CN103314902B - The nuisanceless pond breeding method of a kind of river crab - Google Patents

The nuisanceless pond breeding method of a kind of river crab Download PDF

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CN103314902B
CN103314902B CN201310237295.XA CN201310237295A CN103314902B CN 103314902 B CN103314902 B CN 103314902B CN 201310237295 A CN201310237295 A CN 201310237295A CN 103314902 B CN103314902 B CN 103314902B
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pond
water
crab
bait
river crab
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CN201310237295.XA
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CN103314902A (en
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沈建明
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苏州市阳澄湖现代农业发展有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

A kind of river crab nuisanceless pond high-efficiency breeding method, pond shape is rectangle, East and West direction, aspect ratio 2:1, and pasture and water cultivated area is 60%, is positioned in the middle of pond, and pond surrounding excavates the storage pond, holding pond of the wide ring ditch of 70 ~ 80 ㎝ as river crab; The breeding density of pond crab farming should control at 600-700/mu, 1st, make water transparence at more than 30cm during 2 shells, 3rd, 4 shells make water transparence at more than 50cm, during the 5th shell, the transparency of Chi Shui is at more than 80cm, want regularly to splash to crab pond lime water, monthly.

Description

The nuisanceless pond breeding method of a kind of river crab
Technical field
the present invention relates to the method for aquaculture, the nuisanceless pond breeding method of especially a kind of river crab.
Background technology
along with the fast development of China's economy and the generally raising of living standards of the people, people are no longer satisfied with the popular aquatic products such as carp grass silver carp flathead conventional on dining table, and turn to the high-quality aquatic products such as river crab gradually.On culture of Chinese mitten crab is produced, also achieved by the transformation of quantity velocity profile to quality and efficiency, changed by " large crab farming " to " bringing crab up ", especially more focused on the cultivation of ecology, safety, environmental protection, health, nuisanceless aquatic products, also more and more higher to the quality requirement of aquatic products.For now, simple pursuit past that high density is thrown in, the small dimension commodity crab of high yield, and no longer include competitive advantage, be not suitable with the market demand, it is difficult to sell, and market price is low, and culture benefit is poor.Present market demand, the high-quality crab of high-quality, large gauge, and the trend being development, not only product is fast-selling for it, and price is high, and culture benefit is good.Support crab, brought crab up, supported high-quality crab, supported healthy crab, supported nuisanceless crab, healthy breeding way will have been carried out.So-called healthy aquaculture, refer to the biological property according to river crab, use ecological principle to instruct crabs production, be river crab and build a good ecotope being conducive to river crab and growing, river crab is made to reduce the generation of disease to greatest extent in period of growing, the commodity crab formed.Pollution-free, individual large, yellow full cream is fertile, has good quality.Carry out innoxious management, guarantee the omnidistance quality safety of culture of Chinese mitten crab from pond to dining table and allow people be able to eat relieved high-quality crab.Only in this way, product could be in great demand without hindrance, and enterprise just can develop, the economic benefit that cultivating river crab just can obtain and social benefit.
Summary of the invention
an object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions: the nuisanceless pond breeding method of a kind of river crab, comprises the following steps:
pond is built: pond shape is rectangle, East and West direction, aspect ratio 2:1, pasture and water cultivated area is 60%, be positioned in the middle of pond, pond surrounding excavates the storage pond, holding pond of the wide ring ditch of 70 ~ 80 ㎝ as river crab, pond is totally smooth, the ridge, pond height 2m, 1:3 is compared on slope, face width 1.5 ~ 2m, the cultivation depth of water 1 ~ 1.5m, culvert system goes out for entering west in the east, pond requires the sandy end, mud about 15cm, more than depth of water 1.5m, irrigation and drainage are convenient, water quality is good, flow into without sewage, the crab Chi Gan pool, be polygon after tanning by the sun at the bottom of pond, be not absorbed in as well going away, clean up the pond with bleaching powder, consumption 15 kg/667 ㎡, to water full pond float, crab pond surrounding is installed the high calcium-plastic board of 6 cm and is escaped facility as anti-, lowest part at the bottom of pond, with the area of the high screen cloth enclosure about 15% of 1.2 m as Zan Yang district, screen cloth calcium-plastic board and PEF mesh sheet are made, while water inlet, transplanting waterweed and hydrilla verticillata, Quan Chi cut stem segmentation and transplant, line space 4 ~ 5m, apply biological organic fertilizer 20 ㎏/667 ㎡, Ling Jia composite fertilizer 2 ㎏/667 ㎡, sowing eel grass, every 667 ㎡ eel grass son 150 ~ 200g, and keep pasture and water coverage rate to account for pond area about 60%, water inlet the tenth day, after examination water detoxification, every 667 ㎡ threw in spiral shell 150 ㎏ and enter cisterna ambiens ditch, divide and throw in for 3 times, amount to every 667 ㎡ and throw in spiral shell 400 ㎏,
