CN112042570B - Method for efficiently cultivating and domesticating micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in pond greenhouse - Google Patents

Method for efficiently cultivating and domesticating micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in pond greenhouse Download PDF

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CN112042570B
CN112042570B CN202010878379.1A CN202010878379A CN112042570B CN 112042570 B CN112042570 B CN 112042570B CN 202010878379 A CN202010878379 A CN 202010878379A CN 112042570 B CN112042570 B CN 112042570B
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water
feeding
bait
seedlings
pond
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CN112042570A (en
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刘梅
原居林
练青平
倪蒙
郭爱环
顾志敏
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Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries
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Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • A01K61/13Prevention or treatment of fish diseases
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/80Feeding devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/04Arrangements for treating water specially adapted to receptacles for live fish
    • A01K63/042Introducing gases into the water, e.g. aerators, air pumps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/04Arrangements for treating water specially adapted to receptacles for live fish
    • A01K63/045Filters for aquaria
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/04Arrangements for treating water specially adapted to receptacles for live fish
    • A01K63/047Liquid pumps for aquaria
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/06Arrangements for heating or lighting in, or attached to, receptacles for live fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/06Arrangements for heating or lighting in, or attached to, receptacles for live fish
    • A01K63/065Heating or cooling devices
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for efficiently cultivating and domesticating micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in a pond greenhouse, which comprises the following steps: constructing a culture pond, stocking the water bloom seedlings and cultivating and domesticating in three stages. According to the efficient cultivation and domestication method for the micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in the greenhouse of the pond, the conditions for stocking the water bloom seedlings are controlled, the constant-temperature living body biological baits are artificially cultured by using the bait feeding device, the water bloom seedlings are gradually cultivated and domesticated by using the bait feeding device in stages after the water bloom seedlings are stocked, different baits are fed to the water bloom seedlings in different stages of cultivation and domestication, the cultivated micropterus salmoides seedlings are healthy in body quality and uniform in specification, the cultivation survival rate and the domestication success rate of the water bloom seedlings are both over 60%, high-quality seedlings guarantee is provided for small-scale scattered family cultivation of micropterus salmoides, and the method has great practical application and production values.

Description

Method for efficiently cultivating and domesticating micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in pond greenhouse
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of freshwater aquaculture, in particular to a method for efficiently cultivating and domesticating micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings through a pond greenhouse.
Background
The Micropterus salmoides, the scholar largehead Periplaneta, is native to North America, has the advantages of strong adaptability, fast growth, easy capture, good transportation, short culture period and the like, is delicious and tender in meat quality, has no muscle stabs, is attractive in appearance, is popular with culturists and consumers, and becomes an important high-quality freshwater culture variety in China. Through the development of more than 30 years, China has become the world with the largest culture yield of the micropterus salmoides.
In 2014, the whole-course feed cultivation of the micropterus salmoides is successful, so that the restriction of the iced fresh fish is gradually removed, and the micropterus salmoides industry starts to have more space and possibility. In recent two years, due to relatively good culture benefits, the micropterus salmoides are cultured with good fire, flowers are bloomed all the time in China, and are further erupted and increased every year in Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Sichuan and the like, and various signs show that the micropterus salmoides become one of the hot species of fresh water culture in China.
The fry breeding refers to the production process of breeding large-size summer fingerlings with the length of more than 4cm by breeding the weever in the pond for about 40-50 days. Because the water bloom seedlings are tender in body, weak in ingestion capacity and poor in environmental adaptation capacity, the fry breeding and domestication is the first key link of the micropterus salmoides culture. However, the culture of the seedlings of the water flowers is generally carried out in 3-4 months, particularly in the areas of lakes and lakes of Zhejiang, the temperature in the time period is variable, the temperature difference between day and night is large, the water flowers are cooled and heated suddenly, the water flowers are easy to die due to stress, and even the seedlings do not exist in the whole pond. In addition, the water temperature in the time period is low, plankton suitable for the initial opening of the spray fry is not easy to propagate in a large quantity, and even splashing is caused when the initial opening baits such as frozen artemia nauplii and the like are manually fed, so that part of the weever fries cannot ingest the baits required for normal growth; or, the phenomenon of mutual killing often occurs when the bait is insufficient, and meanwhile, because the temperature of the frozen artemia salina is lower, the water blossoms of the weever are easy to generate stress after being ingested, enteritis, defecation and body maturity occur, and then the weever dies, and the domestication survival rate and the culture production of the water blossoms of the weever are seriously influenced.
