CN105494240B - A kind of comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise - Google Patents

A kind of comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise Download PDF

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CN105494240B
CN105494240B CN201510889807.XA CN201510889807A CN105494240B CN 105494240 B CN105494240 B CN 105494240B CN 201510889807 A CN201510889807 A CN 201510889807A CN 105494240 B CN105494240 B CN 105494240B
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tortoise
water
hatching
crocodile
greenhouse
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CN105494240A (en
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申倩倩
黎祖福
林忠
袁星
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National Sun Yat Sen University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise.This method comprises the following steps:The hatching of crocodile tortoise fertile egg;Young tortoise greenhouse cultivation;Young tortoise, into tortoise outdoor tank-culture cultivate.The present invention selects good hatching, young tortoise greenhouse cultivation and children, the aquaculture model into the cultivation of tortoise greenhouse cement pit, and different breeding stage special feed to have the advantages that death rate is low, and the speed of growth is fast come what is completed by crocodile tortoise.

Description

A kind of comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise
Technical field
The present invention relates to aquaculture field, and in particular to a kind of crocodile tortoise comprehensive breeding method and special feed.
Background technology
Crocodile tortoise is a kind of economic Chelonian kind, have eat, view and admire, medical value, and grow fast, lay heavily, premunition By force, dressing percentage is high, raising is simple, there is huge industrialization production prospect.Present crocodile tortoise hatching is with cultivation mainly by following two Point influences:First, cultivation equipment is single, backward in technique.Current most of plants and raiser, using single cultivation side Formula carries out common snapping turtle culture, and the overwhelming majority is accounted for using pond culture from young tortoise into tortoise.Even some are supported before directly continuing to use The equipment of Shelled Turtle Trionyx Sinensis, equipment are outmoded, it is impossible to play anti-escape effect well.Crocodile tortoise is once fallen ill, it is impossible to is effectively entered Row treatment.And with the extension of time, larger difference occurs in tortoise body size, selected not in time, separately cultivation, pole It is easily caused between crocodile tortoise and cuts one another's throat, catches, it is final dead.Second, crocodile tortoise artificial propagation power is low.Artificial propagation power includes Laying rate, rate of fertilization, incubation rate and young tortoise survival rate.Crocodile tortoise reproductive capacity is low to be shown:The laying rate of ripe female tortoise is less than 50%. Rate of fertilization is low less than 70%.Incubation rate is often below 80%, and most of individual raiser is even less than 50%.Passing the winter for young tortoise is deposited Motility rate is less than 70%.In addition, it is more harsh to environmental condition requirement, once environmental condition is not suitable with, it can also have a strong impact on that its is numerous Grow ability.Present hatching restricts the development of common snapping turtle culture industry with cultural technique.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise
The comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention, comprises the following steps:
(1) hatching of crocodile tortoise fertile egg:
A. a hatching house is built, puts hatching brandreth;
B. rigid plastics incubator is chosen, first first layer expanded vermiculite is spread in bottom, then the high-quality fertile egg of crocodile tortoise It is placed on the first layer expanded vermiculite, animal pole upward, then spreads lid second layer expanded vermiculite;Incubator is placed in described incubate Change on brandreth;
C. hatching management:Periodically open the door and check daily, with water sprager to incubator top layer sprinkle clear water, and loose upper strata leads to Gas, keep water content 3%~5% between;Noon opens door and window 10min~20min, makes greenhouse inner air convection, keeping temperature 28 DEG C~32 DEG C, relative air humidity 80%~90%;Hatching at 20 days~25 days to checking once comprehensively, by depauperation Egg reject;
(2) young tortoise greenhouse cultivation:
A. young tortoise cultivates the condition of culture in greenhouse:Each to cultivate a length of 70cm of basin size, wide 50cm, deep 30cm, bottom is along length Direction by certain slope tilt, in " factory " font, enter discharge outlet and separate;Heated with solar energy or boiler recirculated water, keep water 30 DEG C or so of temperature;
B. young tortoise starts to feed young tortoise special feed after hatching three days, and the 3~6% of day feeding volume percentage of liveweight, feed daily Twice, during the morning 7~8, respectively feed once, remove residual bait after feeding 2 hours every time, and clean training during afternoon 17~18 Pond is educated, changes the fresh water of same water temperature;Bait throwing in should accomplish timing, quantify, determine matter, fixed point;According to the health status of tortoise, every 7 days Sterilization is once;
(3) young tortoise, into tortoise greenhouse cement pit cultivate:
