CN105325141A - Cherry tomato matrix cultivation method - Google Patents

Cherry tomato matrix cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105325141A
CN105325141A CN201510647771.4A CN201510647771A CN105325141A CN 105325141 A CN105325141 A CN 105325141A CN 201510647771 A CN201510647771 A CN 201510647771A CN 105325141 A CN105325141 A CN 105325141A
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water
weight
days
fermentation
matrix
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韩庆典
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Linyi University
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Linyi University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B17/00Other phosphatic fertilisers, e.g. soft rock phosphates, bone meal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D9/00Other inorganic fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F5/00Fertilisers from distillery wastes, molasses, vinasses, sugar plant or similar wastes or residues, e.g. from waste originating from industrial processing of raw material of agricultural origin or derived products thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • C05F9/04Biological compost

Abstract

The invention discloses a cherry tomato matrix cultivation method comprising the following steps: 1, cultivation matrix preparation; 2, seed selection; 3, seed processing; 4, sowing and after sowing management; 5, colonization; 6, after colonization management; 7, setting up whole branches; 8, spike flowering and fruiting period; 9, fruit picking. The invention scientifically and reasonably designs the cherry tomato matrix cultivation method according to cherry tomato growth features; the prepared cultivation matrix is prepared specifically for cherry tomato growth, and made of straws rich in nitrogen, phosphor, potassium, calcium, magnesium and organic matters; the cultivation matrix fermented by natural raw materials can meet the crop growth needs, has better fertility than fertilizers purchased in the market, can be easily absorbed, and the fertility can be fast released. The matrix cultivation method can obvious improve cherry tomato quality and output.

Description

A kind of cherry and tomato substrate culture method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of cherry and tomato substrate culture method.
Background technology
Although the soilless culture research and extension the eighties middle and later periods of China just rises, development rapidly.According to incompletely statistics, national soilless culture area is more than 200hm2.The mainly nutrient solution soilless culture of China's research and extension, all with the nutrition liquid irrigation vegetables of chemical fertilizer preparation, in nutrient management and root system oxygen supply, technical requirement is high, operation easier is large; And matched auxiliaring equipment is as expensive in input costs such as cultivating groove, timer, water pumps.These factors seriously hamper the development of soilless culture in China.Organic substrate cultivation technique without soil is a kind of high efficiency, low cost cultivation technique without soil of China's original creation.The nutrient solution that this technology does not use chemical fertilizer to prepare, and use the agricultural wastes (straw, family's manure of livestock and poultry, bacterium chaff etc.) after harmless treatment as matrix, to mix after rational proportion with solid fertilizer culturing vegetable crop.To water clear water in process of crop growth, technical operation is simple, and practicality and high efficiency, greatly reduces the usage amount of chemical fertilizer, and the Product Green of production is nuisanceless.It had not only had the advantage of soilless culture but also had overcome that nutrient solution cultivation technique without soil difficulty is large, cost is high, penetration and promotion is difficult, can not produce the defect of vegetables pollution-free food.Organic substrate cultivation technique without soil efficiently solves the developing bottleneck problem of Sustained Vegetable---and soil pollution and soil swelling-shrinkage, also purified environment simultaneously, turned waste into wealth, and it is social and ecological benefits are obviously very huge.Although organic substrate soilless culture emerges, the time is not long, and the speed of application is quite surprising, and application area reaches more than 300hm2 at present, exceedes 60% of the soilless culture gross area.
Cherry and tomato has another name called mini-tomato, mini tomato, little tomato, cherry tomato etc., it is annual herb plant, belong to the mutation that Solanaceae tomato belongs to, originate in the Peru of South America, the ancestors of cultivated tomato, its shape has plum shape, pyriform, oblong etc., and the color after maturation then has yellow, pink, cerise, orange etc.Cherry Tomato Fruit is bright-colored beautiful, taste sweet and sour palatability, is rich in vitamin and mineral matter, has nutritive value and medical value, is suitable for being processed into whole fruit can, dry fruit, eating raw or prepared food, is well received by consumers.