Chinese patent (CN 108901950B) discloses an industrial weever fry rearing method, which carries out weever fry rearing by constructing an industrial cement pond indoors, and the method needs cement hardening and heating water, has higher cost, is not suitable for rearing weever fry fries in small-scale scattered households, and is not suitable for field rearing ponds due to larger difference of factors such as environment, temperature and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the series of difficult problems in production, through continuous groping for more than 2 years, the invention builds a simple greenhouse in the pond and designs a bait feeding device to culture and domesticate the water bloom fries, thereby effectively improving the culture survival rate and the domestication success rate of the water bloom fries and providing large-scale high-quality fries guarantee for the culture of the largemouth black bass. In order to overcome the defects of the prior art, the invention aims to provide a method for efficiently cultivating and domesticating micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in a pond greenhouse.
In order to solve the problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a method for cultivating and domesticating efficient micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in a pond greenhouse comprises the following steps:
(1) constructing a culture pond;
(2) stocking the water bloom seedlings: stocking the water bloom seedlings into the culture pond, wherein the stocking density is 10-15 ten thousand seeds/mu, and the temperature difference between the original culture water temperature of the water bloom seedlings and the water temperature of the culture pond during stocking is not more than 1 ℃;
(3) cultivating and domesticating: comprises a first stage, a second stage and a third stage;
the first stage is a stage that the length of the seedling of the water bloom is less than 2cm, and in the first stage, the water bloom is fed with artificially cultured constant-temperature living biological bait;
the second stage is that the body length of the water bloom seedlings is 2.0-2.2 cm, different baits are fed to the water bloom seedlings step by step in the second stage, so that the water bloom seedlings are gradually adaptive to the fed baits, and the constant-temperature living body biological baits are changed into the special artificial baits for the micropterus salmoides water bloom in the market;
and in the third stage, feeding the water-supply flower seedling with special artificial water flower bait until the seedling grows to a length of more than 4 cm.
Preferably, the constant-temperature live organism bait is a mixture of planktonic algae and zooplankton, and the density of daphnia in the constant-temperature live organism bait reaches more than 3000 per liter.
Preferably, the feeding of the constant temperature living organism bait is performed in a bait feeding device comprising:
the feeding box is internally provided with a first light supplement lamp, a first heating temperature control element and a water distribution pipe, and the first light supplement lamp is positioned above liquid in the feeding box; the first heating temperature control element is arranged in the feeding box and used for heating the liquid in the feeding box and maintaining the temperature of the liquid to be constant; the water distribution pipe is a blind pipe with one closed end, is arranged in the charging box and is provided with a plurality of first water outlet spray holes along the length direction of the water distribution pipe; the constant-temperature living biological bait is filled in the feeding box;
the incubator is internally provided with a second light supplement lamp, a second heating temperature control element and an oxygenation device, and the second light supplement lamp is positioned above liquid in the incubator; the second heating temperature control element is used for heating the liquid in the incubator and maintaining the temperature of the liquid constant; the incubator is communicated with the feeding box through a conveying pipe; the incubator is used for culturing the constant-temperature living biological bait;
one end of the discharging spray head is communicated with the feeding box through a discharging pipe, a plurality of discharging spray holes are formed in the discharging spray head, and a first switch valve is arranged on the discharging pipe;
the water inlet of the water pump is communicated with the pond culture water through a water inlet pipe, the water outlet of the water pump is communicated with one end of a feeding pipe of the feeding box, and a second switch valve is arranged on the feeding pipe; the open end of the water distribution pipe is communicated with the other end of the feed pipe;
the water outlet of the water pump is communicated with a first interface of a three-way connecting pipe, a second interface of the three-way connecting pipe is communicated with one end of the feeding pipe of the feeding box, a third interface of the three-way connecting pipe is communicated with a water filling pipe of the water filling spray head, a third switch valve is arranged on the water filling pipe, and a plurality of second water outlet spray holes are formed in the water filling spray head.
Preferably, the feeding of the second stage is performed according to the following process:
domesticating for the first day, and feeding death bait and living organism bait in a ratio of 1: 1;
domesticating for the second day, and feeding death bait and living organism bait in a ratio of 2: 1;
domesticating for the third day, and feeding dead baits;
feeding death bait and artificial bait in the ratio of 3 to 1 on the acclimation fourth day;
feeding death bait and artificial bait in a ratio of 2:1 on the fifth acclimation day;
feeding death bait and artificial bait in the ratio of 1 to 1 on the sixth acclimation day;
feeding death bait and artificial bait in the ratio of 1 to 2 on the seventh acclimation day;
and (4) feeding artificial baits all the day after the acclimatization is carried out for the eighth day, and successfully acclimatizing when the water bloom seedlings gather together on the feeding table and have strong food snatching capability.