A. the construction of tortoise pond is outdoor tank-culture, and whole cement pit uses brick cement structures, and the water surface accounts for the 80% of the gross area, Land accounts for 20%;Land is covered with sandy soil, smooth, plants plant of sheltering from heat or light above;Land and the place of water surface contact have certain The gradient, it is easy to tortoise disembarkation to ingest;Water inlet pipe is provided with phytal zone, deep water corner is provided with drainpipe and blow-off pipe;Cement pit just on There is black thin film side, can play a part of sun-proof keep off the rain;The depth of water is grown up continuous adjustment with tortoise body;Whole cement pit is located at greenhouse In workshop, window is not set;Except outdoors, all closing elsewhere;Temperature is constant at 30 DEG C or so, and the temperature difference is no more than 3 DEG C;Water becomes Change identical with indoor cement pit;
B. tortoise body is put in a suitable place to breed and aquaculture management:Before putting in a suitable place to breed, 50g/m is used3Liquor potassic permanganate carries out disinfection processing to cement pit; By the young tortoise (0.5kg/ is only) of greenhouse cultivation, it is put into according to 100 per pond in greenhouse cement pit;Feed young tortoise and into the special feeding of tortoise Material, the time is at every morning 7~8 and during afternoon 17~18;The 1~3% of feeding volume about percentage of liveweight, it is typically small to feed rear 2 When eat up for degree;Outdoor tank-culture is fed on land by the bait table of waterside;Greenhouse cement pit and indoor cement pit are directly fed In water;5~September, water 1/3~1/2, cleaning in every 7~15 days are changed daily once, keeps water quality pure and fresh, transparency is controlled 25 ~30cm, water light green;Every month according to water quality and the health status of tortoise, to water body disinfection, reduces or killed the cause of disease in water Bacterium;With growing up for tortoise, constantly carry out that classification is selected and a point pond is raised.
According to the further feature of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention, the hatching house is rectangle, face Product 15m2Left and right, built-in washing basin, the anti-ants of 3~5cm of water filling, hatching brandreth pendulum is in pond.
According to the further feature of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention, in the step (1) also include pair In the sterilization of incubation medium, including:First it will hatch greenhouse and incubator thorough disinfection 2 times, killing with 3pp potassium permanganate before hatching Enemy and germ;By the expanded vermiculite exposure 3 days of purchase, the harmful organisms such as germ and worm therein, ant are killed.
According to the further feature of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention, in the step (1), the expansion Vermiculite is 6~8mm of diameter silvery white expanded vermiculite.
According to the further feature of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention, in the step (1), the fertilization The spacing of egg is 2cm.
According to the further feature of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention, in the step (2), the young tortoise Special feed precentagewise weight includes following component:Fish meat emulsion 40-55%, minced pork 8-15%, flour 18-23%, bean powder 10-20%, fish oil 1-3%, shrimp shell meal 0.5-1%, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 1%, seawood meal 1-3%, mineral matter 1-3%, vitamin 1-3%, phagostimulant 0.2-0.5%;Mentioned component is commercially available prod.
According to the further feature of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention, in the step (2), the young tortoise And include following component into tortoise special feed precentagewise weight:Minced fillet or minced pork 40-55%, flour 18-23%, bean powder 10-20%, chicken meal 5-10%, banana 3-5%, fish oil 1-3%, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 1%, seawood meal 1-3%, mineral matter 1- 3%th, vitamin 1-3%, growth regulator 0.5-1%;Mentioned component is commercially available prod.
The comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention is to select good hatching by crocodile tortoise, young tortoise greenhouse cultivation and children, into The aquaculture model that tortoise greenhouse cement pit is cultivated, and different breeding stage special feed " cultivate greenhouse+greenhouse cement come what is completed It is pool cultivated " young tortoise, broken the hibernation of young tortoise, and be constantly in the optimum temperature (30 DEG C of constant temperature) of young tortoise growth, young tortoise one It is straight to be in growth state, therefore there is the advantages that death rate is low, and the speed of growth is fast.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 shows different types of expanded vermiculite.
Embodiment
Embodiment one:The crocodile tortoise of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention selects good hatching
1. crocodile tortoise selects good hatching
A. a hatching house is built.Hatching house is rectangle, area 15m2Left and right, built-in washing basin, 3~5cm of water filling prevent Ant, hatching brandreth pendulum is in pond.In addition, the small-sized device such as thermometer, hygrometer and water sprager, Plastic Drum is had in hatching house Tool, it is standby that 2~3 barrels of clean waters are placed for a long time.
