CN103609274B - The high-yield cultivating method of selenium-rich purple sweet potato - Google Patents

The high-yield cultivating method of selenium-rich purple sweet potato Download PDF

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CN103609274B
CN103609274B CN201310493544.1A CN201310493544A CN103609274B CN 103609274 B CN103609274 B CN 103609274B CN 201310493544 A CN201310493544 A CN 201310493544A CN 103609274 B CN103609274 B CN 103609274B
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selenium
sweet potato
purple sweet
rich purple
rich
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CN201310493544.1A
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CN103609274A (en
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孔赟荣
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孔赟荣
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Abstract

The agricultural kind cultivation technology of the open new and high technology of the present invention, is specifically related to the high-yield culture technique of a kind of per mu yield ten thousand jin of selenium-rich purple sweet potatos; The present invention is that to utilize selenium-rich purple sweet potato to have growing way strong, resistance to lean, and germinating morning, tender stem look purple is green, tendril is sturdy, and damage by disease and insect is few, and to typhoon and heavy rain resistance, also comparatively slight by natural calamity, the features such as wide adaptability; By selecting, creating selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa; Adopt germination vernalization condition and the method for selenium-rich purple sweet potato, selenium-rich purple sweet potato strong sprout is cultivated by selenium-rich purple sweet potato kind, use high-yield culture technique, the method for selenium-rich purple sweet potato, carry out the cultivating and managing to selenium-rich purple sweet potato, carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, timely collecting selenium-rich purple sweet potato, create the domestic and international new record that selenium-rich purple sweet potato per mu yield surpasses ten thousand jin, obtain large batch of, the purple sweet potato of good quality and high output meets modern agriculture and plants purple sweet potato, domestic and international market is provided, improves agricultural production plantation economic benefit.

Description

The high-yield cultivating method of selenium-rich purple sweet potato
Technical field
The invention belongs to the field of agricultural cultivation of new and high technology, be specifically related to the high-yield cultivating method of a kind of per mu yield ten thousand jin of selenium-rich purple sweet potatos.
Background technology
The invention belongs to the innovation and creation of agricultural production practice, be devoted to the method and practice of the high-yield culturing of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, the present invention was autumn and winter in 2012, and the per mu yield successfully realizing selenium-rich purple sweet potato surpasses the domestic and international new record of ten thousand jin.The method of high-yield culturing selenium-rich purple sweet potato of the present invention, explore the cultivation practices experience in existing more than ten years, non-avaible of the present invention can be sought, and cannot quote as proof.
Purple sweet potato cries again sweet potato, sweet potato, pachyrhizus, and originate in Central America, Yin Qipi, meat color are purple, so cry purple sweet potato.
Purple sweet potato moisture foot, content of starch 18%-20%, every 100 grams of edible part heat content 3.5 kilocalories, 3.15 grams, protein, 0.81 gram, fat, 4.2 grams, carbohydrate, raw fiber 1.1 grams, ash content 1.2 grams, calcium 16 milligrams, 34 milligrams, phosphorus, iron 2.32 milligrams, carotin 6.43 milligrams, thiamine 0.07 milligram, vitamin B2 0.25 milligram, vitamin C 32 milligrams, niacin 0.71 milligram.Especially the content of selenium is higher; the light violet sweet potato of organic selenium content every kilogram reaches more than 0.01 milligram; the light violet sweet potato of anthocyanidin content every kilogram reaches 200 milligrams, often ediblely can play ease constipation, defaecation, improves immunocompetence, reduces blood pressure, protects the health-care effect of liver, anticancer, anti-cancer.
Purple sweet potato because of its Se content high, be 20 times of general potato class, be also referred to as selenium-rich purple sweet potato.Opinion quality selenium-rich purple sweet potato every strain knot potato number is on the high side, and 6-8 at least, 20-30 at most, potato block is less than normal, and mostly like egg or goose egg size, in long spindle-type, yampi block ratio is few.Its per mu yield is generally at 1500 kilograms-2000 kilograms at present.
It is strong, resistance to lean that purple sweet potato has growing way, and germinating morning, tender stem look purple is green, tendril is sturdy, and damage by disease and insect is few, and to typhoon and heavy rain resistance, also comparatively slight by natural calamity, the features such as wide adaptability;
Take a broad view of the production of domestic and international selenium-rich purple sweet potato, its present situation is that selenium-rich purple sweet potato nutrient content is high, individual little, yield poorly.The research topic of pendulum in face of people how to improve the output of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, creates the cultivation method of per mu yield ten thousand jin of selenium-rich purple sweet potatos, to improve the economic benefit of plantation selenium-rich purple sweet potato.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is, selects, creates selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa; Selenium-rich purple sweet potato kind is adopted to cultivate selenium-rich purple sweet potato strong sprout, use culture technique, the method for selenium-rich purple sweet potato, carry out the cultivation to selenium-rich purple sweet potato and management, carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, timely collecting selenium-rich purple sweet potato, by the practice of the purple sweet potato of cultivation of selenium-rich, summing up experience, put forward the methods, change the situation that current selenium-rich purple sweet potato is little, yield poorly, a kind of high-yield cultivating method of selenium-rich purple sweet potato is provided, makes the selenium-rich purple sweet potato per mu yield of production reach the high-yield culture technique of ten thousand jin.
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of high-yield cultivating method of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, realize per mu yield ten thousand jin of selenium-rich purple sweet potatos.
Technical characteristics of the present invention is: select, create selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa; Selenium-rich purple sweet potato kind is adopted to cultivate selenium-rich purple sweet potato strong sprout, use culture technique, the method for selenium-rich purple sweet potato, carry out the cultivation to selenium-rich purple sweet potato and management, carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, timely collecting selenium-rich purple sweet potato, obtains the selenium-rich purple sweet potato of the high-quality in enormous quantities through cultivating, high yield, leads modern agriculture to plant selenium-rich purple sweet potato, be supplied to domestic and international market, meet the consumption demand of people.
