CN103548533B - Acer x freemanii branch-forcing and cuttage seedling method - Google Patents

Acer x freemanii branch-forcing and cuttage seedling method Download PDF

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CN103548533B
CN103548533B CN201310529619.7A CN201310529619A CN103548533B CN 103548533 B CN103548533 B CN 103548533B CN 201310529619 A CN201310529619 A CN 201310529619A CN 103548533 B CN103548533 B CN 103548533B
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cuttage
canopy
time
cuttings
matrix
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CN103548533A (en
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赵庆柱
魏永阳
邱玉宾
林云弟
郝炎辉
韩霞
杨志莹
赵婧杰
高静
姜官恒
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Shandong Weifang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention discloses an acer x freemanii branch-forcing and cuttage seedling method. The method comprises the steps of breeding forcing of cuttings, preparation of a greenhouse and matrix, shearing of cuttings, cuttage and subsequent staging management. Compared with the convention shoot cuttage method, the method has the advantages that the maturation of the cutting branch is advanced by about 30 days, the acer x freemanii shoot cuttage time is advanced to the middle of May, the high-temperature dry season in June is effectively avoided, the problem of cutting dewatering and withering caused by difficult temperature lowering through labor is thoroughly solved in the cuttage rooting period, the rooting rate reaches more than 98%, the transplanting survival rate reaches more than 90%, and the acer x freemanii cuttage rooting rate is improved by more than 40%; the management is simple, the labor is saved, the benefit is high, and the like; the novelty, the creativity and the practicality are high, the whole step is easily understood and popularized, the problem of high risk of the acer x freemanii cuttage seedling is fundamentally solved, the massive popularization and application of the acer x freemanii are realized, and the significant meaning on enriching the seedling cutting technique system, booming the seedling market, and promoting the income increase of seedling farmers is realized.

Description

A kind of freeman maple is urged a cuttage seedling raising method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of cuttage seedling raising method, specifically, relate to a kind of freeman maple and urge a cuttage and seedling culture method, belong to plant propagation technical field.
Background technology
Freeman maple ( acer freemanii) be the hybridization seeds of American red-maple and silvery white maple, in recent years by abroad introducing, other plant that it is viewed and admired and economic worth belongs to higher than maple, is subject to the welcome in domestic seedling agriculture and afforestation market deeply.Representative Cultivars have ' autumn flame ' ( acer freemanii' Autumn Blaze'), ' illusion on autumn days ' ( acer freemanii' Autumn Fantasy Maple ') etc.Freeman maple only has by vegetative propagation could retain its breediness.But due to its fast growth, graft seedling growth and stock affinity are poor, frangibility; Tissue culture technique is strong, cost is high, difficulty is large, should not promote; Therefore, cuttage and seedling culture becomes its vegetative main path.Freeman maple cuttage rooting rate is relatively low, and branch consumption is large, is not generally used, and grows seedlings so mainly rely on summer epicormic branch cuttage.
Epicormic branch cuttage is very strict to the requirement of environment, and 20~30 DEG C of environmental temperatures are advisable, and generally can not exceed 35 DEG C; Relative air humidity 70~90%; 20~25 DEG C of substrate temperature, generally can not exceed 28 DEG C.Be raw semi-lignified branch then as the branch of cuttings, the normal time the earliest to June early and middle ten days just can reach maturity and carry out cuttage, now weather has entered 30 DEG C of above high temperature sweltering heat stages, and air humidity is lower than rainy season, generally below 60%.For manual control environmental factor reaches the requirement of cuttage root-taking, existing way be mainly in plastic canopy cuttage to ensure air humidity, then by canopy internal spraying and canopy body is sheltered from heat or light to realize the object of decreasing temperature and increasing humidity.