seed is put in a suitable place to breed: kind is pure, neat specification, and physique is healthy and strong, and appendage is complete, flexibly movable, and hand is four loose escapes immediately after grabbing and unclamping; The breeding density of pond crab farming should control 600-700/mu;
aquaculture management: water quality: 1st, make water transparence at 30 more than cm during 2 shells, 3rd, 4 shells make water transparence at 50 more than cm, during the 5th shell, the transparency of Chi Shui is at 80 more than cm, want regularly to splash to crab pond lime water, monthly, working concentration is 15 × 10-6, mainly improves the content of calcium ion in ph value and increase water body; Throwing executes calcium dihydrogen phosphate monthly, each 2kg/ mu, carry out cross-reference with quicklime, foster appropriate flower silver carp spring sheet fingerling can be overlapped in crab pond, put 500-100 tail in a suitable place to breed for every mu, to note in good time renew water, every 7-changes note once in 10 days, changes water filling position at about 20cm micro-pore oxygenation erection micro-pore oxygenation facility at every turn, guarantees the dissolved oxygen amount that Chi Shuiyou is enough, avoid a large amount of accumulations because of anoxic in crab pond and hydrogen sulphide, nitrite harmful substance, and endanger river crab healthy growth.Opening time: 5, June is at muggy weather and unbroken rainy weather, open in the evening, and July, fine day 14:00 opened later, overcast and rainyly opens at midnight.
bait feeding: loose throwing spiral shell 100-200kg/ mu alive or animal bait of manually throwing something and feeding, comprise low-value small fish, shrimp, livestock and poultry offal, pig blood, ox blood, or vegetal bait, comprise full price river crab particulate material, beans, wheat class, corn, Chinese sorghum, and green fodder, melon, greengrocery, pasture and water, the life habit that timely bait throwing in should be hidden by day and come out at night according to season during fishing and river crab carries out bait throwing in, throw something and feed every day twice, early respectively throw something and feed once for 8 and late 5, should based on dusk bait throwing in, bait throwing on daytime is auxiliary, its, daily ration, feeding quantity should account for 70% of whole day daily ration, feeding quantity in night, daytime accounts for 30%, daily ration, feeding quantity is had enough with river crab and not surplus residual bait is degree, total bait throwing in principle is " two essence, middle blue or green, essence is blue or green to be combined, meat and vegetables is arranged in pairs or groups " i.e. the bait throwing in season in spring and autumn is based on fine fodder, summer, bait throwing in was based on green fodder,
damage by disease and insect prevention and control: balantidiasis: prevention and controls one increases the number of times changing water, make water quality keep pure and fresh always, quantity of exchanged water is 1/3 of Chi Shui, two is working concentrations is that the quicklime of 20 ~ 30 mg/kg is splashed to whole pond, splash continuously 3 times, when the transparency of Chi Shui reaches 40 more than cm, three is that use 30% formaldehyde is splashed in whole pond, make last concentration of formaldehyde be 5 ~ 10 mg/kg, four is working concentrations is that the zinc sulphate of 0.3 mg/kg is splashed in whole pond, Disease of Zoothamnium: one is fishing for, transporting and put in a suitable place to breed careful operation in process does not make crab body injured, two is before putting in a suitable place to breed, river crab is placed in 2 mg/kg furazolidone solution to soak input after several minutes, three is reach 0.5 ~ 1.0 mg/kg with terramycin or furazolidone full pool spilling head, four is reach 15 ~ 20 mg/kg with quicklime full pool spilling head, every day 1 time, continuous 2 ~ 3 d, five is reach 0.1 ~ 0.2 mg/kg with furazolidone full pool spilling head, oedema: one is in breeding process, during shell, reduce the agitation to river crab as far as possible, in order to avoid injured, two is reach 0.5 ~ 1.0 mg/kg with terramycin or the western quinoline full pool spilling head of furans, three is reach 0.1 ~ 0.2 mg/kg with furazolidone full pool spilling head, four is mix bait by every 1 kg crab with 0.1 ~ 0.2 g terramycin or erythromycin to throw something and feed, every 7 d are 1 course for the treatment of,
Embodiment
below will be described in detail the preferred embodiments of the present invention; Should be appreciated that preferred embodiment only in order to the present invention is described, instead of in order to limit the scope of the invention.