Report and the research that can improve the substrate culture method of cherry and tomato quality and yield are at present also fewer.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is: provide a kind of substrate culture method that can improve cherry and tomato yield and quality newly.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
Cherry and tomato substrate culture method provided by the invention, comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of cultivation matrix
Cultivation matrix comprises the material of following parts by weight: crops straw powder 65-80 part, Soybean Meal 30-45 part, peanut meal 15-26 part, bacterium mushroom ground-slag 15-20 part, humic acid 14-20 part, algae powder 13-20 part, ash 20-26 part, fishbone dust 15-21 part, Chinese scholartree wood dust 13-18 part, pine needle meal 9-16 part, poultry manure 25-35 part, peat soil 20-35 part, coal ash 10-16 part.
Prepare the method for cultivation matrix, comprise the following steps:
(1) by EM stoste and glucose water-soluble EM zymotic fluid, EM stoste: glucose: the weight ratio 2-4:1:10 of water;
(2) Soybean Meal and peanut meal are added water boil 20-30 minute, the part by weight of the dregs of rice and water is 1-3:10, then adds crops straw powder and bacterium mushroom ground-slag stirs, and then adds EM zymotic fluid, sealing and fermenting 2-3 days, the temperature 30-40 degree Celsius of fermentation; The weight of EM zymotic fluid is 1.0-1.5 times of peanut meal weight, obtains fermentation materials a after having fermented;
(3) by humic acid, algae powder, ash, fishbone dust, Chinese scholartree wood dust and pine needle meal mixing, add EM zymotic fluid, the weight of aerobic fermentation 3-4 days, EM zymotic fluid is 1.0-1.3 times of humic acid weight, obtains fermentation materials b after having fermented;
(4) poultry manure, peat soil and coal ash are mixed, hyperthermia drying 100 degrees Celsius keeps 20-30min sterilizing, adds the fermentation of EM zymotic fluid, aerobic fermentation 3-4 days after cooling, the weight of EM zymotic fluid is 0.5-1.3 times of poultry manure weight, obtains fermentation materials c after having fermented;
(5) fermentation materials a, fermentation materials b, fermentation materials c are mixed, obtain cherry tomato cultivation matrix;
Ready cultivation matrix is put into 72 hole dish and matrix basins;
(2) choose seeds:
Select ruby, red No. 1 of capital, red No. 2 of capital;
(3) seed treatment:
After basking seeds 3-5 days, with 40-60 DEG C of water seed soaking 80-120 minute, then continue immersion after 9-12 hour with the warm water of 25 DEG C, with 25 ~ 30 DEG C of vernalization 6-7 days, can sow when 70% seed shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
(4) sowing and after planting management:
72 hole point disk seedling growings, once-seedling forming, after having the seed sprouting of 30%, take off film in time and suitable ventilation and penetrating light, Early seedling stage waters and wants diligent, and low temperature season controls irrigation amount, accomplishes that matrix is not dry and does not water, water permeable, water and fine day should be selected afternoon; Control the temperature 20 ~ 25 DEG C by day in booth, evening 13 ~ 15 DEG C, when evening, temperature was below 0 DEG C, then outside booth, add a cover straw screen or mat covering, keep watering once in every two days in this stage, 10 are watered in the morning;
Seedling: keep ventilation after emerging, fine day early morning 8 up at dusk 6 time heat preservation greenhouse open air vent, all the other time closes air vent,
Growth: keep self-sow in this stage, keep irrigating once for every 3 days at the weather of the maximum air temperature lower than 25 DEG C, keep irrigating once for every two days at the weather of the maximum air temperature higher than 25 degrees Celsius, irrigate once every day in the weather maintenance of the maximum air temperature higher than 35 degrees Celsius, all irrigate every day early morning 6 time;
(5) field planting: carry out field planting when young plant has 8 ~ 10 true leaves, needs before field planting to irrigate cultivation matrix with water, makes water content of substrate more than 70%, cover plastic film; Cleaning greenhouse, and sprays frame material with the potassium permanganate of 2-3%, and sealing greenhouse passes through intense light irradiation and high-temperature sterilization more than 20 days in summer; Setting date shifts to an earlier date 3 days and opens greenhouse or booth, then matrix is watered permeable for subsequent use; Anosis worm seedling and the field planting together of the even seedling of size are selected in field planting, so that management; In plantation in the fine morning, the strain of every matrix basin one, during plantation, by seedling cultivation in the middle of basin, the field planting degree of depth is advisable with cotyledon distance ground 1cm, waters immediately after field planting;
(6) manage after field planting: after field planting 3 ~ 5 days start to water; Bloom before bearing fruit and maintain soil humidity 60% ~ 65%; To bloom after bearing fruit to urge, keep its soil humidity 70% ~ 80%, require that water temperature is more than 10 DEG C winter;
(7) build training: when young plant height reaches 20cm, use bamboo pole, branch or material rope to build the high herringbone of 0.8 ~ 1m, keep two bar training, other side shoots are all wiped out;
(8) Honoka fruiting period: water once in every 5 days, in the morning 8 time water, additional liquid nutrient solution when watering, and focus on disease control;
(9) fruit picking: fruit picking when fruit maturation full maturity, will retain sepal and one section of carpopodium when gathering.