Preferably, the constant-temperature living organism bait also contains astragalus polysaccharide.
Preferably, the Chinese herbal medicine for building intestines and protecting liver is also fed to the water bloom seedlings in the second stage, and the Chinese herbal medicine for building intestines and protecting liver and vitamins are also fed to the water bloom seedlings in the third stage.
Preferably, in the first stage and the second stage, feeding is carried out twice at fixed points every day, the feeding interval is 12 hours, and feeding is carried out for 20-30 min every time.
Preferably, feeding is carried out for 4-5 times at fixed points every day in the third stage, the feeding interval is 5-6 hours, and feeding is carried out for 20-30 min every time.
Preferably, before the water bloom seedlings are released, the anti-stress drugs are sprinkled into the culture pond, and the time from the water bloom seedlings to the culture pond is 9: 00-10: 00 at morning on sunny days.
Preferably, the pH value of the water body of the aquaculture pond is 7.5-8.5, the dissolved oxygen is 5-9 mg/L, and the transparency is 20-25 cm.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the technical effects that:
according to the efficient cultivation and domestication method for the micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in the greenhouse of the pond, the conditions for stocking the water bloom seedlings are controlled, the constant-temperature living body biological baits are artificially cultured by using the bait feeding device, the water bloom seedlings are gradually cultivated and domesticated by using the bait feeding device in stages after the water bloom seedlings are stocked, different baits are fed to the water bloom seedlings in different stages of cultivation and domestication, the cultivated micropterus salmoides seedlings are healthy in body quality and uniform in specification, the cultivation survival rate and the domestication success rate of the water bloom seedlings are both over 60%, high-quality seedlings guarantee is provided for small-scale scattered family cultivation of micropterus salmoides, and the method has great practical application and production values.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a bait feeding device provided by the embodiment of the invention.
In the figure, 1, a feeding box, 2, a discharging nozzle, 3, a discharging pipe, 4, a first switch valve, 5, a water pump, 6, a water inlet pipe, 7, a feeding pipe, 8, a second switch valve, 9, a water distribution pipe, 10, a first heating temperature control element, 11, a water filling nozzle, 12, a three-way connecting pipe, 13, a water filling pipe, 14, a third switch valve, 15, a filter screen, 16, a first supplementary lighting lamp, 17, an incubator, 18, a second heating temperature control element, 19, an oxygenation device, 20, a material conveying pipe, 21, a fourth switch valve, 22, a second supplementary lighting lamp, 201, a discharging nozzle hole, 901, a first water outlet nozzle hole, 1101, a second water outlet nozzle hole 1201, a first interface, 1202, a second interface, 1203, and a third interface.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the following embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
The embodiment of the invention provides a method for efficiently cultivating and domesticating micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in a pond greenhouse, which comprises the following steps:
(1) constructing a culture pond;
(2) stocking the water bloom seedlings: stocking the water bloom seedlings into a culture pond, wherein the stocking density is 10-15 ten thousand tails per mu, and the temperature difference between the original culture water temperature of the water bloom seedlings and the water temperature of the culture pond does not exceed 1 ℃ during stocking;
(3) cultivating and domesticating: comprises a first stage, a second stage and a third stage;
the first stage is that the length of the seedling of the water bloom is less than 2cm, and in the first stage, the water bloom is fed with the artificially cultured constant-temperature living biological bait;
the second stage is that the body length of the water bloom seedlings is 2.0-2.2 cm, different baits are fed to the water bloom seedlings step by step in the stage, so that the water bloom seedlings are gradually adaptive to the fed baits, and the constant-temperature living biological baits are changed into the special artificial baits for the water bloom of the weever in the market; in the third stage, the water supply flower fry is fed with the special artificial bait for the weever water bloom until the fry grows to be more than 4cm in body length.