The concrete technology of invention is:
1, the selection of purple sweet potato milpa and establishment:
(1) according to being applicable to selenium-rich purple sweet potato habit and production factors, selecting and creating milpa.Different soil is selected to have different impacts to the product quality of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, output; Should according to applicable selenium-rich purple sweet potato habit and production factors, select soil: select the sand soil being rich in organic black, purple, yellow mud chiltern ground; Require that physical features is slightly high, sunny, the soil is porous, and soil is rich in organic matter, selenium content is high, and soil layer is deep, and preserve moisture and fertility, granular structure are good, good permeability, row, Rang soil easily, soil pH 4.8-7.6; Selection is made a clear distinction between the four seasons, the temperate zone milpa of pleasant Climate creates selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa;
(2) selenium-rich purple sweet potato belongs to short day crop, and it needs sufficient sunlight, and select to make a clear distinction between the four seasons, sunshine is sufficient, the temperate zone milpa of pleasant Climate creates selenium-rich purple sweet potato ground.Adapt to most selection and the establishment of selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa, rich selenium hillside fields on the sunny side or rich selenium field be selected to plant purple sweet potato.
(3) selection of selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa will adapt with the environmental weather conditions of locality with establishment.Selenium-rich purple sweet potato cauline leaf growth thermophilic 18 DEG C-30 DEG C, temperature stops growing lower than 15 DEG C, and temperature just can normal growth at 18 DEG C; It is 21 DEG C-25 DEG C that potato block expands the suitableeest temperature, and ground temperature expands lower than 20 DEG C of stoppings, more than 35 DEG C of growth retardations.The environmental requirement that selection and the establishment of selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa will grow with above-mentioned purple sweet potato adapts.
(4) selenium-rich purple sweet potato leaf water transpiration rate is large, demand large, in cauline leaf peak of growing season, and the key element that soil moisture content is advisable with 55%-80%; To be created in that the rainfall is plentiful selenium-rich purple sweet potato, there is the climate characteristic that between Clear and Bright, autumnal equinoctial period, rain is numerous and confused, extremely adapt to the growth of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, selection and the establishment of selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa require pleasant Climate, arrange, pour water easily area field, plot.
(5) selenium-rich purple sweet potato has fearness stain, is afraid of the feature of flood.The selection of selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa requires without typhoon, without flood, without drought with establishment.
(6) be applicable to selenium-rich purple sweet potato cauline leaf growth thermophilic at 15 DEG C-35 DEG C, temperature stops growing lower than 15 DEG C, more than 35 DEG C of growth retardations.The weather of long-term adaptation selenium-rich purple sweet potato growth will have about 230 days, increases effective vegetative period of purple sweet potato, the production output of selenium-rich purple sweet potato can be made high, the harvest that quality is good, land utilization rate is high, good in economic efficiency.
2, the condition of selenium-rich purple sweet potato nurturing staff and method
(1), the condition of selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed sprouting vernalization.
The optimal temperature conditions of selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed sprouting vernalization is between 15 DEG C-25 DEG C, hinders seed sprouting and young Stem nematode, should not sow more than 30 DEG C.According to the temperature condition needed for the vernalization of selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed sprouting, we are in order to improve the output of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, increase effective vegetative period of rich selenium purple, accomplish nurturing staff ahead of time, reach the object of early planting good harvest, manually to find or to create the condition of a kind of selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed sprouting vernalization, to adapt to its germination vernalization, strong sprout must be cultivated early.
Germination vernalization and the sowing of the southern selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed of China can be selected at spring, Xia Liangji, and the germination vernalization sowing of season late spring one can be selected in the north.
(2), the method for selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed sprouting vernalization:
1., the method for artificial thermophilic germination vernalization:
Spring, south China round the clock temperature more than 15 DEG C, less than 22 DEG C, suitable selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed sprouting vernalization and sowing.Because selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed head is not of uniform size, seed winter dormancy deep mixed, germinate below 15 DEG C slow, the seeding stage is long, for accelerating its germination, emerging and can adopt following methods:
A, to bask seeds: the selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed selecting the high-quality of a year, before germination vernalization, select fine day to bask seeds 2-3 days, guarantee that Seed imbibes is consistent, germinate neat.And the disinfection carried out selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed.
B, seed soaking: soak seed selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed in the warm water of 25 DEG C-30 DEG C before sowing 2-3 hour, to improve the temperature of seed, activates the growth activity of seed cell, is conducive to seed sprouting growth.
The method of C, germination vernalization:
After first selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed being soaked seed 2-3 hour in the warm water of 25 DEG C-30 DEG C, pull out, spread out and dry 10-15 minute, the selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed suctioning moisture is placed in the gunnysack or straw bag bag soaked with 30 DEG C of warm water, lie in environmental temperature at 20 DEG C-25 DEG C, can artificially create applicable temperature, relative moisture is under the condition of 65%-80%, or is 20 DEG C-30 DEG C in moisture meter humidity and carries out germination vernalization.Every day, check 2-4 time, find scene temperature or humidity on the low side, can suitably temperature adjustment or appropriate spraying warm water be humidified.General after 8-10 days, namely can sprout successively; When bud grows to 1-2 centimetre, selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed just can at seeding in nursery bed.
2., insulating box (room) germination germination accelerating method:
In the factory in selenium-rich purple sweet potato cultivating seeds with good conditionsi strong sprout, the middle control temperature of insulating box (room) can be used at 20 DEG C-25 DEG C, relative moisture is under the condition of 65%-80%, or is 20 DEG C-30 DEG C germination vernalization carrying out selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed in moisture meter humidity.
First selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed is selected, disinfected, with 30 DEG C of thermostatted water seed soaking after 1-2 hour, seed through seed soaking is pulled out, spread out and dry 10-15 minute, the selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed suctioning moisture is placed in the gunnysack or straw bag bag soaked with 30 DEG C of warm water, in the insulating boxs of 20 DEG C-25 DEG C (room), relative moisture is under the condition of 65%-80%, carry out the germination vernalization to selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed, through 8-10 days, namely can sprout successively, when bud grows to 1-2 centimetre, selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed just can at seeding in nursery bed.
(3), seeding in nursery bed cultivates the method in selenium-rich purple sweet potato strong sprout:
Select the leeward ground, seedbed being rich in organic matter faced south, first execute and make decomposed manure by oneself, carry out seedbed; By selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed head-up, tail down, is tiltedly planted on seedbed, is accomplished that head is concordant, spacing 2-3 centimetre; Get sprayer 25 DEG C of-30 DEG C of warm water seed is squirted, cover fine earth, execute the people's muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed, after covering the straw of 1-2 cm thick, allow straw absorb sunlight temperature, improve ground temperature, cover mulch film again, then cover sky film, heat and moisture preserving, during nurturing staff, focus on accepting sunlight and ventilating in time, water.When growing to more than 20 centimetres to potato seedling, just can cut seedling, get seedling, seedling is inserted into large field and go.
3, soil is selected.
Different soil is selected to have different impacts to the product quality of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, output; According to applicable selenium-rich purple sweet potato habit and production factors, soil should be selected: require to select to be rich in organic black, purple, sand soil; Or be rich in the soil of organic yellow soil quality; The soil is porous in selection, and physical features is slightly high, sunny, and soil is rich in organic matter, selenium content is high, and soil layer is deep, and preserve moisture and fertility, granular structure are good, good permeability, row, Rang soil easily, soil pH 4.8-7.6; The temperate zone milpa made a clear distinction between the four seasons, weather is got married is selected to create selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa.
4, wholely ridge and soil melioration, is done.
1), the high yield of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, good harvest need dark, pine, live, moist, fertile good soil environment; Selenium-rich purple sweet potato requires to deep plough in 1 week-2 week in advance wholely; General nonirrigated farmland to deep plough 30 centimetres, paddy field need deep plough 40 centimetres, tillage pan be broken, be beneficial to rainwater diafiltration, avoid field ponding.
2), combine deep ploughing, every mu adopts homemade decomposed manure 4500 kilograms-5000 kilograms, improvement soil.
3) decomposed manure is made by oneself: adopt with chicken manure, duck excrement, pig manure, horse, ox, sheep barnyard manure, night soil, corn, sorghum straw, green manure, straw, sugarcane skin, rice chaff, organic waste etc. are raw material, carry out Harmless process the first half: at summer or high temperature season in fertilising, straw, green manure, sugarcane skin etc. are cut off and mixes with other raw material, add 2% ~ 3% lime, water-sprinkling mix wet, pile up, plastic covering film, make its abundant fermentation maturity.Yeast phase heap in temperatures as high 60 DEG C ~ 70 DEG C, can effectively kill in farm organic fertilizer with sick worm and crop smothering, and process after organic manure easily absorbed by selenium-rich purple sweet potato.
4), do ridge to require: row spacing 75 centimetres, ridge sound stage width 55 centimetres, ridge is high 25 centimetres, ridge face width 35 centimetres, and furrow is wide 20 centimetres.Adopt zanjon, micro-ridge, single file planting patterns.Before doing ridge, first dig furrow, bottom furrow, imbed the green manure cutting into 2-3 cun long: clover, safflower grass seed or blue or green broad bean straw and so on, the green manure thickness imbedded is 5-8 centimetre; Self-control decomposed manure is evenly applied above the green manure imbedded bottom furrow; Above the self-control decomposed manure applied, every mu of sealing fertilizer 50 kilograms-80 kilograms, superphosphate 10 kilograms-20 kilograms, ash 5-10 makes ridge after carrying on a shoulder pole; After doing ridge, take advantage of soil moistening, a weed killer herbicide be played and prevent weed growth.
5), plant before selenium-rich purple sweet potato, be control of grubs harm, adopt chemicals treatment soil; Use 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate, 200 ~ 250 grams every mu, add water 10 times, be sprayed on 20 ~ 35 kilograms of fine earths mix thoroughly and make pesticide-clay mixture, along ridge row replacement; Maybe this pesticide-clay mixture is spread on kind of ditch or ground, or be mixed into self-control decomposed manure in use; Or with 2% Isofenphos methyl powder, mix fine earth 20 ~ 35 kilograms for 2 ~ 3 kilograms every mu and make pesticide-clay mixture, row replacement; Or with 3% Isofenphos methyl granule or 5% phoxim granule, or 5% diazinon granule, 2.2 ~ 3.2 kilograms every mu process soil.
5, early plant in good time:
The plantation of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, when spring, temperature was at 15 DEG C, just can cuttage, cutting time is more early better, to increase effective vegetative period of purple sweet potato, improves the output of purple sweet potato; Spring plants selenium-rich purple sweet potato in late April to mid-May, with cuttage as well.
