 1 mu, and the pond depth of water is generally 1.5 meters.The pool is preceding 10 days under the seed, cleans up the pond with quicklime with the amount of 120 kg/mu.A container (vat) was got on the pool in preceding 7 days under the seed, added 2.5 parts of auxiliary material feed meals, 2 parts in peanut powder, and 2 parts of fine rice brans, 6 parts in water, 0.4 part of vinegar, 0.6 part in brown sugar, and major ingredient is 5 * 10 available from the concentration that Jiangsu Province Su Wei microorganism Co., Ltd produces 80.02 part of the Bacillus acidi lactici of individual/g, concentration are 1 * 10 90.05 part of the bacillus subtilis of individual/g, concentration are 3 * 10 110.07 part in the saccharomycete of individual/g, concentration are 5 * 10 90.07 part of the EM bacterium of individual/g, concentration are 1 * 10 80.02 part of the nitrifying bacteria of individual/g seals with plastic film, is about under 25 ℃ in room temperature and ferments, and after 3 days, fermentation product is fragrant tart flavour, and full pool spilling head carries out rich water.On June 30th, 2007 put with the density of 0.8 ten thousand tail/mus the erythroculter ilishaeformis fry of 3cm size in a suitable place to breed in the pond.Seed is put the high steady V that back full pool spilling head Guangdong Huizhou Triratna on the same day is produced in a suitable place to breed C, every mu 300 gram.Splashed once in per 10 days in the seed rearing process afterwards.Just begun the to throw something and feed mash feed of protein content height (〉=38%) reaches 6cm and transfers the expanded pellet diet of throwing something and feeding to when above when cultivating fingerling, has just begun slowly to reduce mash feed when changeing material, increases expanded pellet diet, all transfers expanded pellet diet after 5 days to.Every morning, the morning, afternoon, each feeding of dusk are once, feeding capacity is as the criterion can eat up in half an hour, measure dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, the content of nitrite of cultivate water weekly, the monitoring cultivate water makes dissolved oxygen content maintain 5-8mg/L, ammonia-nitrogen content is that 0.05-0.15mg/L, content of nitrite are 0.005-0.020mg/L.Sultry, overcast and rainy unlatching oxygen increasing equipment increases dissolved oxygen content in the breeding water body.Gather in the crops fingerling, the long 17cm of body in the fish October 29 the same year.
Embodiment two: a kind of method of cultivating fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis of the present invention, and adopt following processing step: its prescription ratio is counted by weight:
The area in the erythroculter ilishaeformis seed rearing pond in Yixing City Gao Cheng town is 1.5 mu, and the pond depth of water is generally 1.7 meters.The pool is preceding 12 days under the seed, cleans up the pond with quicklime with 100 kilograms/mu amount.A vat was got on the pool in preceding 7 days under the seed, added 1.5 parts of auxiliary material feed meals, 4 parts in water, and 0.2 part of vinegar, 0.4 part in brown sugar, and major ingredient: the concentration of producing available from Jiangsu Province Su Wei microorganism Co., Ltd is 5 * 10 80.01 part of the Bacillus acidi lactici of individual/g; Concentration is 1 * 10 90.03 part of the bacillus subtilis of individual/g; Concentration is 3 * 10 110.05 part in the saccharomycete of individual/g; Concentration is 5 * 10 90.05 part of the EM bacterium of individual/g; Concentration is 1 * 10 80.01 part of the nitrifying bacteria of individual/g, and cover sealing with plastic film, when being about 28 ℃, room temperature ferments, and after 3 days, fermentation product is fragrant tart flavour, and full pool spilling head carries out rich water.On June 30th, 2007 put with the density of 0.9 ten thousand tail/mus the erythroculter ilishaeformis fry of 3cm size in a suitable place to breed in the pond.Seed is put the high steady V that back full pool spilling head Guangdong Huizhou Triratna on the same day is produced in a suitable place to breed C, every mu 300 gram.Splashed once in per 10 days in the seed rearing process afterwards.Just begun the to throw something and feed mash feed of protein content height (〉=38%) reaches 6cm and transfers the expanded pellet diet of throwing something and feeding to when above when cultivating fingerling, has just begun slowly to reduce mash feed when changeing material, increases expanded pellet diet, all transfers expanded pellet diet after 5 days to.Every morning, the morning, afternoon, each feeding of dusk are once, feeding capacity is as the criterion can eat up in half an hour, measure dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, the content of nitrite of cultivate water weekly, the monitoring cultivate water makes dissolved oxygen content maintain 5-8mg/L, ammonia-nitrogen content is that 0.05-0.15mg/L, content of nitrite are 0.005-0.020mg/L.Sultry, overcast and rainy unlatching oxygen increasing equipment increases dissolved oxygen content in the breeding water body.Gather in the crops fingerling, the long 18cm of body in the fish October 29 the same year.
Embodiment three: a kind of method of cultivating fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis of the present invention, and adopt following processing step: its prescription ratio is counted by weight:
The area in the erythroculter ilishaeformis seed rearing pond of Yixing City fisherman Pan Hongliang is 2.0 mu, and the pond depth of water is generally 1.8 meters.The pool is preceding 11 days under the seed, cleans up the pond with quicklime with the amount of 105 kg/mu.A drum was got on the pool in preceding 7 days under the seed, added 2 parts of auxiliary material feed meals, 1 part in peanut powder, and 1 part of fine rice bran, 5 parts in water, 0.3 part of vinegar, 0.5 part in brown sugar, and major ingredient, the concentration of producing available from Jiangsu Province Su Wei microorganism Co., Ltd is 5 * 10 80.015 part of the Bacillus acidi lactici of individual/g; Concentration is 1 * 10 90.04 part of the bacillus subtilis of individual/g; Concentration is 3 * 10 110.06 part in the saccharomycete of individual/g; Concentration is 5 * 10 90.06 part of the EM bacterium of individual/g; Concentration is 1 * 10 80.01~0.02 part of the nitrifying bacteria of individual/g, and cover sealing with plastic film, be about under 28 ℃ in room temperature and ferment, after 3 days, fermentation product is fragrant tart flavour, and full pool spilling head carries out rich water.On June 30th, 2007 put with the density of 1.0 ten thousand tail/mus the erythroculter ilishaeformis fry of 3cm size in a suitable place to breed in the pond.Seed is put the high steady V that back full pool spilling head Guangdong Huizhou Triratna on the same day is produced in a suitable place to breed C, every mu 300 gram.Splashed once in per 10 days in the seed rearing process afterwards.Just begun the to throw something and feed mash feed of protein content height (〉=38%) reaches 6cm and transfers the expanded pellet diet of throwing something and feeding to when above when cultivating fingerling, has just begun slowly to reduce mash feed when changeing material, increases expanded pellet diet, all transfers expanded pellet diet after 5 days to.Every morning, the morning, afternoon, each feeding of dusk are once, feeding capacity is as the criterion can eat up in half an hour, measure dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, the content of nitrite of cultivate water weekly, the monitoring cultivate water makes dissolved oxygen content maintain 5-8mg/L, ammonia-nitrogen content is that 0.05-0.15mg/L, content of nitrite are 0.005-0.020mg/L.Sultry, overcast and rainy unlatching oxygen increasing equipment increases dissolved oxygen content in the breeding water body.Gather in the crops fingerling, the long 15.5cm of body in the fish October 30 the same year.