The method for constructing the aquaculture pond in the step (1) comprises the following steps:
(11) selecting a suitable fry pond: the area of the fry pond is 2000-4000 m2Preferably, the water depth is 0.8-1.0 m, the water depth is not too deep, the larger temperature difference between the upper layer and the lower layer of the water body is prevented, the shape is mainly rectangular, the greenhouse is convenient to build, the gradient ratio is about 1:2.5, and the greenhouse is convenient to build. The fry pond is required to have sufficient water source, good water quality, convenient water injection and drainage, flat pond bottom, proper amount of bottom mud and firm and leak-proof pond dike.
(12) Clearing the pond with the medicine: the medicine is used for killing wild trash fish, enemy organisms, fish pathogenic bacteria and parasites. The pond cleaning with the medicine is an important measure for improving water quality and soil quality and increasing the survival rate of the fry, and is generally carried out 10 to 15 days before the fry is put into the pond. The commonly used medicine is quicklime, generally 80-100 kg/667m of quicklime is used2Left and right. When the quick lime spreading device is applied, the pond water is firstly drained to the depth of 5-10 cm, and the quick lime is directly and uniformly spread in the whole pond. And raking the bottom sludge of the pond for 1 time by using a rake on the 2 nd day of cleaning the pond so as to fully mix the quicklime and the bottom sludge and achieve the effect of thorough disinfection.
(13) Building a greenhouse: and (3) building a greenhouse frame for the fry pond by using steel bars or bamboo poles, completely covering the outside by using a plastic film, and well taking reinforcement measures. Every 200m in the greenhouse2The rice diameter is 20-30 m21 bottom oxygen aeration plate, and the distance between the bottom oxygen aeration facility and the bottom of the tank is 20-30 cm. When the temperature is above 15 ℃ in the daytime, the ventilation positions at two ends of the greenhouse are opened after 10 am to circulate air, and the ventilation positions are closed about 4 pm. When the lowest temperature is above 12 ℃ at night, the greenhouse ventilation position is opened, and the air circulation is kept. The number of aeration plates is determined to be opened according to the dissolved oxygen condition of the water body in the daytime, and the aeration plates are all opened at night to ensure sufficient dissolved oxygen, namely common dissolved oxygen5~9mg/L。
(14) Water injection and fertilization: injecting water 6-10 days after cleaning the pond or about 5-7 days before releasing the seedlings. The water injection is too early, so that enemy organisms such as aquatic insects and the like are easily generated, and the survival of the fry is influenced. Little water is injected, the water depth is generally 50-60 cm, the temperature of the aquaculture water body is favorably raised, water is gradually added along with the growth of the fish body, the water put into the fry pond is filtered by a 60-80 mesh dense net, and wild trash fish, roes, frog eggs, harmful insects and the like are prevented from entering the pond. And simultaneously applying 200 kg/mu of fermented organic manure to the fry pond 5-7 days before the fry is put into the pond. As the larval baits appear in about 5-7 days after fertilization, the quantity and the types of the fertilizer and water products are adjusted according to local conditions. In order to accelerate the fertilization of water, chemical fertilizers can also be applied at the same time, wherein 3-4 kg/mu of urea and 2-3 kg/mu of calcium superphosphate are generally applied.
After the culture pond is constructed, the water bloom seedlings are put into the culture pond. The stocking density is not too large, and 10-15 ten thousand tails per mu is recommended. Before stocking, water is tested, the method is to put 30-50 tail water flower seedlings into a simple net bag in a pond, observation is carried out for 24 hours, if the fish seedlings move normally, the water body is nontoxic, and stocking can be continued. The anti-stress drugs are sprinkled in the whole pond 1 day before stocking, the specific time for putting the water flower seedlings into the pond is preferably 9: 00-10: 00 in the morning of a sunny day, the dissolved oxygen in the water rises, and the temperature change is small. When the temperature difference between the water temperature of the container where the fry is originally located and the water in the culture pond cannot exceed 1 ℃ during the pond discharging, and when the temperature difference is too large, the water temperature of the container for containing the fry is adjusted to be close to the water temperature of the culture pond and then the fry is discharged into the pond. When the fish is taken out of the pool, a bucket (basin) for containing the fry is attached to the water surface of the pool, the fish bucket is slowly inclined, so that the water in the bucket is mixed with the pool water, and the water bloom slowly swims into the pool.