Crops straw is the most basic the most frequently used raw material in fertilizer and cultivation matrix, but, different stalk quality is different, the organic matter contained is also different, later stage fermentation effect is also different, the present invention is directed to cherry and tomato, preferred crops straw is the mixture of maize straw, soybean stalk, peanut straw, and part by weight is 10:3-5:2-6 respectively.Best, the part by weight of maize straw, soybean stalk, peanut straw is 10:4:5 respectively.
Algae powder described in matrix of the present invention is the mixture of waterside lichenin, kelp powder, Kelp Powder, and the part by weight of three is 10:1-3:2-6 respectively.Best, the part by weight of three is 10:2:4 respectively.
Further, kitchen garden and the field thistle mixed-powder of 10-13 part can also be added in cultivation matrix of the present invention, kitchen garden and field thistle are common weeds in field, but are also Chinese medicine, add kitchen garden and field thistle and have good facilitation effect to the quality improving cherry and tomato in cultivation matrix.Kitchen garden and field thistle dried grinds, and both optimum weight ratios are 5:2-3.
Preferably, the fermentation in the preparation of cultivation matrix in step (4) adopts fermentation method in batches, is specially:
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/4th weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 20-30 hour, fermentation temperature 30-35 degree Celsius;
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/2nd weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 30-40 hour, fermentation temperature 35-37 degree Celsius;
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/4th weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 25-35 hour, fermentation temperature 35-37 degree Celsius.
Further, in preparation process (2)-(4) of cultivation matrix, while adding EM zymotic fluid, can add fermentable promoter, the weight of fermentable promoter is 2-6 times of the EM zymotic fluid added simultaneously.The invention provides a kind of composition of fermentable promoter, comprise soybean protein isolate, agar, glucose, the weight ratio between them is 2-6:8-15:2-6 respectively.
Further, cultivation matrix of the present invention prepares also to provide a kind of technical method adding kitchen garden and field thistle mixed-powder, and the difference of its preparation method and said method is in step (3):
(3) by kitchen garden and field thistle mixed-powder, humic acid, algae powder, ash, fishbone dust, Chinese scholartree wood dust and pine needle meal mixing, add EM zymotic fluid, the weight of aerobic fermentation 3-4 days, EM zymotic fluid is 1.2-1.5 times of humic acid weight, obtains fermentation materials b after having fermented;
Other step is identical.
Poultry manure in the present invention is the common feces of livestock and poultry such as chicken manure, pig manure.
EM stoste of the present invention provides by liking that peaceful happy environment friendly biological technology (Nanjing) Co., Ltd produces, be made up of many genus multiple-microorganism of the three large floras such as photosynthetic mushroom, lactic acid bacteria class, budding fungus, by zymotechnique by above-mentioned aerobic and anaerobe Mixed culture, each microorganism produces utility and secretion thereof in its process of growth, by the alternate biological flora that long relation forms a Stability Analysis of Structures, function has varied microbiologic population widely altogether.Wherein viable count every milliliter is no less than 100,000,000, and pH is not less than 3.5, and color is filemot translucent liquid, and smell is comparatively concentrated acid taste.
beneficial effect of the present invention:
The present invention, according to the growth characteristics of cherry and tomato, has formulated the substrate culture method of cherry and tomato scientifically and rationally, and the cultivation matrix tool of preparation is for the special cultivation matrix of the growth of cherry and tomato; The stalk that cultivation matrix utilizes is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and organic matter etc., and the cultivation matrix of natural material fermenting and producing is close to needed for crop growth, and the fertilizer fertility bought than market is better, more easily absorbed, and fertility rate of release is fast.
Substrate culture method of the present invention can significantly improve the quality and yield of cherry and tomato.