pond is built
pond shape is rectangle, East and West direction, aspect ratio 2:1, pasture and water cultivated area is 60%, be positioned in the middle of pond, pond surrounding excavates the storage pond, holding pond of the wide ring ditch of 70 ~ 80 ㎝ as river crab, pond is totally smooth, the ridge, pond height 2m, 1:3 is compared on slope, face width 1.5 ~ 2m, the cultivation depth of water 1 ~ 1.5m, culvert system goes out for entering west in the east, pond requires the sandy end, mud about 15cm, more than depth of water 1.5m, irrigation and drainage are convenient, water quality is good, flow into without sewage, the crab Chi Gan pool, be polygon after tanning by the sun at the bottom of pond, be not absorbed in as well going away, clean up the pond with bleaching powder, consumption 15 kg/667 ㎡, to water full pond float, crab pond surrounding is installed the high calcium-plastic board of 6 cm and is escaped facility as anti-, lowest part at the bottom of pond, with the area of the high screen cloth enclosure about 15% of 1.2 m as Zan Yang district, screen cloth calcium-plastic board and PEF mesh sheet are made, while water inlet, transplanting waterweed and hydrilla verticillata, Quan Chi cut stem segmentation and transplant, line space 4 ~ 5m, apply biological organic fertilizer 20 ㎏/667 ㎡, Ling Jia composite fertilizer 2 ㎏/667 ㎡, sowing eel grass, every 667 ㎡ eel grass son 150 ~ 200g, and keep pasture and water coverage rate to account for pond area about 60%, water inlet the tenth day, after examination water detoxification, every 667 ㎡ threw in spiral shell 150 ㎏ and enter cisterna ambiens ditch, divide and throw in for 3 times, amount to every 667 ㎡ and throw in spiral shell 400 ㎏,
2. seed is put in a suitable place to breed
kind is pure, neat specification, and physique is healthy and strong, and appendage is complete, flexibly movable, and hand is four loose escapes immediately after grabbing and unclamping; The breeding density of pond crab farming should control 600-700/mu.
aquaculture management
water quality: 1st, make water transparence at 30 more than cm during 2 shells, 3rd, 4 shells make water transparence at 50 more than cm, during the 5th shell, the transparency of Chi Shui is at 80 more than cm, want regularly to splash to crab pond lime water, monthly, working concentration is 15 × 10-6, mainly improves the content of calcium ion in ph value and increase water body; Throwing executes calcium dihydrogen phosphate monthly, each 2kg/ mu, carry out cross-reference with quicklime, foster appropriate flower silver carp spring sheet fingerling can be overlapped in crab pond, put 500-100 tail in a suitable place to breed for every mu, to note in good time renew water, every 7-changes note once in 10 days, changes water filling position at about 20cm micro-pore oxygenation erection micro-pore oxygenation facility at every turn, guarantees the dissolved oxygen amount that Chi Shuiyou is enough, avoid a large amount of accumulations because of anoxic in crab pond and hydrogen sulphide, nitrite harmful substance, and endanger river crab healthy growth.Opening time: 5, June is at muggy weather and unbroken rainy weather, open in the evening, and July, fine day 14:00 opened later, overcast and rainyly opens at midnight.