6, selenium-rich purple sweet potato cottage method:
The quality of selenium-rich purple sweet potato cottage method, directly affects the seed output and quality of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, selenium-rich purple sweet potato cottage method:
(1), oblique cutting method: clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 18-22 centimetre in strong sprout, has 4-5 joint; Seedling bar becomes miter angle with face, ridge, uses scuppit borehole, is inserted by seedling bar in the soil of ridge, with the real earth of ten finger pressures, allows seedling bar plant into ridge soil 2 joint, exposes 2-3 joint.This kind of method cuttage, between offspring knot, it is more to tie purple sweet potato, generally can tie 5-8 selenium-rich purple sweet potato, most multipotency ties more than 10, tie the shape of selenium-rich purple sweet potato as goose egg size, individual weight 80 grams-150 grams, the shape of maximum selenium-rich purple sweet potato is as fist size, individual heavy 150 grams-250 grams, and maximum focuses on 1200 grams-1500 grams, the heavy output of the average strain of selenium-rich purple sweet potato is at 400 grams-850 grams, per mu yield is generally at 1900 kilograms-2400 kilograms, and its output is higher, and potato shape is larger.
(2), Using Horizontal Bridgman Method: clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 20-24 centimetre in strong sprout, has 5 joints; Seedling bar becomes contour cultivation with face, ridge, with scuppit in the ditching of face, ridge, by the soil of seedling bar contour cultivation ridge, refers to ridging compacting earth, plant into 3 joints, expose 2 joints with ten.Using Horizontal Bridgman Method plantation selenium-rich purple sweet potato, between offspring knot, knot selenium-rich purple sweet potato is a lot, generally can tie 6-15 selenium-rich purple sweet potato, to tie selenium-rich purple sweet potato body less, shape is as egg size, individual heavy 50 grams-80 grams, maximum selenium-rich purple sweet potato is as goose egg size, individual heavy 80 grams-150 grams, the average strain of selenium-rich purple sweet potato focuses on 450 grams-950 grams, and per mu yield is generally at 1800 kilograms-2100 kilograms.Its output is lower, and potato shape is less.
(3), more piece Using Horizontal Bridgman Method: clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 50-80 centimetre in strong sprout, has 10-15 joint; Seedling becomes contour cultivation with face, ridge, with scuppit in the ditching of face, ridge, by the soil of seedling contour cultivation ridge, refers to ridging compacting earth with ten; Plant into 7-11 joint, expose 3-4 joint.More piece Using Horizontal Bridgman Method plantation selenium-rich purple sweet potato, between each root knot, ties purple potato several, the purple potato 25-45 selenium-rich purple sweet potato of general energy knot, to tie selenium-rich purple sweet potato body very little, the average strain of selenium-rich purple sweet potato focuses on 1000 grams-1850 grams, and per mu yield is generally at 1900 kilograms-2300 kilograms.Its output is better, and potato shape is less.
(4), seminal propagation working system: every mu of selenium-rich purple sweet potato field, first to scrape out in 665-667 " plantation fort ", " plantation fort " each diameter is 75 centimetres-80 centimetres, be the round pool of 45 centimetres-50 centimetres deeply, each " plantation fort " uses 50 kilograms, green manure, self-control decomposed manure 60 kilograms-70 kilograms, composite fertilizer 1 kilogram-1.2 kilograms, first bury under " plantation fort " and put green manure, self-control decomposed manure is applied again on green manure, above self-control decomposed manure, evenly apply composite fertilizer, above composite fertilizer, cover loosening the soil of 20 cm thicks; Utilize the seed after selenium-rich purple sweet potato seminal propagation seedling, selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed is planted in " plantation fort " center, allow the potato rattan of selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed growth, arbitrarily to all the winds extend, when the potato rattan of selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed is stretched to 35-40 centimetre to surrounding, be in the circumference range of 20 centimetres by being the radius in the center of circle according to selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed, cover with the earth of humidity, thickness of earth covering is at 20 centimetres-25 centimetres, earthing is executed the people's muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed, allows and to be taken root knot potato by the potato rattan internode that earth covers; When in selenium-rich purple sweet potato rattan, to be stretched to from selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed be the 65-75 centimetre in the center of circle, again between the circumference range of radius 45-65 centimetre from selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed being the center of circle, cover selenium-rich purple sweet potato rattan with the earth of humidity, thickness of earth covering is at 20 centimetres-25 centimetres; And become thoroughly decomposed people's muck with executing and combine the method for spraying fertilization of leaves, cultivate the selenium-rich purple sweet potato being covered rattan joint by earth; With the selenium-rich purple sweet potato that this kind of method is cultivated, when gathering in the crops, each heavy 250 grams of-1500 grams of selenium-rich purple sweet potatos of general energy results, maximum selenium-rich purple sweet potato can be obtained and focus on 2 kilograms-4 kilograms, each " plantation fort " can gather in the crops the selenium-rich purple sweet potato of 45-65 kilogram, the highest per mu yield can reach 3200 kilograms-3800 kilograms, and with this kind, method plantation selenium-rich purple sweet potato shape is large, output is high, quality good.
(5), vertically plant hydroponics: select anosis selenium-rich purple sweet potato tendril head, clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 20-25 centimetre in strong sprout, there is 5-6 joint; Remove by the sub-two panels of root lateral lobe, carry out inserting strong sprout and plant; Seedling bar and face, ridge degree in a vertical angle, uses scuppit borehole, is vertically inserted by seedling bar in the soil of ridge, refers to ridging compacting with ten; Plant into 2 joints, expose 3-4 joint.This kind of method cuttage, between offspring knot, tie purple sweet potato less, generally can tie 3-5 selenium-rich purple sweet potato, to tie selenium-rich purple sweet potato individual large, single selenium-rich purple sweet potato focuses on 400 grams-750 grams, and maximum single selenium-rich purple sweet potato can reach 2 kilograms-3 kilograms, individual plant average yield is at 1850 grams-2150 grams, and the highest single plant yield can reach more than 5 kilograms; What per mu yield was the highest reaches more than 5000 kilogram, i.e. per mu yield 10000 jin, with this kind of method plantation selenium-rich purple sweet potato shape is large, output is high, better quality.