Realizing in process of the present invention, inventor finds that prior art has the following disadvantages: although cottage method can meet the environmental condition of freeman maple epicormic branch cuttage substantially in plastic canopy, but management difficulty increases greatly, very easily be subject to the impact of Changes in weather, particularly after cuttage, callus phase and the phase of taking root enter high temperature season just, 35 DEG C of above hot weathers are more, temperature in shed rises to more than 40 DEG C sometimes, easily cause leaf abscission withered, cause cuttage survival rate to reduce, even all dead; Easily cause again matrix excessively to wet and grow germ if increase spray cooling, cuttings is gone rotten, and not only increases cost if increase refrigeration plant, is also not suitable for carrying out large-scale production.Therefore, epicormic branch cuttage freeman maple in plastic canopy, temperature is high, difficulty is controlled to for main restricting factor, is a great problem that perplexs for a long time seedling agriculture.
Summary of the invention
The problem to be solved in the present invention is for above problem; provide a kind of freeman maple to urge a cuttage and seedling culture method, overcome the defect that existing cottage method survival rate is low, cost is high, adopt after cottage method of the present invention; have that survival rate is high, cost is low, the advantage of suitability for scale production.
For overcoming the above problems, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows: a kind of freeman maple is urged a cuttage seedling raising method, it is characterized in that: described cuttage seedling raising method comprise successively urge educate cuttings, purchase booth and matrix, adopt cut cuttings and cuttage and insert after management process by stages;
Described urging educated cuttings step: before entering the winter first year, excavate plantation ditch in greenhouse by solar heat, plantation ditch ditch is apart from being 1m, apart from booth thing both sides canopy wall 2m, ditch depth 50cm, furrow width 50cm; Farm organic fertilizer 5000kg/ mu, sulphur 30kg/ mu that ditch bottom application retting is good, and after soil uniform stirring fill and lead up ditch earthing, pours water heavy real;
Mid or late Febuary in next year is film button canopy above, and the freeman maple seedling 911 root element 100ppm solution of choosing robust growth, well developed root system, anosis worm soak root 6~8h, spacing in the rows 1m, become " product " font to be colonizated in plantation ditch central authorities, groove face covers black mulch film, after surely dry apart from ground 30cm, irrigate field planting water, after 3d, spray the gibberellin (GA of 300ppm 3) 1 time, after 30d, branch is about 20~30cm, and now 500 times of liquid of foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate repeat 1 time every 15d; When temperature of shed exceedes 35 DEG C, carry out aeration-coolingly, before and after May 1, branch length 67-73cm, carries out pinching, controls growth, and branch development maturation after 5~7d after pinching, can adopt and cut preparation cuttings.
A kind of prioritization scheme, described in purchase booth and matrix step: cuttage adopts plastic canopy, and canopy film covers the sunshade net of double-deck shading rate 50% outward, installation spraying apparatus in canopy;
Adopt perlite and the peat composed of rotten mosses to be mixed and made into cutting medium, by volume proportioning is 4:1, matrix is used nutritive cube that wide height is 12cm × 15cm to contain to be close to and is thrown in canopy, both sides are apart from canopy wall 50cm, passage is stayed in centre, before inserting, with 500 times of 50% carbendazol wettable powder solution, canopy inwall and exposed section is carried out to comprehensive spray disinfectant.
Another kind of prioritization scheme, described adopting cut cuttings and cuttage step: cuttings selects to urge the ripe substantial branch of incubation, cut the section of being cut into, every section 1~2 joint, long 8~10cm, retain 1 blade, its upper cut truncation, the about 1cm of bud in distance, lower cut is mitered into the shape of a hoof, soak and carry out surface sterilization in 15 minutes with the carbendazim solutions of 800 times, obtain cutting;
Use ABT1 root-inducing powder 100ppm solution to soak cutting bottom 4~6h, step (2) gained matrix is saturating with clear water spray, cutting vertically inserts in the nutritive cube that contains matrix, blade facing one direction, the cuttage degree of depth is 1/2~2/3 of cutting length, flicking cuttings surrounding matrix after cuttage, and spray again permeable 1 time.