bait feeding
loose throwing spiral shell 100-200kg/ mu alive or animal bait of manually throwing something and feeding, comprise low-value small fish, shrimp, livestock and poultry offal, pig blood, ox blood, or vegetal bait, comprise full price river crab particulate material, beans, wheat class, corn, Chinese sorghum, and green fodder, melon, greengrocery, pasture and water, the life habit that timely bait throwing in should be hidden by day and come out at night according to season during fishing and river crab carries out bait throwing in, throw something and feed every day twice, early respectively throw something and feed once for 8 and late 5, should based on dusk bait throwing in, bait throwing on daytime is auxiliary, its, daily ration, feeding quantity should account for 70% of whole day daily ration, feeding quantity in night, daytime accounts for 30%, daily ration, feeding quantity is had enough with river crab and not surplus residual bait is degree, total bait throwing in principle is " two essence, middle blue or green, essence is blue or green to be combined, meat and vegetables is arranged in pairs or groups " i.e. the bait throwing in season in spring and autumn is based on fine fodder, summer, bait throwing in was based on green fodder,
5. damage by disease and insect prevention and control
disease control to put prevention first, will be also noted that regulating water quality simultaneously, the integrated control such as rationally to throw something and feed, control young disease.In the crab seedling rearing later stage, because water temperature raises, chironomus larvas, kyllinga brevifolia and some small fish etc. may be had.They can eat Mitten Crab Larvae or fight for living space and bait with it, and these strictly can only to filter by intaking, strengthen sterilization carry out prevention.In addition, between the megathermal period, main prevention Zoothamnium and amount silk bacterium adhere in a large number, now want strict control.Guarantee that water quality and instrument clean, diligent sampling, many microscopies, early find early treatment.
balantidiasis: prevention and controls one increases the number of times changing water, make water quality keep pure and fresh always, quantity of exchanged water is 1/3 of Chi Shui, two is working concentrations is that the quicklime of 20 ~ 30 mg/kg is splashed to whole pond, splash continuously 3 times, when the transparency of Chi Shui reaches 40 more than cm, three is that use 30% formaldehyde is splashed in whole pond, make last concentration of formaldehyde be 5 ~ 10 mg/kg, four is working concentrations is that the zinc sulphate of 0.3 mg/kg is splashed in whole pond, Disease of Zoothamnium: one is fishing for, transporting and put in a suitable place to breed careful operation in process does not make crab body injured, two is before putting in a suitable place to breed, river crab is placed in 2 mg/kg furazolidone solution to soak input after several minutes, three is reach 0.5 ~ 1.0 mg/kg with terramycin or furazolidone full pool spilling head, four is reach 15 ~ 20 mg/kg with quicklime full pool spilling head, every day 1 time, continuous 2 ~ 3 d, five is reach 0.1 ~ 0.2 mg/kg with furazolidone full pool spilling head, oedema: one is in breeding process, during shell, reduce the agitation to river crab as far as possible, in order to avoid injured, two is reach 0.5 ~ 1.0 mg/kg with terramycin or the western quinoline full pool spilling head of furans, three is reach 0.1 ~ 0.2 mg/kg with furazolidone full pool spilling head, four is mix bait by every 1 kg crab with 0.1 ~ 0.2 g terramycin or erythromycin to throw something and feed, every 7 d are 1 course for the treatment of.

Claims (1)

1. the nuisanceless pond breeding method of a kind of river crab, comprise the following steps: pond is built: pond shape is rectangle, East and West direction, aspect ratio 2:1, pasture and water cultivated area is 60%, be positioned in the middle of pond, pond surrounding excavates the storage pond, holding pond of the wide ring ditch of 70 ~ 80 ㎝ as river crab, pond is totally smooth, the ridge, pond height 2m, 1:3 is compared on slope, face width 1.5 ~ 2m, the cultivation depth of water 1 ~ 1.5m, culvert system goes out for entering west in the east, pond requires the sandy end, mud 15cm, more than depth of water 1.5m, irrigation and drainage are convenient, water quality is good, flow into without sewage, the crab Chi Gan pool, be polygon after tanning by the sun at the bottom of pond, be not absorbed in as well going away, clean up the pond with bleaching powder, consumption 15 kg/667 ㎡, be watered the float of full pond, crab pond surrounding is installed the high calcium-plastic board of 6 cm and is escaped facility as anti-, lowest part at the bottom of pond, with the area of the high screen cloth enclosure about 15% of 1.2 m as Zan Yang district, screen cloth calcium-plastic board and polyethylene mesh sheet are made, while water inlet, transplanting waterweed and hydrilla verticillata, Quan Chi cut stem segmentation and transplant, line space 4 ~ 5m, apply biological organic fertilizer 20 ㎏/667 ㎡, Ling