7, rational close planting: according to soil property, fertility and rattan seedling characteristic, determine rational cutting density; Adopt ridge kind method, spacing in the rows 30-35 centimetre, line-spacing 68-72 centimetre, every mu of cuttage purple sweet potato seedling 3400-3700 strain.Adopt seminal propagation working system, every mu is " plantation fort " 665-667, plants selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed 665-667.
8, field management:
(1), after selenium-rich purple sweet potato seedling plants one week, seedling be looked into, fill the gaps with seedlings, guarantee full stand.
(2), selenium-rich purple sweet potato seedling plantation first quarter moon after, find weed growth time, carry out chemical weed control with the Acetochlor of 150 times every mu, consumption every mu 100 grams, sprayer adds water 4, sprays weeding; Or use artificial weeding.
(3), at whole selenium-rich purple sweet potato to intertill 2-3 time vegetative period, in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage, loosen the soil, earth up, support ridger, fertilising.
(4), selenium-rich purple sweet potato be afraid of stain, be afraid of flood, rainy season, timely draining.During arid, timely drought resisting to water, spraying fertilizer; To pour water in field ditch in time when arid is serious, impose foliage fertilizer.
(5) tendril is carried.Carry tendril and can lift the selenium-rich purple sweet potato tendril coring being tied in side, ridge or bottom of trench at different levels, be conducive to stopping between tendril, tie potato block, make concentrating and effective photosynthesis of nutrient, impel expanding of the purple potato stem tuber of rich selenium, generally can increase production 50%-80%.When carrying tendril, accomplish " four are not ": do not turn over rattan, do not trample cauline leaf, do not pull apart cauline leaf, do not hinder cauline leaf; As injured cauline leaf top slightly, can impel axillalry bud that new skill and leaflet occur, having reduced photosynthesis, causing the underproduction; Enter rainy season, selenium-rich purple sweet potato tendril is raw adventive root easily, easily disperses nutrient, should mention selenium-rich purple sweet potato tendril gently, after lifting adventive root, then replace, and to reach the growth suppressing tendril adventive root, makes nutrient concentrate on the object of potato block; After carrying tendril, tendril is put in original place, not upset tendril direction, be conducive to strengthening photosynthesis, improve selenium-rich purple sweet potato output.
(6), 8, September, have diastrous weather and occur, there will be the spy such as typhoon or arid and send out weather, the combating typhoon of selenium-rich purple sweet potato be carried out, prevent waterlogging and drought relief work.There is prolonged drought, weather short of rain, carry out and water, pour water, fertilising work.
(7), spraying fertilizer, 7, August divides, and spraying fertilizer, monthly spraying fertilizer 1-2 time, executes the human excrement 800 kilograms-1000 kilograms that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu, impel selenium-rich purple sweet potato block to expand; To late September, temperature starts to decline, purple potato Root Absorption ability, and now the potash fertilizer requirement of purple potato increases, the major way mending potassium sprays foliage fertilizer, 400g/ mu. execute, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 50 kilograms-60 kilograms, energy amount of increase in production is at 10%-20%.Or every mu sprays with ash leachate 150 kilograms-200 kilograms, can increase the output of selenium-rich purple sweet potato.
9, prevention and elimination of disease and pests
To prevent eliminating aphis vegetative period at selenium-rich purple sweet potato, purple potato tortrix moth, golden devil, the insects such as prodenia litura.Find aphid, use 10% Imidacloprid, every mu of medication 10 grams-15 grams, to 40 kilograms-60 kilograms, water, evenly sprays; When finding selenium-rich purple sweet potato tortrix moth, golden devil, with 48% Le Siben EC, every mu of consumption 30ml, water distribution 1000-1500 times liquid, sprays; Find prodenia litura, every mu of use 1% missible oil 15 grams ~ 25 grams, to 50 kilograms ~ 60 kilograms, water, contain in low instar larvae and send out a phase even spraying, or use Du Pont's safety hit, every mu fills 1 bag with 5ml, and water distribution 3000 times, sprays.
10, gather in time.
When the temperature of the growing environment of selenium-rich purple sweet potato is lower than 15 DEG C, when entering autumn and winter season, after selenium-rich purple sweet potato comes to the ripening period, should excavate in time and gather.
The selenium-rich purple sweet potato preparing breeding in the coming year field, in support several days more, make selenium-rich purple sweet potato potato block ripe, after having dug, under the sun, shine 2-3 days, make the drying of potato kind, and killing pathogenic bacteria.The purple sweet potato taken is not divided and to pull open, and bunchiness preserve, reduces potato block wound, use cellar or the warming technology of moisturizing, and guarantee potato kind is survived the winter quality.
By enforcement of the present invention and application, not only change the product quality of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, from a selenium-rich purple sweet potato of during little purple sweet potato in the past becomes, large.And break the per mu yield that people in the past plant selenium-rich purple sweet potato and hover 1500 kilograms of-2000 kilograms of balky situations always, create and achieve the domestic and international new record of high yield and bumper harvest that selenium-rich purple sweet potato per mu yield reaches ten thousand jin.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the selenium-rich purple sweet potato that the present invention cultivates.
Fig. 2 is one jiao, the scene that selenium-rich purple sweet potato per mu yield that the present invention cultivates surpasses ten thousand jin.