Embodiment
embodiment 1
The cherry and tomato substrate culture method that the present embodiment provides, comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of cultivation matrix
65 parts, crops straw powder, Soybean Meal 30 parts, peanut meal 15 parts, bacterium mushroom ground-slag 15 parts, humic acid 14 parts, 13 parts, algae powder, ash 20 parts, fishbone dust 15 parts, Chinese scholartree wood dust 13 parts, pine needle meal 9 parts, poultry manure 25-part, peat soil 20 parts, coal ash 10 parts.
This enforcement crops straw is the mixture of maize straw, soybean stalk, peanut straw, and part by weight is 10:3:2 respectively.Algae powder described in the matrix of the present embodiment is the mixture of waterside lichenin, kelp powder, Kelp Powder, and the part by weight of three is 10:1:2 respectively.
The cherry tomato cultivation matrix composition method of the present embodiment, comprises the following steps:
(1) by EM stoste and glucose water-soluble EM zymotic fluid, EM stoste: glucose: the weight ratio 2:1:10 of water;
(2) Soybean Meal and peanut meal are added water boil 20 minutes, the part by weight of the dregs of rice and water is 1:10, then adds crops straw powder and bacterium mushroom ground-slag stirs, and then adds EM zymotic fluid, sealing and fermenting 2 days, the temperature of fermentation 30 degrees Celsius; The weight of EM zymotic fluid is 1.0 times of peanut meal weight, obtains fermentation materials a after having fermented;
(3) by humic acid, algae powder, ash, fishbone dust, Chinese scholartree wood dust and pine needle meal mixing, add EM zymotic fluid, aerobic fermentation 3 days, the weight of EM zymotic fluid is 1.0 times of humic acid weight, obtains fermentation materials b after having fermented;
(4) poultry manure, peat soil and coal ash are mixed, hyperthermia drying 100 degrees Celsius keeps 20min sterilizing, and add the fermentation of EM zymotic fluid after cooling, aerobic fermentation 3 days, the weight of EM zymotic fluid is 0.5 times of poultry manure weight, obtains fermentation materials c after having fermented;
(5) fermentation materials a, fermentation materials b, fermentation materials c are mixed, obtain cherry tomato cultivation matrix.
Poultry manure in the present embodiment is chicken manure.Ready cultivation matrix is put into 72 hole dish and matrix basins;
(2) choose seeds:
Select ruby;
(3) seed treatment:
After basking seeds 3 days, with 40 DEG C of water seed soakings 80 minutes, then after continuing to soak 9-hour with the warm water of 25 DEG C, with 25 DEG C of vernalization 6 days, can sow when 70% seed shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
(4) sowing and after planting management:
72 hole point disk seedling growings, once-seedling forming, after having the seed sprouting of 30%, take off film in time and suitable ventilation and penetrating light, Early seedling stage waters and wants diligent, and low temperature season controls irrigation amount, accomplishes that matrix is not dry and does not water, water permeable, water and fine day should be selected afternoon; Control the temperature 20 DEG C by day in booth, evening 13 DEG C, when evening, temperature was below 0 DEG C, then outside booth, add a cover straw screen or mat covering, keep watering once in every two days in this stage, 10 are watered in the morning;
Seedling: keep ventilation after emerging, fine day early morning 8 up at dusk 6 time heat preservation greenhouse open air vent, all the other time closes air vent,
Growth: keep self-sow in this stage, keep irrigating once for every 3 days at the weather of the maximum air temperature lower than 25 DEG C, keep irrigating once for every two days at the weather of the maximum air temperature higher than 25 degrees Celsius, irrigate once every day in the weather maintenance of the maximum air temperature higher than 35 degrees Celsius, all irrigate every day early morning 6 time;
(5) field planting: carry out field planting when young plant has 8 true leaves, needs before field planting to irrigate cultivation matrix with water, makes water content of substrate more than 70%, cover plastic film; Cleaning greenhouse, and sprays frame material with the potassium permanganate of 2%, and sealing greenhouse passes through intense light irradiation and high-temperature sterilization more than 20 days in summer; Setting date shifts to an earlier date 3 days and opens greenhouse or booth, then matrix is watered permeable for subsequent use; Anosis worm seedling and the field planting together of the even seedling of size are selected in field planting, so that management; In plantation in the fine morning, the strain of every matrix basin one, during plantation, by seedling cultivation in the middle of basin, the field planting degree of depth is advisable with cotyledon distance ground 1cm, waters immediately after field planting;
(6) manage after field planting: after field planting 3 days start to water; Bloom before bearing fruit and maintain soil humidity 60%; To bloom after bearing fruit to urge, keep its soil humidity 70%, require that water temperature is more than 10 DEG C winter;
(7) build training: when young plant height reaches 20cm, use bamboo pole, branch or material rope to build the high herringbone of 0.8m, keep two bar training, other side shoots are all wiped out;
(8) Honoka fruiting period: water once in every 5 days, in the morning 8 time water, additional liquid nutrient solution when watering, and focus on disease control;
(9) fruit picking: fruit picking when fruit maturation full maturity, will retain sepal and one section of carpopodium when gathering.