B. incubator and incubation medium sterilization.59cm × 36cm × 14cm rigid plastics incubator 9 is chosen, is swollen Swollen vermiculite incubator.Before hatching, it first will hatch greenhouse and incubator thorough disinfection 2 times with 3pp potassium permanganate, and kill enemy and disease Bacterium.By the expanded vermiculite exposure 3 days of purchase, the harmful organisms such as germ and worm therein, ant are killed.
C. before high-quality fertile egg is put, 5cm expanded vermiculites first are spread in bottom, then fertile egg animal pole upward, according to Each incubator 104 (13 × 8), the interval 2cm of two eggs are neatly discharged, and spread lid 5cm or so expanded vermiculite, record on egg again Egg date, the content such as quantity are received, is posted and is put into hatching house after label and is placed on brandreth.
Periodically open the door and check daily, with water sprager to incubator expanded vermiculite sprinkle clear water, and loose upper strata Sha Tongqi, protect Hold between sand water content 3%~5%;Noon opens 10~20min of door and window, makes greenhouse inner air convection, and keeping temperature 28~ 32 DEG C, relative air humidity 80%~90%.Hatching at 20~25 days to checking once comprehensively, by viscous husky or hypogenetic egg Reject;Pay attention to taking precautions against the harm such as mouse, snake, ant.
D. high-quality fertile egg being selected and puts.General embryonated egg animal pole is turned white, plant pole visible blood (at yolk) Silk.High quality fertilized egg of scophthatmus, animals and plants are extremely clearly demarcated, and the half of whole ovum is even more than half all to bleach, and foundry loam is not husky, and glossiness is good, bad Matter embryonated egg only has small part to bleach, and foundry loam is husky, and obfuscation is matt;Unfertilized egg is unchanged.
Method selects fertile egg 936 accordingly.
Hatch results:During 6~8mm silvery white expanded vermiculite shop fixtures, incubation rate is up to 93.9%.
E. hatching management.Periodically open the door and check daily, it is clear to incubator top layer fine sand (expanded vermiculite) sprinkle with water sprager Water, and loose upper strata Sha Tongqi, keep between sand water content 3%~5%;Noon opens 10 min of door and window~20min, makes temperature Indoor air convection, 28 DEG C~32 DEG C of keeping temperature, relative air humidity 80%~90%.It is full when hatching was to 20 days~25 days Face is checked once, and viscous husky or hypogenetic egg is rejected.
Incubation rate compared with laying rate, rate of fertilization, it is final determine emergence number.So improving incubation rate seems particularly heavy Will, the incubation rate of current most of breeding enterprises and raiser are generally less than 50%, sometimes or even only 20%.According to this hair Bright described hatching method so that reach optimum state including temperature, humidity and the various conditions such as ventilative, the incubation rate of tortoise ovum can Reach 90%.
Incubation temperature:The method of the invention controls tortoise egg hatching preference temperature at 28~32 DEG C, is with 30 DEG C or so It is best.Temperature can not be too high or too low, when temperature is low, can manually heat.Heating mode have electric heating warming, solar energy heating, Stove heating etc..If temperature is too high, should open a window aeration-cooling.In a word, cannot phase before and after the temperature difference once setting incubation temperature Poor 3 DEG C.
Incubation medium and hatching humidity:Most domestic enterprise and cultivation are per family using silt as incubation medium at present. Hatch silt water content 7%~8% than convenient.If humidity is too big, tortoise ovum is easily held one's breath and dead, if humidity is too small, tortoise Ovum moisture is easily evaporated, and ovum meeting " is dried up " dead.
In the present invention, used expanded vermiculite performance of keeping humidity is good during hatching, without often water spray;Its permeability is good, Need not often it stir.Compared to traditional silt medium, hatching success can be improved, saves manpower, raising efficiency.
In addition, in hatching process, according to the aqueous situation of incubation medium, in time with sprayer or water sprager watering by In.The performance of keeping humidity of expanded vermiculite is good, and without often water spray, general week water spray is once.
The ventilative state of hatching:During hatching, according to silt as incubation medium, 10min after watering daily, with hand by sand Layer pine once, had so both prevented sandy soil are hardened to hold one's breath, and when preventing moisture evaporation again, but taking off sand bed, must not vibrate following tortoise Ovum, in order to avoid influence hatching effect.