Jia composite fertilizer 2 ㎏/667 ㎡, sowing eel grass, every 667 ㎡ eel grass son 150 ~ 200g, and keep pasture and water coverage rate to account for pond area about 60%, water inlet the tenth day, after examination water detoxification, every 667 ㎡ threw in spiral shell 150 ㎏ and enter cisterna ambiens ditch, divide and throw in for 3 times, amount to every 667 ㎡ and throw in spiral shell 450 ㎏, seed is put in a suitable place to breed: kind is pure, neat specification, and physique is healthy and strong, and appendage is complete, flexibly movable, and hand is four loose escapes immediately after grabbing and unclamping, the breeding density of pond crab farming should control 600-700/mu, aquaculture management: water quality: 1st, make water transparence at 30 more than cm during 2 shells, 3rd, 4 shells make water transparence at 50 more than cm, during the 5th shell, the transparency of Chi Shui is at 80 more than cm, want regularly to splash to crab pond lime water, monthly, the content of calcium ion in high ph-values and increase water body is mainly carried, throwing executes calcium dihydrogen phosphate monthly, each 2kg/ mu, cross-reference is carried out with quicklime, in crab pond, appropriate flower silver carp spring sheet fingerling supported by cover, put 500-100 tail in a suitable place to breed for every mu, to note in good time renew water, every 7-changes note once in 10 days, change water filling position at 20cm at every turn, erection micro-pore oxygenation facility, guarantee the dissolved oxygen amount that Chi Shuiyou is enough, avoid because of anoxic and hydrogen sulphide in crab pond, a large amount of accumulations of nitrite harmful substance, and endanger river crab healthy growth, opening time: 5, June is at muggy weather and unbroken rainy weather, open in the evening, July, fine day 14:00 opened later, overcast and rainyly to open at midnight, bait feeding: loose throwing spiral shell 100-200kg/ mu alive or animal bait of manually throwing something and feeding, comprise low-value small fish, shrimp, livestock and poultry offal, pig blood, ox blood, or vegetal bait, comprise full price river crab particulate material, beans, wheat class, corn, Chinese sorghum, and the life habit that the timely bait throwing in of green fodder should be hidden by day and come out at night according to season during fishing and river crab carries out bait throwing in, throw something and feed every day twice, early respectively throw something and feed once for 8 and late 5, should based on dusk bait throwing in, bait throwing on daytime is auxiliary, its, daily ration, feeding quantity should account for 70% of whole day daily ration, feeding quantity in night, daytime accounts for 30%, daily ration, feeding quantity is had enough with river crab and not surplus residual bait is degree, total bait throwing in principle is " two essence, middle blue or green, essence is blue or green to be combined, meat and vegetables is arranged in pairs or groups " i.e. the bait throwing in season in spring and autumn is based on fine fodder, summer, bait throwing in was based on green fodder, damage by disease and insect prevention and control: balantidiasis: prevention and controls one increases the number of times changing water, make water quality keep pure and fresh always, quantity of exchanged water is 1/3 of Chi Shui, two is working concentrations is that the quicklime of 20 ~ 30 mg/kg is splashed to whole pond, splash continuously 3 times, when the transparency of Chi Shui reaches 40 more than cm, three is that use 30% formaldehyde is splashed in whole pond, make last concentration of formaldehyde be 5 ~ 10 mg/kg, four is working concentrations is that the zinc sulphate of 0.3 mg/kg is splashed in whole pond, Disease of Zoothamnium: one is fishing for, transporting and put in a suitable place to breed careful operation in process does not make crab body injured, two is before putting in a suitable place to breed, river crab is placed in 2 mg/kg furazolidone solution to soak input after several minutes, three is reach 0.5 ~ 1.0 mg/kg with terramycin or furazolidone full pool spilling head, four is reach 15 ~ 20 mg/kg with quicklime full pool spilling head, every day 1 time, continuous 2 ~ 3 d, five is reach 0.1 ~ 0.2 mg/kg with furazolidone full pool spilling head, oedema: one is in breeding process, during shell, reduce the agitation to river crab as far as possible, in order to avoid injured, two is reach 0.5 ~ 1.0 mg/kg with terramycin or the western quinoline full pool spilling head of furans, three is reach 0.1 ~ 0.2 mg/kg with furazolidone full pool spilling head, four is mix bait by every 1 kg crab with 0.1 ~ 0.2 g terramycin or erythromycin to throw something and feed, every 7 d are 1 course for the treatment of, the kind of pasture and water wants variation, herbaceous stem wants excellentization, not only to there be emergent aquactic plant and floatingleaved plant, also submerged plant should be had.
CN201310237295.XA 2013-06-17 2013-06-17 The nuisanceless pond breeding method of a kind of river crab CN103314902B (en)

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