embodiment 2
The cherry and tomato substrate culture method that the present embodiment provides, comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of cultivation matrix
Cultivation matrix comprises the material of following parts by weight: 70 parts, crops straw powder, Soybean Meal 40 parts, peanut meal 22 parts, bacterium mushroom ground-slag 17 parts, humic acid 17 parts, 16 parts, algae powder, ash 24 parts, fishbone dust 16 parts, Chinese scholartree wood dust 15 parts, pine needle meal 13 parts, poultry manure 30 parts, peat soil 27 parts, coal ash 13 parts, kitchen garden and field thistle mixed-powder 10-13 part.
Crops straw is the mixture of maize straw, soybean stalk, peanut straw, and part by weight is 10:4:5 respectively.Algae powder described in the matrix of the present embodiment is the mixture of waterside lichenin, kelp powder, Kelp Powder, and the part by weight of three is 10:2:4 respectively.
Kitchen garden and field thistle are common weeds in field, but are also Chinese medicine, add kitchen garden and field thistle and have good facilitation effect to the quality improving cherry and tomato in cultivation matrix.Kitchen garden and field thistle dried grinds, and both weight ratios are 5:3.
The present embodiment provides the method for above-mentioned cherry tomato cultivation matrix, comprises the following steps:
(1) by EM stoste and glucose water-soluble EM zymotic fluid, EM stoste: glucose: the weight ratio 3:1:10 of water;
(2) Soybean Meal and peanut meal are added water boil 26 minutes, the part by weight of the dregs of rice and water is 2:10, then adds crops straw powder and bacterium mushroom ground-slag stirs, and then adds EM zymotic fluid, sealing and fermenting 3 days, the temperature of fermentation 33 degrees Celsius; The weight of EM zymotic fluid is 1.3 times of peanut meal weight, obtains fermentation materials a after having fermented;
(3) by kitchen garden and field thistle mixed-powder, humic acid, algae powder, ash, fishbone dust, Chinese scholartree wood dust and pine needle meal mixing, add EM zymotic fluid, aerobic fermentation 4 days, the weight of EM zymotic fluid is 1.4 times of humic acid weight, obtains fermentation materials b after having fermented;
(4) poultry manure, peat soil and coal ash are mixed, hyperthermia drying 100 degrees Celsius keeps 28min sterilizing, and add the fermentation of EM zymotic fluid after cooling, fermentation adopts fermentation method in batches, is specially:
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/4th weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 20-30 hour, fermentation temperature 30-35 degree Celsius;
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/2nd weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 30-40 hour, fermentation temperature 35-37 degree Celsius;
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/4th weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 25-35 hour, fermentation temperature 35-37 degree Celsius.
The weight of EM zymotic fluid is 1 times of poultry manure weight, obtains fermentation materials c after having fermented;
(5) fermentation materials a, fermentation materials b, fermentation materials c are mixed, obtain cherry tomato cultivation matrix.
In step (2)-(4), while adding EM zymotic fluid, add fermentable promoter, the weight of fermentable promoter is 5 times of the EM zymotic fluid added simultaneously.The present embodiment provides a kind of composition of fermentable promoter, comprises soybean protein isolate, agar, glucose, and the weight ratio between them is 4:11:4 respectively.
Poultry manure in the present embodiment is pig manure.