2. the influence that different incubation mediums are hatched to crocodile tortoise
(1) test block is set
This experiment addressing is located in Guangzhou City Xianbu Agricultural Development Co., Ltd.'s hatching room.Hatching room is rectangle, area 15m2 or so, built-in washing basin, the anti-ants of water filling 3cm~5cm, hatching brandreth pendulum is in pond.In addition, temperature is had in hatching house The small appliances such as degree meter, hygrometer and water sprager, Plastic Drum, it is standby to place 2~3 barrels of clean waters for a long time.
(2) selection of incubator and incubation medium
The present invention uses expanded vermiculite as incubation medium, because its permeability is good, it is not necessary to often stir, a star Phase is stirred once, and the bad egg of the inside is chosen, and rejoins new expanded vermiculite.
59cm × 36cm × 14cm rigid plastics incubator 12 is chosen, numbering is 1~12 respectively.Wherein 1~No. 3 is Silt incubator, other are various expanded vermiculite incubators.Expanded vermiculite is 1mm~3mm gold respectively from three kinds in figure below Yellow expanded vermiculite, 1mm~3mm silvery whites expanded vermiculite and 6mm~8mm silvery white expanded vermiculites.Different types of expansion leech Stone is referring to Fig. 1.
(3) hatching utensil sterilizes
Hatch greenhouse and incubator 3ppm potassium permanganate thorough disinfection 2 times, to kill enemy and germ.Hatch fine sand The screen cloth for being 0.5cm with aperture sieves, and removes rubble and rough sand etc..Silt PVP-I soaking disinfection 2d will be hatched, killed Mud, it is husky in germ and the harmful organism such as worm, ant, then exposure 3d loads in incubator after mixing in proportion, sticks mark Label, it is placed in standby in hatching greenhouse.By the expanded vermiculite exposure 3d of purchase, the harmful organisms such as germ and worm therein, ant are killed.
(4) high-quality fertile egg being selected and puts
General embryonated egg animal pole is turned white, plant pole visible trace of blood (at yolk).High quality fertilized egg of scophthatmus animals and plants are extremely clearly demarcated, whole The half of individual ovum is even more than half all to bleach, and foundry loam is not husky, and glossiness is good, and embryonated egg inferior only has small part to bleach, and foundry loam is husky, Obfuscation is matt;Unfertilized egg is unchanged.Method selects 1248 pieces of embryonated egg accordingly.Before putting, first 5cm fine sands are spread in bottom Or expanded vermiculite, it is then fertile egg animal pole upward, whole according to each incubator 104 (13 × 8), the interval 2cm of two eggs It is neat to discharge, lid 5cm or so fine sand or expanded vermiculite are spread on egg again, record receives the contents such as egg date, quantity, after posting label Hatching house is put into be placed on brandreth.
(5) hatching management
Periodically open the door and check daily, with water sprager to incubator top layer fine sand (expanded vermiculite) sprinkle clear water, and it is loose on Layer is husky to ventilate, between holding sand water content 3%~5%;Noon opens door and window 10min~20min, makes warm room air pair Stream, 28 DEG C~32 DEG C of keeping temperature, relative air humidity 80%~90%.Hatch to comprehensive at 20 days~25 days and check once, Viscous husky or hypogenetic egg is rejected.
5.2 hatch results
On June 5th, 2011 starts to hatch, and each vermiculite group brooding time is 61 days, and silt group is 70 days.12 incubators Tortoise seedling 971, lopsided seedling 37 are hatched altogether, and average percentage hatch rate is 77.8%, and effective incubation rate is 74.8%.Can be with from table 2-3 Find out, any expanded vermiculite is all better than silt hatching effect, incubation rate and the minimum nearly 20% (1mm of difference of effective incubation rate ~3mm yellow expanded vermiculites incubation rate is 72.2%, and effective incubation rate is 66.8%.Silt incubation rate is 57.1%, is effectively incubated Rate is that 49.8%), maximum differs by more than 40%, and (6mm~8mm silvery white expanded vermiculites incubation rate is 95.9%, effectively hatching Rate is 93.9%.Silt incubation rate is 57.1%, 49.8%) effective incubation rate is.And abnormal rate is relatively low, minimum is only 2%.
1mm~3mm golden yellow expanded vermiculite is compared with same specification silvery white kind, and the former incubation rate and effective incubation rate are all Not as good as the latter.Illustrate under specification of the same race, silvery white expanded vermiculite hatching effect is more preferable.1mm~3mm silvery whites expanded vermiculite and Compared with color 6mm~8mm expanded vermiculites, the former incubation rate and effective incubation rate are equally all not as good as the latter.Illustrate under same color, The bigger kind hatching effect of specification is more preferable.