Embodiment
Example 1: seminal propagation working system:
Every mu of selenium-rich purple sweet potato ground, first to scrape out in 665-667 " plantation fort ", " plantation fort " each diameter is 75 centimetres-80 centimetres, be the round pool of 45 centimetres-50 centimetres deeply, each " plantation fort " uses 50 kilograms, green manure, self-control decomposed manure 60 kilograms-70 kilograms, composite fertilizer 1 kilogram-1.2 kilograms, first bury under " plantation fort " and put green manure, self-control decomposed manure is applied again on green manure, above self-control decomposed manure, evenly apply composite fertilizer, above composite fertilizer, cover loosening the soil of 20 cm thicks; Utilize the seed after selenium-rich purple sweet potato seminal propagation seedling, selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed is planted in " plantation fort " center, allow the potato rattan of selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed growth, arbitrarily to all the winds extend, when the potato rattan of selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed is stretched to 35-40 centimetre to surrounding, be in the circumference range of 20 centimetres by being the radius in the center of circle according to selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed, cover with the earth of humidity, thickness of earth covering is at 20 centimetres-25 centimetres, earthing is executed the people's muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed, allows and to be taken root knot potato by the potato rattan internode that earth covers; When in selenium-rich purple sweet potato rattan, to be stretched to from selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed be the 65-75 centimetre in the center of circle, again between the circumference range of radius 45-65 centimetre from selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed being the center of circle, cover selenium-rich purple sweet potato rattan with the earth of humidity, thickness of earth covering is at 20 centimetres-25 centimetres; And become thoroughly decomposed people's muck with executing and combine the method for spraying fertilization of leaves, cultivate the selenium-rich purple sweet potato being covered rattan joint by earth; With the selenium-rich purple sweet potato that this kind of method is cultivated, when gathering in the crops, each heavy 250 grams of-1500 grams of selenium-rich purple sweet potatos of general energy results, maximum selenium-rich purple sweet potato can be obtained and focus on 2 kilograms-4 kilograms, each " plantation fort " can gather in the crops the selenium-rich purple sweet potato of 45-65 kilogram, the highest per mu yield can reach 3200 kilograms-3800 kilograms, and with this kind, method plantation selenium-rich purple sweet potato shape is large, output is high, quality good.
Example 1: do ridge and vertically plant hydroponics:
High yield, the good harvest of selenium-rich purple sweet potato need dark, loose, alive, moist, fertile good soil environment.Selenium-rich purple sweet potato ridge requires within 10 days-20 days, to deep plough in advance; General early to deep plough 30 centimetres, paddy field need deep plough 40 centimetres, tillage pan be broken, be beneficial to rainwater diafiltration, avoid field ponding.
In conjunction with deep ploughing, every mu adopts homemade decomposed manure 4500 kilograms-5000 kilograms, improvement soil.
Self-control decomposed manure, adopt with chicken manure, duck excrement, pig manure, horse, ox, sheep barnyard manure, night soil, corn, sorghum straw, green manure, straw, sugarcane skin, rice chaff, organic waste etc. are raw material, carry out Harmless process the first half in fertilising: at summer or high temperature season, straw, green manure, sugarcane skin etc. are cut off and mixes with other raw material, add 2% ~ 3% lime, water-sprinkling mix wet, pile up, plastic covering film, make its abundant fermentation maturity.Yeast phase heap in temperatures as high 60 DEG C ~ 70 DEG C, can effectively kill in farm organic fertilizer with sick worm and crop smothering, and process after organic manure easily absorbed by selenium-rich purple sweet potato.
Do ridge to require: row spacing 75 centimetres, 55 centimetres, ridge base, ridge is high 25 centimetres, 35 centimetres, face, ridge, 20 centimetres, furrow.Adopt zanjon, micro-ridge, single file planting patterns.
Before doing ridge, first dig furrow, bottom furrow, imbed the green manure cutting into 2-3 cun long: clover, safflower grass seed or blue or green broad bean straw and so on, the green manure thickness imbedded is 5-8 centimetre.
Self-control decomposed manure is evenly applied above the green manure imbedded bottom furrow.
Above the self-control decomposed manure applied, every mu sealing fertilizer 50-80 kilogram, superphosphate 10-20 kilogram, ash 5-10 load after, make ridge.
After doing ridge, take advantage of soil moistening, a weed killer herbicide be played and prevent weed growth.
Before planting selenium-rich purple sweet potato, be control of grubs harm, adopt chemicals treatment soil.Use 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate, 200 ~ 250 grams every mu, add water 10 times, be sprayed on 20 ~ 35 kilograms of fine earths mix thoroughly and make pesticide-clay mixture, along ridge row replacement; Maybe this pesticide-clay mixture is spread on kind of ditch or ground, or be mixed into self-control decomposed manure in use; Or with 2% Isofenphos methyl powder, mix fine earth 20 ~ 35 kilograms for 2 ~ 3 kilograms every mu and make pesticide-clay mixture, row replacement; Or with 3% Isofenphos methyl granule, 2.2 ~ 3.2 kilograms every mu process soil.
Select anosis selenium-rich purple sweet potato tendril head, clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 20-25 centimetre in strong sprout, there is 5-6 joint; Remove by the sub-two panels of root lateral lobe, carry out inserting strong sprout and plant; Seedling bar and face, ridge degree in a vertical angle, uses scuppit borehole, is vertically inserted by seedling bar in the soil of ridge, refers to ridging compacting with ten; Plant into 2 joints, expose 3-4 joint.
Rational close planting: according to soil property, fertility and rattan seedling characteristic, determine rational cutting density; Adopt ridge kind method, spacing in the rows 30-35 centimetre, line-spacing 68-72 centimetre, every mu of vertical cuttage purple sweet potato seedling 3400-3700 strain.
The cultivating and managing of ridge kind selenium-rich purple sweet potato is carried out in conjunction with field management, fertilising, the extermination of disease and insect pest.