Ready cultivation matrix is put into 72 hole dish and matrix basins;
(2) choose seeds:
Select ruby, red No. 1 of capital, red No. 2 of capital;
(3) seed treatment:
After basking seeds 3-5 days, with 40-60 DEG C of water seed soaking 80-120 minute, then continue immersion after 9-12 hour with the warm water of 25 DEG C, with 25 ~ 30 DEG C of vernalization 6-7 days, can sow when 70% seed shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
(4) sowing and after planting management:
72 hole point disk seedling growings, once-seedling forming, after having the seed sprouting of 30%, take off film in time and suitable ventilation and penetrating light, Early seedling stage waters and wants diligent, and low temperature season controls irrigation amount, accomplishes that matrix is not dry and does not water, water permeable, water and fine day should be selected afternoon; Control the temperature 20 ~ 25 DEG C by day in booth, evening 13 ~ 15 DEG C, when evening, temperature was below 0 DEG C, then outside booth, add a cover straw screen or mat covering, keep watering once in every two days in this stage, 10 are watered in the morning;
Seedling: keep ventilation after emerging, fine day early morning 8 up at dusk 6 time heat preservation greenhouse open air vent, all the other time closes air vent,
Growth: keep self-sow in this stage, keep irrigating once for every 3 days at the weather of the maximum air temperature lower than 25 DEG C, keep irrigating once for every two days at the weather of the maximum air temperature higher than 25 degrees Celsius, irrigate once every day in the weather maintenance of the maximum air temperature higher than 35 degrees Celsius, all irrigate every day early morning 6 time;
(5) field planting: carry out field planting when young plant has 8 ~ 10 true leaves, needs before field planting to irrigate cultivation matrix with water, makes water content of substrate more than 70%, cover plastic film; Cleaning greenhouse, and sprays frame material with the potassium permanganate of 2-3%, and sealing greenhouse passes through intense light irradiation and high-temperature sterilization more than 20 days in summer; Setting date shifts to an earlier date 3 days and opens greenhouse or booth, then matrix is watered permeable for subsequent use; Anosis worm seedling and the field planting together of the even seedling of size are selected in field planting, so that management; In plantation in the fine morning, the strain of every matrix basin one, during plantation, by seedling cultivation in the middle of basin, the field planting degree of depth is advisable with cotyledon distance ground 1cm, waters immediately after field planting;
(6) manage after field planting: after field planting 3 ~ 5 days start to water; Bloom before bearing fruit and maintain soil humidity 60% ~ 65%; To bloom after bearing fruit to urge, keep its soil humidity 70% ~ 80%, require that water temperature is more than 10 DEG C winter;
(7) build training: when young plant height reaches 20cm, use bamboo pole, branch or material rope to build the high herringbone of 0.8 ~ 1m, keep two bar training, other side shoots are all wiped out;
(8) Honoka fruiting period: water once in every 5 days, in the morning 8 time water, additional liquid nutrient solution when watering, and focus on disease control;
(9) fruit picking: fruit picking when fruit maturation full maturity, will retain sepal and one section of carpopodium when gathering.
above-mentioned two embodiments of embodiment 3 for reality use planting experiment
Above-mentioned two embodiments are used for actual experiment, and contrast experiment selects greenhouse gardening, the soil plantation that control group is conventional.Other cultivation conditions are identical.
Test material is cherry and tomato, and kind is ruby.Result is as follows

Claims (4)

1. a cherry and tomato substrate culture method, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of cultivation matrix
Cultivation matrix comprises the material of following parts by weight: crops straw powder 65-80 part, Soybean Meal 30-45 part, peanut meal 15-26 part, bacterium mushroom ground-slag 15-20 part, humic acid 14-20 part, algae powder 13-20 part, ash 20-26 part, fishbone dust 15-21 part, Chinese scholartree wood dust 13-18 part, pine needle meal 9-16 part, poultry manure 25-35 part, peat soil 20-35 part, coal ash 10-16 part;
Prepare the method for cultivation matrix, comprise the following steps:
(1) by EM stoste and glucose water-soluble EM zymotic fluid, EM stoste: glucose: the weight ratio 2-4:1:10 of water;
(2) Soybean Meal and peanut meal are added water boil 20-30 minute, the part by weight of the dregs of rice and water is 1-3:10, then adds crops straw powder and bacterium mushroom ground-slag stirs, and then adds EM zymotic fluid, sealing and fermenting 2-3 days, the temperature 30-40 degree Celsius of fermentation; The weight of EM zymotic fluid is 1.0-1.5 times of peanut meal weight, obtains fermentation materials a after having fermented;
(3) by humic acid, algae powder, ash, fishbone dust, Chinese scholartree wood dust and pine needle meal mixing, add EM zymotic fluid, the weight of aerobic fermentation 3-4 days, EM zymotic fluid is 1.0-1.3 times of humic acid weight, obtains fermentation materials b after having fermented;