The feeding of the constant temperature living organism baits in the step (3) is carried out in the bait feeding device, the structure of which is shown in figure 1 and comprises the following steps: the device comprises a feeding box 1, an incubator 17, a discharge nozzle 2, a water filling nozzle 11 and a water pump 5; a first light supplement lamp 16, a first heating temperature control element 10 and a water distribution pipe 9 are arranged in the feeding box 1, and the first light supplement lamp 16 is positioned above liquid in the feeding box 1; a first heating temperature control element 10 is arranged inside the feeding box 1 and is used for adding liquid in the feeding box 1Heating and maintaining the liquid temperature constant; the water distribution pipe 9 is a blind pipe with one closed end, the water distribution pipe 9 is arranged inside the feeding box 1, and a plurality of first water outlet spray holes 901 are formed in the water distribution pipe 9 along the length direction of the water distribution pipe 9; the feeding box 1 is filled with cultured constant-temperature living biological baits. A second light supplement lamp 22, a second heating temperature control element 18 and an oxygenation device 19 are arranged in the incubator 17, and the second light supplement lamp 22 is positioned above liquid in the incubator 17; the second heating temperature control element 18 is used for heating the liquid in the incubator 17 and maintaining the temperature of the liquid constant; the incubator 17 is communicated with the feeding box 1 through a material conveying pipe 20, and a fourth switch valve 21 is arranged on the material conveying pipe 20; the incubator 17 is used for culturing constant temperature living organism bait. One end of the discharging nozzle 2 is communicated with the charging box 1 through the discharging pipe 3, the discharging nozzle 2 is provided with a plurality of discharging spray holes 201, and the discharging pipe 3 is provided with a first switch valve 4. A water inlet of the water pump 5 is communicated with pond culture water through a water inlet pipe 6, a filter screen 15 is arranged at an inlet of the water inlet pipe 6, a water outlet of the water pump 5 is communicated with one end of a feeding pipe 7 of the feeding box 1, and a second switch valve 8 is arranged on the feeding pipe 7; the open end of the water distribution pipe 9 is communicated with the other end of the feed pipe 7; the water outlet of the water pump 5 is communicated with the first interface 1201 of the three-way connecting pipe 12, the second interface 1202 of the three-way connecting pipe 12 is communicated with one end of the feeding pipe 7 of the feeding box 1, the third interface 1203 of the three-way connecting pipe 12 is communicated with the water filling pipe 13 of the water filling spray head 11, the water filling pipe 13 is provided with a third switch valve 14, and the water filling spray head 11 is provided with a plurality of second water outlet spray holes 1101. The volume of the incubator 17 and the feeding box 1 is 288L, the length of the first light supplement lamp 16 and the second light supplement lamp 22 is 80cm, and the power is 20W. When in use, the bait feeding device is arranged 3-5 meters away from the bank of the pond so as to be convenient to install and manage, wherein every 2000m2One feed box 1 is placed and two incubators 17 are collocated.
The fed constant-temperature living organism bait culture solution is cultured according to the following processes: 5 days before the seedlings are put, the pond water body with just fertile water is pumped into the culture box 17 by using the variable frequency water pump 5, and the volume of the water body accounts for about 80 percent of the volume of the culture box 17. Then put into the incubator 17 and put into the zooplankton of radius, cladocera such as rotifer, daphnia magna, ensure the density of daphnia class is more than 100 per liter. Then putting planktonic algae, such as common chlorella pyrenoidosa concentrated solution on the market, adding culture nutritive salt, controlling the water temperature in the culture box 17 to be 26 ℃ by utilizing the second heating temperature control element 18, wherein the temperature is the most suitable breeding and growth temperature of the chlorella and the zooplankton, starting the oxygenation device 19 at the bottom of the culture box 17, and stirring the water body in the culture box 17 while oxygenating, so that the fast growth and the breeding of the algae are facilitated, and sufficient food is provided for the fast culture of the zooplankton. And the second light supplement lamp 22 is used for supplementing light to the incubator 17 in rainy days and sunny days, so that the photosynthesis time is prolonged, and the rapid proliferation of algae is promoted. Generally, after 5-6 days of culture, the color of the water body can reach dark green, the density of daphnia can reach more than 3000 per liter, and the requirement of culturing the water blossoms is met.
Meanwhile, the temperature of the living biological bait fed in the feeding box 1 is controlled to be stabilized at 26 ℃ by utilizing the first heating temperature control element 10, so that the living biological bait is favorably survived and propagated, the stress reaction of the water bloom seedlings caused by temperature difference can be avoided by feeding at constant temperature, and the growth of the water bloom seedlings is more favorably realized.