Do ridge and vertically plant hydroponics, between offspring knot, knot selenium-rich purple sweet potato is less, generally can tie 3-5 selenium-rich purple sweet potato, to tie selenium-rich purple sweet potato individual large, single selenium-rich purple sweet potato focuses on 400 grams-750 grams, and maximum single selenium-rich purple sweet potato can reach 2 kilograms-3 kilograms, individual plant average yield is at 1850 grams-2150 grams, and the highest single plant yield can reach more than 5 kilograms; What per mu yield was the highest reaches more than 5000 kilogram, i.e. per mu yield 10000 jin, with this kind of method plantation selenium-rich purple sweet potato shape is large, output is high, better quality.

Claims (1)

1. a high-yield cultivating method for selenium-rich purple sweet potato, is characterized in that:
(1), the selection of selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa and establishment: select the sand soil being rich in organic black, purple, yellow mud chiltern ground; Require that physical features is slightly high, sunny, the soil is porous, and soil is rich in organic matter, selenium content is high, and soil layer is deep, and preserve moisture and fertility, granular structure are good, good permeability, and row, fills with soil easily, soil pH 4.8-7.6; Selection is made a clear distinction between the four seasons, the temperate zone milpa of pleasant Climate creates selenium-rich purple sweet potato milpa;
(2), germination germination accelerating method:
1), the method for artificial thermophilic germination vernalization:
A, to bask seeds: the selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed selecting the high-quality of a year, before germination vernalization, select fine day to bask seeds 2-3 days, guarantee that Seed imbibes is consistent, germinate neat; And the disinfection carried out selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed;
B, seed soaking: soak seed selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed in the warm water of 25 DEG C-30 DEG C before sowing 2-3 hour, to improve the temperature of seed, activates the growth activity of seed cell, is conducive to seed sprouting growth;
The method of C, germination vernalization:
After first selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed being soaked seed 2-3 hour in the warm water of 25 DEG C-30 DEG C, pull out, spread out and dry 10-15 minute, the selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed oneself being suctioned moisture is placed in the gunnysack or straw bag bag soaked with 30 DEG C of warm water, lie in environmental temperature at 20 DEG C-25 DEG C, the temperature that artificial creation is applicable to, relative moisture is carry out germination vernalization under the condition of 65%-80%; Every day, check 2-4 time, find scene temperature or humidity on the low side, suitable temperature adjustment or appropriate spraying warm water humidification; Through 8-10 days, namely sprout successively; When bud grows to 1-2 centimetre, selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed is just at seeding in nursery bed;
2), insulating box/room germination germination accelerating method:
First selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed is selected, disinfected, with 30 DEG C of thermostatted water seed soaking after 1-2 hour, seed through seed soaking is pulled out, spread out and dry 10-15 minute, the selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed suctioning moisture is placed in the gunnysack or straw bag bag soaked with 30 DEG C of warm water, in the insulating box/room of 20 DEG C-25 DEG C, relative moisture is under the condition of 65%-80%, carries out the germination vernalization to selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed; Through 8-10 days, namely sprout successively, when bud grows to 1-2 centimetre, selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed is just at seeding in nursery bed;
(3), seeding in nursery bed cultivates the method in selenium-rich purple sweet potato strong sprout:
Select the leeward ground, seedbed being rich in organic matter faced south, first execute and make decomposed manure by oneself, carry out seedbed; By selenium-rich purple sweet potato seed head-up, tail down, is tiltedly planted on seedbed, is accomplished that head is concordant, spacing 2-3 centimetre; Get sprayer 25 DEG C of-30 DEG C of warm water seed is squirted, cover fine earth, execute the people's muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed, after covering the straw of 1-2 cm thick, allow straw absorb sunlight temperature, improve ground temperature, then cover mulch film, then cover sky film, heat and moisture preserving; During nurturing staff, focus on accepting sunlight and ventilating in time, water; When growing to more than 20 centimetres to potato seedling, just can cut seedling, get seedling, seedling is inserted into large field and go;
(4) ridge and soil melioration, wholely, is done:
1), the whole ground of selenium-rich purple sweet potato will shift to an earlier date and deep ploughed in 1 week-2 week; Nonirrigated farmland to deep plough 30 centimetres, paddy field need deep plough 40 centimetres, tillage pan be broken, be beneficial to rainwater diafiltration, avoid field ponding:
2), combine deep ploughing, every mu adopts homemade decomposed manure 4500 kilograms-5000 kilograms, improvement soil;
3), self-control decomposed manure method: adopt with chicken manure, duck excrement, pig manure, horse, ox, sheep barnyard manure, night soil, corn, sorghum straw, green manure, straw, sugarcane skin, rice chaff, organic waste are raw material, carry out Harmless process the first half in fertilising; At summer or high temperature season, by straw, green manure, sugarcane skin cut off mix with other raw material, add 2% ~ 3% lime, water-sprinkling mix wet, accumulation, plastic covering film, make its abundant fermentation maturity; Yeast phase heap in temperatures as high 60 DEG C ~ 70 DEG C, can effectively kill in farm organic fertilizer with sick worm and crop smothering, and process after organic manure easily absorbed by selenium-rich purple sweet potato;