Table 1:Different incubator hatching situation statistics
Incubation medium can protect ovum in the hatching process of testudinate ovum, maintain the relative of the conditions such as incubation temperature and humidity Stabilization, hatching of the suitable incubation medium to ovum have extremely important effect.Result of study shows, expanded vermiculite and silt phase Than, have the advantages that porosity is big, proportion is small, heat conductivity and seepage of water difference, therefore in heat insulating ability, moisture retention and gas permeability side Face is better than silt, and soft texture, anti-seismic performance are good, more conducively protects tortoise egg.This experiment is main when selecting incubation medium Consider following factor:Silt is to be made in crocodile tortoise ovum artificial incubation using a kind of incubation medium that frequency is higher, expanded vermiculite It is widely used to for incubation medium in the research experiment and production practices of Mauremys mutica ovum, tortoise ovum and Shelled Turtle Trionyx Sinensis ovum, but Can the expanded vermiculite of different size and different colours be applied to crocodile tortoise ovum artificial incubation, and its hatching effect whether there is difference state It is inside and outside there is no relevant report also.Therefore, this experimental selection 6mm~8mm silvery whites expanded vermiculite, 1mm~3mm silvery whites is swollen Four kinds of swollen vermiculite, 1mm~3mm golden yellow expanded vermiculite and silt materials are as incubation medium.Experimental result is shown, using expansion The each group incubation rate of vermiculite is significantly higher than silt group, and brooding time and tortoise seedling abnormal rate are but less than the latter.And specification is bigger, hatching Effect is more preferable.
The influence hatched on envirment factors such as incubation temperature, humidity to testudinate animal, domestic research are concentrated mainly on In terms of temperature factor.Result of study shows, within the scope of suitable temperature, with the continuous rise of temperature, body metabolism Accelerate, embryonic development speed can be accelerated, shorten brooding time.The heat insulating ability of expanded vermiculite is better than silt, can be in the long period It is interior to keep stable, the embryonic development speed of crocodile tortoise ovum is maintained higher level in whole brooding time, it is good plus permeability, Crocodile tortoise ovum and extraneous gas exchanges are accelerated, embryonic development is maintained preferable state, under both collective effects, is shortened Brooding time.The brooding time of each vermiculite group is shorter than silt group in this experiment, it was confirmed that the heat insulating ability of vermiculite, permeability are more It is good.
Incubation rate and abnormal rate height are mainly influenceed by incubation medium moisture retention.Humidity is too big, and oxygen content drops in medium Low, tortoise ovum is easily held one's breath and dead, and humidity is too small, and it is " dry " dead that tortoise ovum is easily caused after moisture evaporation.Needed for tortoise egg hatching early stage High humidity, later stage tortoise seedling are shaped gradually, and required enhanced oxygen, humidity should be reduced suitably.There is preferably expanded vermiculite in this experiment Moisture retention, once the preceding optimum humidity set needed for tortoise egg hatching of experiment, only needs week water spray once, add on time newly Expanded vermiculite.Relative to silt, substantial amounts of manpower and materials are saved.So using each group of expanded vermiculite in experiment, incubate Rate is all remarkably higher than silt group, and abnormal rate is below the latter.This experimental result is reported with (2012) such as Wang Ling to Shelled Turtle Trionyx Sinensis Road it is consistent, but had differences with the research of (2004) to tortoise such as Du Weiguo, it may be possible to crocodile tortoise survive and breeding needed for it is wet Environment is spent closer to Shelled Turtle Trionyx Sinensis, is exactly that moisture evaporation is very fast, and sandy soil are easily hardened to be closed as incubation medium in addition using silt Gas.
The height of incubation rate is also permeability-related with medium.In embryo development procedure, tortoise ovum need constantly with the external world Carry out gas exchanges.Expanded vermiculite permeability is good, is advantageous to the extraneous oxygen of tortoise ovisorption, while discharge internal titanium dioxide Carbon, ensure the development of embryo.Silt permeability is poor, is unfavorable for tortoise ovum and carries out gas exchanges with extraneous, with carbon dioxide not It is disconnected to increase, easily cause embryo to be choked to death.The each group of expanded vermiculite is used in experiment, incubation rate is all remarkably higher than silt group. The expanded vermiculite of different specifications, with the increase of specification, permeability is continuously increased, incubation rate rise.