The first stage of feeding is about 30 days after the micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings are put in the pond, the body length of the water bloom seedlings is less than 2cm, the water bloom seedlings are fed twice at fixed points every day, namely 5-6 points in the early morning and 5-6 points in the evening, and the cultured constant-temperature living body biological bait is fed. Feeding is carried out at intervals of 12 hours, and each feeding time is 20-30 min. Before feeding constant-temperature living organism bait, the second switch valve 8 at the water inlet part and the first switch valve 4 of the discharge nozzle 2 are turned off, the third switch valve 14 of the water filling nozzle 11 is turned on, the variable-frequency water pump 5 is turned on to generate certain water flow, and because the micropterus salmoides have countercurrent water ejection habit, a large amount of water blossoms can be gathered near the water filling nozzle 11, so that the induction of fish fries to feed is facilitated. And after the water filling nozzle 11 is filled with water for 5-10 minutes, the second switch valve 8 and the first switch valve 4 are sequentially opened, the valves are adjusted, and the flow is controlled, so that the feeding time is preferably controlled within 20-30 minutes. Generally, when the first switch valve 4 at the end of the discharging nozzle 2 is adjusted to the maximum, the flow rate is 20L per minute, the inflow flow rate of the charging box 1 is controlled to be 14L, and the flow rate of the water filling nozzle 11 should be 3 times that of the discharging nozzle 2, namely 60L per minute. After 20-30 minutes of feeding, 120-180L of biological bait culture solution is fed, namely, about 40% -60% of constant-temperature living biological bait is fed, then culture solutions in the two culture boxes 17 are uniformly mixed and pumped into 60-90L of the feeding box 1 respectively, the water level of the biological bait is recovered to the original position, then the culture solutions are pumped into the water body of the pond by using the water pump 5 to recover the water level of the culture boxes 17 to the original position, and the algae-daphnia is rapidly cultured. The discharging direction of the first discharging spray holes 201 of the discharging spray head 2 is parallel to the water surface, and the water outlet direction of the second water outlet spray holes 1101 of the water filling spray head 11 forms an angle of 30-40 degrees with the water surface, so that zooplankton sprayed by the discharging spray head 2 can be well spread, and ingestion of water flower seedlings is facilitated.
In addition, in order to increase the adaptive capacity and the anti-stress capacity of the fry to the environment, in this stage, aquatic products such as astragalus polysaccharide and the like for enhancing immunity are added into the biological bait incubator, so that the live biological bait after being fed contains the astragalus polysaccharide.
When the body length of the water bloom seedlings is about 2cm, generally between 1.8 cm and 2.2cm, domestication of micropterus salmoides bait conversion can be carried out, and the micropterus salmoides cannot be used too early or too late. The feeding of the second stage is carried out according to the following processes: domesticating for the first day, fishing out a part of zooplankton in the biological bait incubator 17 by using a 100-mesh dense net during feeding twice, feeding the part of zooplankton together with constant-temperature living biological bait through a discharge nozzle 2 after the zooplankton dies, wherein the ratio of the dead bait to the constant-temperature living biological bait is 1: 1; when domesticating is carried out on the next day, the ratio of death bait to constant-temperature living organism bait is 2: 1; feeding dead baits completely when domesticating is carried out on the third day; at the fourth day of acclimation, the dead bait: uniformly mixing and feeding artificial bait according to the ratio of 3: 1; and (3) death bait in the fifth day of domestication: uniformly mixing and feeding artificial bait according to the ratio of 2: 1; and (3) death bait in the sixth day of domestication: uniformly mixing and feeding artificial baits in a ratio of 1: 1; and (3) death bait during domestication on the seventh day: feeding with artificial bait in the ratio of 1: 2; and when acclimating on the eighth day, feeding the animals by using artificial baits. When the perch fry is agile in the feeding table and the food snatching capability is strong, the acclimation is successful. At the moment, the enteronitis is easy to happen to the weever fry due to inappetence conversion, and the weever fry is fed with the medicine for building intestines and protecting the liver at the stage, so that the intestines and stomach functions of the weever fry are enhanced, and the enteritis is prevented.
After the domestication is successful, feeding is carried out in the third stage, artificial baits are fed for 4-5 times at fixed points every day, the feeding interval is 5-6 h, each feeding is carried out for 20-30 min, few fish schools are gathered by the feeding table when each feeding is about to end, and vitamins are supplemented properly while intestines are built and liver protection is carried out, so that the nutrition of the micropterus salmoides is comprehensive, and the resistance is enhanced. Adding the materials once in 3-4 days, wherein the adding amount is not more than 10% each time. After about 20 days of cultivation, summer flowers with the body length of 4cm or more can be cultivated.