Claims (1)

1. method of cultivating fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis is characterized in that: adopt following processing step:
(1), the preparation of rich water: its prescription ratio is counted by weight:
(a), get auxiliary material: 1.5~2.5 parts of feed meals, 0~2 part in peanut powder, 0~2 part of fine rice bran, 4~6 parts in water, 0.2~0.4 part of vinegar, 0.4~0.6 part in brown sugar;
(b), major ingredient: 0.01~0.02 part of Bacillus acidi lactici; 0.03~0.05 part of bacillus subtilis; 0.05~0.07 part in saccharomycete; 0.05~0.07 part of EM bacterium; 0.01~0.02 part of nitrifying bacteria; Described Bacillus acidi lactici concentration is 5 * 10 8Individual/g; The bacillus subtilis bacteria concentration is 1 * 10 9Individual/g; Saccharomycete concentration is 3 * 10 11Individual/g; The EM bacteria concentration is 5 * 10 9Individual/g; Nitrifying bacteria concentration is 1 * 10 8Individual/g;
(c), auxiliary material and major ingredient are added in the container, container covers with plastic film, is to ferment under 10~20 ℃ of conditions in temperature, and fermentation time 3~5 days is fragrant tart flavour, is the viable bacteria fermentation activated fertilizer;
(2), the area in erythroculter ilishaeformis seed rearing pond is 1-3 mu, the pond depth of water is 1.5-1.8 rice;
(3), the water of cleaning up the pond, apply fertilizer: putting the Miao Qianxian water of cleaning up the pond, apply fertilizer: cleaned up the pond with quicklime 100~120 kg/mu in 10-12 days before putting in a suitable place to breed; Full pool spilling head fertilising water, rich water usage amount: 15-20g/m 3
(4), seed is put in a suitable place to breed: fry is put in a suitable place to breed in the pond with the density of 0.8~0.9 ten thousand tail/mu; Seed is put the high steady V of back full pool spilling head on the same day in a suitable place to breed C, every mu 300 gram was splashed once in the seed rearing process afterwards in every 10-12 days;
(5), tame and docile food control: the high mash feed of protein content that just begun to throw something and feed, i.e. the mash feed of protein content 〉=38% reaches 6cm and transfers the expanded pellet diet of throwing something and feeding when above to when cultivating fingerling;
(6), feeding and management: every morning, the morning, afternoon, each feeding of dusk are once, feeding capacity is as the criterion can eat up in half an hour, measure dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, the content of nitrite of cultivate water weekly, the monitoring cultivate water, make dissolved oxygen content maintain 5-8mg/L, ammonia-nitrogen content is that 0.05-0.15mg/L, content of nitrite are 0.005-0.020mg/L, sultry, overcast and rainy unlatching oxygen increasing equipment increases dissolved oxygen content in the breeding water body.
CN2008101568933A 2008-09-28 2008-09-28 Method for culturing fingerlings of large-sized Erythroculter ilishaeformis Expired - Fee Related CN101375678B (en)

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