In the experiment of the present embodiment, 1mm~3mm golden yellow expanded vermiculite and 1mm~3mm silvery whites expanded vermiculite are being incubated Property, moisture retention, gas permeability and shock resistance etc. are nearly identical, but difference also occurs in incubation rate.Possible cause is two The quality of person is different, silvery white kind contain the tortoise egg incubation of more horn of plenty needed for mineral matter, be more beneficial for needed for embryonic development Material conditions, hatching effect is relatively more preferable.
In summary, golden yellow expanded vermiculite and silvery white expanded vermiculite are in heat insulating ability, moisture retention, gas permeability and shock resistance Etc. it is nearly identical, but silvery white kind contain the tortoise egg incubation of more horn of plenty needed for mineral matter, be more beneficial for embryo Development needed for material conditions, hatching effect is relatively more preferable, and the incubation rate of 6mm~8mm silver color expanded vermiculite higher than 1mm~ 3mm silvery white expanded vermiculites, therefore crocodile tortoise of the present invention selects the vermiculite in good hatching method to select the larger silver color of specification Expanded vermiculite.
Embodiment two:The young tortoise greenhouse cultivation of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention
The young tortoise that greenhouse cultivation has just been born, it is sensitive to environmental change because individual is small, therefore, answer constant temperature to cultivate.Young tortoise training It is similar to hatching greenhouse to educate greenhouse experiment, each to cultivate a length of 70cm of basin size, wide 50cm, deep 30cm, bottom is pressed along long direction Certain slope tilts, and in " factory " font, enters discharge outlet and separates.Heated with solar energy or boiler recirculated water, keep 30 DEG C of left sides of water temperature It is right.
Squab young tortoise, checks whether its navel is kept well, and the young tortoise that navel is kept well is put into cultivation greenhouse cultivation, and navel is not The young tortoise kept well, greenhouse cultivation is placed into after navel is kept well completely.
The young tortoise of different size is separately raised, as far as possible consistent with the young tortoise specification in pond, and body weight is differed no more than 2g, and As growing up for young tortoise is constantly classified and a point pond is raised.10g or so every square metre of young tortoise puts 50~70 in a suitable place to breed, the depth of water It is advisable with being higher by 3~5cm of the curvature of the spinal column.
Young tortoise starts to feed after hatching 3 days.Open-mouthed bait selects fresh or dry Shrimps and meat gruel.With the length of tortoise body Greatly, little particle turtle feed or autogamy feed are gradually switched to.Day feeding volume accounts for the 3~6% of tortoise body weight, feeds daily twice, on During noon 7~8, afternoon 17~18 when respectively feed once, respectively fed once according to timing, principle that is quantitative, determine matter, pinpoint, feed 2 Residual bait is removed after hour, and cleans culture pond, changes the fresh water of same water temperature.According to the health status of tortoise, every 7 days use Gentian violet sterilizes once.
One of advantage of the present invention is the special feed for employing particular formulation, and precentagewise weight includes following component: Fish meat emulsion 40-55%, minced pork 8-15%, flour 18-23%, bean powder 10-20%, fish oil 1-3%, shrimp shell meal 0.5-1%, phosphorus Acid dihydride calcium 1%, seawood meal 1-3%, mineral matter 1-3%, vitamin 1-3%, phagostimulant 0.2-0.5%;Mentioned component is Commercially available prod.
It is noted that the yolk commonly used in conventional feed is eliminated in above-mentioned special feed, and because experiment shows, yolk It is more dry, frangible, disagreeable to the taste and easily ruin water quality.
Embodiment three:The children of the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise of the present invention, into tortoise aquaculture model
1st, children, into tortoise greenhouse cement pit cultivate
The construction of tortoise pond is greenhouse cement pit, and whole cement pit uses brick cement structures, and the water surface accounts for the gross area 80%, land accounts for 20%.Land is covered with sandy soil, smooth, plants plant of sheltering from heat or light above.Land and the place of water surface contact have one The fixed gradient, it is easy to tortoise disembarkation to ingest.Water inlet pipe is provided with phytal zone, deep water corner is provided with drainpipe and blow-off pipe.Cement pit There is black thin film surface, can play a part of sun-proof keep off the rain.The depth of water is grown up continuous adjustment with tortoise body.0.5~2kg tortoise, Mean depth is 0.5m, more than 2kg tortoise, mean depth 0.8m.