4), do ridge requirement: row spacing 75 centimetres, ridge sound stage width 55 centimetres, ridge is high 25 centimetres, ridge face width 35 centimetres, and furrow is wide 20 centimetres; Adopt zanjon, micro-ridge, single file planting patterns; Before doing ridge, first dig furrow, bottom furrow, imbed the green manure cutting into 2-3 cun long: clover, safflower grass seed or blue or green broad bean straw and so on, the green manure thickness imbedded is 5-8 centimetre; Self-control decomposed manure is evenly applied above the green manure imbedded bottom furrow; Above the self-control decomposed manure applied, every mu of sealing fertilizer 50 kilograms-80 kilograms, superphosphate 10 kilograms-20 kilograms, ash 5-10 makes ridge after carrying on a shoulder pole; After doing ridge, take advantage of soil moistening, a weed killer herbicide be played and prevent weed growth;
5), plant before selenium-rich purple sweet potato, be control of grubs harm, adopt chemicals treatment soil;
(5), early plant in good time;
The plantation of selenium-rich purple sweet potato, when spring, temperature was at 15 DEG C, just can cuttage, cutting time is more early better, to increase effective vegetative period of purple sweet potato, improves the output of purple sweet potato; Spring plants purple sweet potato in late April to mid-May:
(6), selenium-rich purple sweet potato cottage method:
1), oblique cutting method: clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 18-22 centimetre in strong sprout, has 4-5 joint; Seedling bar becomes miter angle with face, ridge, uses scuppit borehole, is inserted by seedling bar in the soil of ridge, with the real earth of ten finger pressures, allows seedling bar plant into ridge soil 2 joint, exposes 2-3 joint;
2), Using Horizontal Bridgman Method: clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 20-24 centimetre in strong sprout, has 5 joints; Seedling bar becomes contour cultivation with face, ridge, with scuppit in the ditching of face, ridge, by the soil of seedling bar contour cultivation ridge, refers to ridging compacting earth, plant into 3 joints, expose 2 joints with ten;
3), more piece Using Horizontal Bridgman Method: clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 50-80 centimetre in strong sprout, has 10-15 joint; Seedling becomes contour cultivation with face, ridge, with scuppit in the ditching of face, ridge, by the soil of seedling contour cultivation ridge, refers to ridging compacting earth with ten; Plant into 7-11 joint, expose 3-4 joint:
4), vertically plant hydroponics: select anosis selenium-rich purple sweet potato tendril head, clip selenium-rich purple sweet potato long 20-25 centimetre in strong sprout, there is 5-6 joint; Remove by the sub-two panels of root lateral lobe, carry out inserting strong sprout and plant; Seedling bar and face, ridge degree in a vertical angle, uses scuppit borehole, is vertically inserted by seedling bar in the soil of ridge, refers to ridging compacting with ten; Plant into 2 joints, expose 3-4 joint;
(7), rational close planting:
According to soil property, fertility and rattan seedling characteristic, determine rational cutting density; Adopt ridge kind method, spacing in the rows 30-35 centimetre, line-spacing 68-72 centimetre, every mu of cuttage purple sweet potato seedling 3400-3700 strain;
(8), field management:
1), after selenium-rich purple sweet potato seedling plants one week, seedling be looked into, fill the gaps with seedlings, guarantee full stand:
2), selenium-rich purple sweet potato seedling plantation first quarter moon after, find weed growth time, carry out chemical weed control with the Acetochlor of 150 times every mu, consumption every mu 100 grams, sprayer adds water 4, sprays weeding; Or with artificial weeding;
3), at whole selenium-rich purple sweet potato to intertill 2-3 time vegetative period, in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage, loosen the soil, earth up, support ridger, fertilising;
4), selenium-rich purple sweet potato be afraid of stain, be afraid of flood, rainy season want timely draining; During arid, timely drought resisting to water, spraying fertilizer; To pour water in field ditch in time when arid is serious, impose foliage fertilizer:
5), tendril is carried:
When carrying tendril, accomplish " four are not ": do not turn over rattan, do not trample cauline leaf, do not pull apart cauline leaf, do not hinder cauline leaf; After carrying tendril, tendril is put in original place, not upset tendril direction, be conducive to strengthening photosynthesis, improve selenium-rich purple sweet potato output;
6), 8, September, there is typhoon or arid is special sends out weather, the combating typhoon of selenium-rich purple sweet potato be carried out, prevent waterlogging and drought relief work; There is prolonged drought, weather short of rain, carry out and water, pour water, fertilising work;
7), spraying fertilizer, 7, August, spraying fertilizer, monthly spraying fertilizer 1-2 time, execute the human excrement 800 kilograms-1000 kilograms that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu, impel selenium-rich purple sweet potato block to expand; To late September, the major way mending potassium sprays foliage fertilizer, and every mu, with ash leachate 150 kilograms-200 kilograms, sprays;
(9), prevention and elimination of disease and pests:
To prevent eliminating aphis vegetative period at selenium-rich purple sweet potato, purple potato tortrix moth, chafer, prodenia litura insect; Find aphid, use 10% Imidacloprid, every mu of medication 10 grams-15 grams, to 40 kilograms-60 kilograms, water, evenly sprays; When finding selenium-rich purple sweet potato tortrix moth, chafer, with 48% Le Siben EC, every mu of consumption 30ml, water distribution 1000-1500 times liquid, sprays; Find prodenia litura, every mu of use 1% missible oil 15 ~ 25 grams, to 50 kilograms ~ 60 kilograms, water, contain in low instar larvae and send out a phase even spraying, or use Du Pont's safety hit, every mu fills 1 bag with 5ml, and water distribution 3000 times, sprays;
(10), gather in time:
When the temperature of the growing environment of selenium-rich purple sweet potato is lower than 15 DEG C, when entering autumn and winter season, after selenium-rich purple sweet potato comes to the ripening period, should excavate in time and gather;
The selenium-rich purple sweet potato preparing breeding in the coming year field, in support several days more, make selenium-rich purple sweet potato potato block ripe, after having dug, under the sun, shine 2-3 days, make the drying of potato kind, and killing pathogenic bacteria; The purple sweet potato taken is not divided and to pull open, and bunchiness preserve, reduces potato block wound, use cellar or the warming technology of moisturizing, and guarantee potato kind is survived the winter quality.
CN201310493544.1A 2013-10-10 2013-10-10 The high-yield cultivating method of selenium-rich purple sweet potato CN103609274B (en)

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