(4) poultry manure, peat soil and coal ash are mixed, hyperthermia drying 100 degrees Celsius keeps 20-30min sterilizing, adds the fermentation of EM zymotic fluid, aerobic fermentation 3-4 days after cooling, the weight of EM zymotic fluid is 0.5-1.3 times of poultry manure weight, obtains fermentation materials c after having fermented;
(5) fermentation materials a, fermentation materials b, fermentation materials c are mixed, obtain cherry tomato cultivation matrix;
Ready cultivation matrix is put into 72 hole dish and matrix basins;
(2) choose seeds:
Select ruby, red No. 1 of capital, red No. 2 of capital;
(3) seed treatment:
After basking seeds 3-5 days, with 40-60 DEG C of water seed soaking 80-120 minute, then continue immersion after 9-12 hour with the warm water of 25 DEG C, with 25 ~ 30 DEG C of vernalization 6-7 days, can sow when 70% seed shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
(4) sowing and after planting management:
72 hole point disk seedling growings, once-seedling forming, after having the seed sprouting of 30%, take off film in time and suitable ventilation and penetrating light, Early seedling stage waters and wants diligent, and low temperature season controls irrigation amount, accomplishes that matrix is not dry and does not water, water permeable, water and fine day should be selected afternoon; Control the temperature 20 ~ 25 DEG C by day in booth, evening 13 ~ 15 DEG C, when evening, temperature was below 0 DEG C, then outside booth, add a cover straw screen or mat covering, keep watering once in every two days in this stage, 10 are watered in the morning;
Seedling: keep ventilation after emerging, fine day early morning 8 up at dusk 6 time heat preservation greenhouse open air vent, all the other time closes air vent,
Growth: keep self-sow in this stage, keep irrigating once for every 3 days at the weather of the maximum air temperature lower than 25 DEG C, keep irrigating once for every two days at the weather of the maximum air temperature higher than 25 degrees Celsius, irrigate once every day in the weather maintenance of the maximum air temperature higher than 35 degrees Celsius, all irrigate every day early morning 6 time;
(5) field planting: carry out field planting when young plant has 8 ~ 10 true leaves, needs before field planting to irrigate cultivation matrix with water, makes water content of substrate more than 70%, cover plastic film; Cleaning greenhouse, and sprays frame material with the potassium permanganate of 2-3%, and sealing greenhouse passes through intense light irradiation and high-temperature sterilization more than 20 days in summer; Setting date shifts to an earlier date 3 days and opens greenhouse or booth, then matrix is watered permeable for subsequent use; Anosis worm seedling and the field planting together of the even seedling of size are selected in field planting, so that management; In plantation in the fine morning, the strain of every matrix basin one, during plantation, by seedling cultivation in the middle of basin, the field planting degree of depth is advisable with cotyledon distance ground 1cm, waters immediately after field planting;
(6) manage after field planting: after field planting 3 ~ 5 days start to water; Bloom before bearing fruit and maintain soil humidity 60% ~ 65%; To bloom after bearing fruit to urge, keep its soil humidity 70% ~ 80%, require that water temperature is more than 10 DEG C winter;
(7) build training: when young plant height reaches 20cm, use bamboo pole, branch or material rope to build the high herringbone of 0.8 ~ 1m, keep two bar training, other side shoots are all wiped out;
(8) Honoka fruiting period: water once in every 5 days, in the morning 8 time water, additional liquid nutrient solution when watering, and focus on disease control;
(9) fruit picking: fruit picking when fruit maturation full maturity, will retain sepal and one section of carpopodium when gathering.
2. substrate culture method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in the preparation of cultivation matrix, crops straw is the mixture of maize straw, soybean stalk, peanut straw, and part by weight is 10:3-5:2-6 respectively.
3. substrate culture method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the algae powder described in the preparation of cultivation matrix is the mixture of waterside lichenin, kelp powder, Kelp Powder, and the part by weight of three is 10:1-3:2-6 respectively.
4. substrate culture method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the fermentation in the preparation of cultivation matrix in step (4) adopts fermentation method in batches, is specially:
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/4th weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 20-30 hour, fermentation temperature 30-35 degree Celsius;
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/2nd weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 30-40 hour, fermentation temperature 35-37 degree Celsius;
Evenly be sprayed on mixed material by the EM zymotic fluid of 1/4th weight, spray limit, limit is turned over, aerobic fermentation 25-35 hour, fermentation temperature 35-37 degree Celsius.
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