Tortoise body is put in a suitable place to breed and aquaculture management implementation is as follows:Before putting in a suitable place to breed, 50g/m is used3Liquor potassic permanganate enters to all cement pits Row is disinfected.Respectively by the young tortoise (0.5kg/ is only) of greenhouse cultivation, according to 100 per pond, it is put into greenhouse cement pit.Feed Young tortoise and into tortoise special feed, the time is at every morning 7~8 and during afternoon 17~18.The 1 of feeding volume about percentage of liveweight~ 3%, typically eaten up within 2 hours afterwards as degree with feeding.Outdoor tank-culture is fed on land by the bait table of waterside.Greenhouse cement pit and Indoor cement pit is directly fed in water.In 5~September, water 1/3~1/2, cleaning in every 7~15 days are changed daily once, keeps water quality Pure and fresh, transparency is controlled in 25~30cm, water light green.Every month according to water quality and the health status of tortoise, to water body disinfection, Reduce or kill the pathogen in water.With growing up for tortoise, constantly carry out that classification is selected and a point pond is raised.
2nd, the selection of children, the Three models cultivated into tortoise
Experimental method:It is young, pool cultivated from following three kinds of cement respectively into tortoise.
Outdoor tank-culture:Whole cement pit uses brick cement structures, and the water surface accounts for the 80% of the gross area, and land accounts for 20%. Land is covered with sandy soil, smooth, plants plant of sheltering from heat or light above.There is certain gradient in land and the place of water surface contact, are easy to tortoise Disembarkation is ingested.Water inlet pipe is provided with phytal zone, deep water corner is provided with drainpipe and blow-off pipe.There is black thin directly over cement pit Film, sun-proof keep off the rain can be played a part of.The depth of water is grown up continuous adjustment with tortoise body.0.5kg~2.0kg tortoise, mean depth are 0.5m, more than 2kg tortoise, mean depth 0.8m.
Indoor cement pit:Whole cement pit uses brick cement structures, does not set land." pot shape " bottom of pond, surrounding is high, middle It is low.Residual waste can be concentrated constantly to centre.Centre in pond is provided with drainpipe and blow-off pipe.Whole cement pit is located at aquatic products In workshop, in addition to door, window and the heat extraction on roof are fanned, all close elsewhere.Water change is identical with outdoor tank-culture.
Greenhouse cement pit:The construction in pond is identical with indoor cement pit.Whole cement pit is located in greenhouse workshop, does not set window. Except outdoors, all closing elsewhere.Temperature is constant at 30 DEG C or so.The temperature difference is no more than 3 DEG C.Water changes and indoor cement pit It is identical.
Before putting in a suitable place to breed, all cement pits are carried out disinfection processing with 50g/m3 liquor potassic permanganates.Respectively by greenhouse cultivation With a collection of young tortoise (0.5kg/ is only), according to 100 per pond, outdoor tank-culture, indoor cement pit and greenhouse cement pit are respectively put into In.Feed artifical compound feed, the time is at every morning 7~8 and during afternoon 17~18.The 1% of feeding volume about percentage of liveweight~ 3%.Outdoor tank-culture is fed on land by the bait table of waterside.Greenhouse cement pit and indoor cement pit are directly fed in water. In 5~September, change water 1/3~1/2 daily, cleaning in every 7~15 days once, keeps water quality pure and fresh, transparency control 25cm~ 30cm, water light green.Every month according to water quality and the health status of tortoise, to water body disinfection, reduces or killed the pathogen in water. With growing up for tortoise, constantly carry out that classification is selected and a point pond is raised.
Experimental result see the table below 2.