In the process of cultivating and domesticating the micropterus salmoides fry, the water quality management of the culture pond is enhanced, a water quality modifier is used in time to keep the water quality stable for a long time, the transparency is 20-25 cm, the water algae diversification is ensured, and a small amount of zooplankton is kept for a long time. Regularly using detoxified and stable aquatic products, maintaining the balance of algae phase and bacteria phase, preventing and controlling the water quality to be dark green, and avoiding bubble disease caused by overhigh pH value. Stress management is performed in the whole process of seedling culture and domestication, and the water temperature and the pH value of a water body need to be balanced when water bloom is generated; before and after the sudden change of the weather or during the material transferring period, immune polysaccharide or vitamin C anti-stress drugs are sprayed, so that the vitality of the fry is improved, and the like. Controlling the pH value of the water body of the culture pond to be 7.5-8.5 and controlling the dissolved oxygen to be 5-9 mg/L.
In addition, pond patrol management should be strengthened, and pond patrol is generally carried out 3 times in the morning, in the middle and at night each day. The main purpose of pond patrol is to observe water quality and fertility to determine the time and quantity of feeding, fertilizing and water injection; meanwhile, observing the activity and growth conditions of the fish fries, finding any abnormality of the fish fries, stopping or reducing the feed, preferentially increasing oxygen and detoxifying, if floating heads are found, taking oxygenation measures such as flushing in time and the like, finding diseases and preventing and removing diseased fish in time; and determining the time for pulling out the net and the fish from the pool according to the size of the fish body. And making daily management records by combining with pond patrol. The artificial bait is recommended to be fed to about five and a half meals in the evening, and the feeding can be stopped, so that the phenomena of 'drinking overeating' and dyspepsia of the fry caused by excessive feeding are avoided.
According to the efficient cultivation and domestication method for the micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in the greenhouse of the pond, the conditions for stocking the water bloom seedlings are controlled, the constant-temperature living body biological baits are artificially cultured by using the bait feeding device, the water bloom seedlings are gradually cultivated and domesticated by using the bait feeding device in stages after the water bloom seedlings are stocked, different baits are fed to the water bloom seedlings in different stages of cultivation and domestication, the cultivated micropterus salmoides seedlings are healthy in body quality and uniform in specification, the cultivation survival rate and the domestication success rate of the water bloom seedlings are both over 60%, high-quality seedlings guarantee is provided for small-scale scattered family cultivation of micropterus salmoides, and the method has great practical application and production values.
The present invention is not limited to the above-described specific embodiments, and various modifications and variations are possible. Any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like made to the above embodiments in accordance with the technical spirit of the present invention should be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. A method for cultivating and domesticating efficient micropterus salmoides water bloom seedlings in a pond greenhouse is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) constructing a culture pond;
(2) stocking the water bloom seedlings: stocking the water bloom seedlings into the culture pond, wherein the stocking density is 10-15 ten thousand seeds/mu, and the temperature difference between the original culture water temperature of the water bloom seedlings and the water temperature of the culture pond during stocking is not more than 1 ℃;
(3) cultivating and domesticating: comprises a first stage, a second stage and a third stage;
the first stage is a stage that the length of the seedling of the water bloom is less than 2cm, and in the first stage, the water bloom is fed with artificially cultured constant-temperature living biological bait; the constant-temperature living organism bait is a mixture of planktonic algae and zooplankton, and the density of daphnia in the constant-temperature living organism bait reaches more than 3000 per liter;
the second stage is that the body length of the water bloom seedlings is 2.0-2.2 cm, different baits are gradually fed to the water bloom seedlings in the second stage, so that the water bloom seedlings gradually adapt to the fed baits, and the constant-temperature living biological baits are changed into the special artificial baits for the water bloom of the weever in the market;
in the third stage, feeding special artificial bait to the water supply flower seedling until the seedling grows to be more than 4cm in body length;
the feeding of constant temperature live body biological bait goes on in the bait is thrown and is raised the device, the bait is thrown and is raised the device and includes:
the feeding box is internally provided with a first light supplement lamp, a first heating temperature control element and a water distribution pipe, and the first light supplement lamp is positioned above liquid in the feeding box; the first heating temperature control element is arranged in the feeding box and used for heating the liquid in the feeding box and maintaining the temperature of the liquid to be constant; the water distribution pipe is a blind pipe with one closed end, is arranged in the charging box and is provided with a plurality of first water outlet spray holes along the length direction of the water distribution pipe; the constant-temperature living biological bait is filled in the feeding box;
the incubator is internally provided with a second light supplement lamp, a second heating temperature control element and an oxygenation device, and the second light supplement lamp is positioned above liquid in the incubator; the second heating temperature control element is used for heating the liquid in the incubator and maintaining the temperature of the liquid constant; the incubator is communicated with the feeding box through a conveying pipe; the incubator is used for culturing the constant-temperature living biological bait;
one end of the discharging spray head is communicated with the feeding box through a discharging pipe, a plurality of discharging spray holes are formed in the discharging spray head, and a first switch valve is arranged on the discharging pipe;
the water inlet of the water pump is communicated with the pond culture water through a water inlet pipe, the water outlet of the water pump is communicated with one end of a feeding pipe of the feeding box, and a second switch valve is arranged on the feeding pipe; the open end of the water distribution pipe is communicated with the other end of the feed pipe;
the water outlet of the water pump is communicated with a first interface of a three-way connecting pipe, a second interface of the three-way connecting pipe is communicated with one end of the feeding pipe of the feeding box, a third interface of the three-way connecting pipe is communicated with a water filling pipe of the water filling spray head, a third switch valve is arranged on the water filling pipe, and a plurality of second water outlet spray holes are formed in the water filling spray head;
before feeding the constant-temperature living organism bait, the second switch valve at the water inlet and the first switch valve at the discharging nozzle are turned off, the third switch valve of the water filling nozzle is turned on, the water pump is turned on, and after the water filling nozzle fills water for 5-10 minutes, the second switch valve and the first switch valve are sequentially turned on to control the flow rate, so that the feeding time is controlled within 20-30 minutes.
2. The method for cultivating and domesticating the lateolabrax salmoides fry in the pond greenhouse of claim 1, wherein the feeding in the second stage is carried out according to the following processes:
domesticating for the first day, and feeding death bait and the constant-temperature living organism bait in a ratio of 1: 1;
domesticating for the second day, and feeding death bait and the constant-temperature living organism bait in a ratio of 2: 1;
domesticating for the third day, and feeding dead baits;
feeding death bait and artificial bait in the ratio of 3 to 1 on the acclimation fourth day;
feeding death bait and artificial bait in a ratio of 2:1 on the fifth acclimation day;
feeding death bait and artificial bait in the ratio of 1 to 1 on the sixth acclimation day;
feeding death bait and artificial bait in the ratio of 1 to 2 on the seventh acclimation day;
and on the eighth acclimation day, feeding all the special artificial baits, and when the water bloom seedlings gather together swiftly on a feeding table and have strong food snatching capability, successfully acclimating.
3. The method for cultivating and domesticating lateolabrax japonicus fry in a pond greenhouse as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the constant temperature living biological bait also contains astragalus polysaccharides.
4. The method for cultivating and domesticating the water blossoms of the pond greenhouse high-efficiency micropterus salmoides as claimed in claim 3, wherein the water blossoms are also fed with intestine-strengthening and liver-protecting medicines in the second stage; and in the third stage, medicines and vitamins for strengthening intestines and protecting liver are fed to the water bloom seedlings.
5. The method for cultivating and domesticating lateolabrax japonicas fry in a pond greenhouse as claimed in claim 4, wherein in the first stage and the second stage, feeding is performed twice at fixed points every day, the feeding interval is 12h, and each feeding is 20-30 min.
6. The method for cultivating and domesticating lateolabrax japonicas fry in a pond greenhouse in a high-efficiency manner according to claim 5, wherein in the third stage, feeding is performed for 4-5 times at fixed points every day, the feeding interval is 5-6 hours, and each feeding is performed for 20-30 min.
7. The method for cultivating and domesticating the high-efficiency micropterus salmoides fry in the greenhouse of the pond as claimed in claim 1, wherein anti-stress drugs are sprinkled into the cultivation pond before the fry are released, and the time for releasing the fry into the cultivation pond is selected from the time of 9: 00-10: 00 at am on sunny days.
8. The method for cultivating and domesticating lateolabrax japonicas fry in a pond greenhouse in a high-efficiency manner as claimed in claim 1, wherein the pH value of the water body of the aquaculture pond is 7.5-8.5, the dissolved oxygen content is 5-9 mg/L, and the transparency is 20-25 cm.
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