Table 2:Experimental result under crocodile tortoise different breeding pattern
Note:The death rate=death toll/100 × 100%;Feed gross weight/tortoise body the total augment weight for feed coefficient=fed
As can be seen from Table 2:In the case where cultivating greenhouse+greenhouse cement pit aquaculture model, the crocodile tortoise speed of growth is most fast, after 1 year Average weight reaches 3.50kg.But feed coefficient is identical under the cultivation of greenhouse+indoor cement pit with cultivating, be above cultivating greenhouse+ Outdoor tank-culture.Cultivate under greenhouse+indoor cement pit cultivation, though the crocodile tortoise speed of growth is faster than cultivation greenhouse+outdoor tank-culture, Death rate highest.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1)The hatching of crocodile tortoise fertile egg:
A. a hatching house is built, puts hatching brandreth;
B. rigid plastics incubator is chosen, first first layer expanded vermiculite is spread in bottom, then the high-quality fertile egg of crocodile tortoise is put On the first layer expanded vermiculite, animal pole upward, then spreads lid second layer expanded vermiculite;Incubator is placed in the hatching iron On frame;
C. hatching management:Periodically open the door and check daily, with water sprager to incubator top layer sprinkle clear water, and loose upper strata is ventilated, Between holding water content 3%~5%;Noon opens the min of door and window 10 min~20, makes greenhouse inner air convection, 28 DEG C of keeping temperature ~32 DEG C, relative air humidity 80%~90%;Hatching picks hypogenetic egg to being checked once at 20 days~25 days comprehensively Remove;
(2)Young tortoise greenhouse cultivation:
A. young tortoise cultivates the condition of culture in greenhouse:Each to cultivate a length of 70cm of basin size, wide 50cm, deep 30cm, bottom is along long side Tilted to by certain slope, in " factory " font, enter discharge outlet and separate;Heated with solar energy or boiler recirculated water, keep water temperature 30 ℃;
B. young tortoise starts to feed young tortoise special feed after hatching three days, and the 3~6% of day feeding volume percentage of liveweight, feed daily twice, During the morning 7~8, afternoon 17~18 when respectively feed once, residual bait is removed after feeding 2 hours every time, and clean culture pond, Change the fresh water of same water temperature;Bait throwing in should accomplish timing, quantify, determine matter, fixed point;According to the health status of tortoise, sterilization one in every 7 days It is secondary;
(3)Young tortoise, into tortoise greenhouse cement pit cultivate:
A. the construction of tortoise pond is greenhouse cement pit, and whole cement pit uses brick cement structures, and the water surface accounts for the 80% of the gross area, land Account for 20%;Land is covered with sandy soil, smooth, plants plant of sheltering from heat or light above;There is certain gradient in land and the place of water surface contact, It is easy to tortoise disembarkation to ingest;Water inlet pipe is provided with phytal zone, deep water corner is provided with drainpipe and blow-off pipe;Have directly over cement pit black Color film, sun-proof keep off the rain can be played a part of;The depth of water is grown up continuous adjustment with tortoise body;Whole cement pit is located at greenhouse workshop It is interior, do not set window;Except outdoors, all closing elsewhere;Temperature is constant at 30 DEG C, and the temperature difference is no more than 3 DEG C;Water changes and interior Cement pit is identical;
B. tortoise body is put in a suitable place to breed and aquaculture management:Before putting in a suitable place to breed, with 50 g/m3Liquor potassic permanganate carries out disinfection processing to cement pit;By temperature The young tortoise that room is cultivated, is put into greenhouse cement pit according to 100/pond;Feed young tortoise and into tortoise special feed, the time is daily early During when upper 7~8 and afternoon 17~18;The 1~3% of feeding volume about percentage of liveweight, to feed rear eat up for 2 hours as degree;5~September, often It changes water 1/3~1/2, cleaning in every 7~15 days once, keeps water quality pure and fresh, transparency is controlled in 25~30 cm, water light green; Every month according to water quality and the health status of tortoise, to water body disinfection, reduces or killed the pathogen in water;With growing up for tortoise, Constantly carry out that classification is selected and a point pond is raised.
2. the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The hatching house is rectangle, face 15 m of product2Left and right, built-in washing basin, the anti-ants of 3~5cm of water filling, hatching brandreth pendulum is in pond.
3. the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The step(1)In also include pair In the sterilization of incubation medium, including:First with 3ppm potassium permanganate by hatching house and incubator thorough disinfection 2 times, killing before hatching Enemy and germ;By the expanded vermiculite exposure 3 days of purchase, germ and worm therein, ant are killed.
4. the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The step(1)In, the expansion Vermiculite is the mm of diameter 6~8 silvery white expanded vermiculite.
5. the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The step(1)In, the fertilization The spacing of egg is 2 cm.
6. the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The step(2)In, the young tortoise Special feed precentagewise weight includes following component:Fish meat emulsion 40-55%, minced pork 8-15%, flour 18-23%, bean powder 10-20%, fish oil 1-3%, shrimp shell meal 0.5-1%, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 1%, seawood meal 1-3%, mineral matter 1-3%, vitamin 1-3%, phagostimulant 0.2-0.5%;Mentioned component is commercially available prod.
7. the comprehensive breeding method of crocodile tortoise according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The step(2)In, the young tortoise And include following component into tortoise special feed precentagewise weight:Minced fillet or minced pork 40-55%, flour 18-23%, bean powder 10-20%, chicken meal 5-10%, banana 3-5%, fish oil 1-3%, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 1%, seawood meal 1-3%, mineral matter 1- 3%th, vitamin 1-3%, growth regulator 0.5-1%;Mentioned component is commercially available prod.
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