Another prioritization scheme, management process by stages after described inserting: be callus generation within 15d after cuttage, 15~25d is the phase of taking root, the interior air humidity of canopy is controlled at more than 85% during this time, and temperature is controlled at below 30 DEG C;
After cuttage, 3d dislikes mould clever solution spraying matrix with 2000 times, sprays 1 time at interval of 10d, sprays altogether 3 times; Take root in the phase 500 times of urea liquids of blade face spray 1 time, 800 times of first holder solution 1 time;
30d enters vegetative period later, temperature of shed is controlled at below 35 DEG C, air humidity keeps 70~85%, sooner or later each 1~2h that ventilates, 500 times of liquid of blade face spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1 time in vegetative period, 800 times of first holder solution 1 time, 45~50d root system development stalwartness, every strain is more than 20, enter the hardening phase, extend time to the whole day of leaking informaton and leak informaton, whole day is leaked informaton after 3d and is removed canopy film, retains sunshade net, after Routine Management 7d, removing at twice sunshade net can transplant, transplanting should be between the lights or the cloudy day carry out, pouring in time after transplanting.
The present invention adopts above technical scheme; compared with prior art; have the following advantages: cuttings branch development maturation has shifted to an earlier date 30d left and right compared with conventional epicormic branch cuttage; by freeman maple epicormic branch cuttage time advance to mid-May; effectively avoid the season of high-temperature drying in June; thoroughly having solved the cuttage root-taking phase is difficult to cooling so that the withered difficult problem of cuttings dehydration by manpower, urges the booth of educating branch to have once investment benefited feature for many years, suitability for scale production.
Cutting medium proportioning is more reasonable compared with conventional epicormic branch cuttage, for the epicormic branch cuttage poor or situation such as go rotten that often easily causes taking root because matrix gas permeability is poor, strengthen perlitic consumption in matrix, effectively improve matrix gas permeability, well developed root system, take root faster, amount is more, rooting rate improves more than 40%, arrives more than 98%.
After cuttage seedling raising method will be inserted, the management phase is divided into callus phase, the phase of taking root, vegetative period, hardening phase, 5 stages of transplanting time, and level of control is clearer and more definite, and specific aim is stronger, is simple and easy to grasp, promote well.Not only management is simple compared with other cuttage, saving labour costs, and transplanting survival rate is high, reaches more than 90%, and cuttage benefit improves greatly.
In a word; adopt a cuttage seedling raising method suitability for scale production of urging of the present invention; can improve freeman maple cuttage root-taking rate more than 40%; have and manage simply, save labour, benefit advantages of higher; novelty, creativeness, practical, whole step is easily grasped, good popularization, has solved the high difficult problem of freeman maple cuttage and seedling culture risk at all; the application of freeman maple large-scale popularization is become a reality, to enriching nursery stock cuttage technique system, prosperity nursery stock market, promoting seedling agriculture to increase income significant.
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further described.
Embodiment
Below with concrete case study on implementation, the specific embodiment of the present invention is described:
Case study on implementation 1, a kind of freeman maple is urged a cuttage seedling raising method,, comprises the following steps as example describes taking freeman maple ' illusion on autumn days ':
Before entering the winter first year, excavate plantation ditch in greenhouse by solar heat, plantation ditch ditch is apart from being 1m, apart from booth thing both sides canopy wall 2m, ditch depth 50cm, furrow width 50cm; Farm organic fertilizer 5000kg/ mu, sulphur 30kg/ mu that ditch bottom application retting is good, and after soil uniform stirring fill and lead up ditch earthing, pours water heavy real;
Mid or late Febuary in next year overlay film button canopy, and freeman maple ' illusion on autumn days ' the seedling 911 root element 100ppm solution of choosing robust growth, well developed root system, anosis worm soak root 8h, spacing in the rows 1m, become " product " font to be colonizated in plantation ditch central authorities, groove face covers black mulch film, after surely dry apart from ground 30cm, irrigate field planting water, after 3d, spray the gibberellin (GA of 300ppm 3) 1 time, after 30d, 500 times of liquid of foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate, repeat after 15d 1 time;
When temperature of shed exceedes 35 DEG C, carry out aeration-cooling, and attention control damage by disease and insect.Before and after May 1, branch length 67-73cm, now carries out pinching, and after pinching, 6d adopts and cuts preparation cuttings preparation cuttage.Cuttage facility adopts plastic canopy, and canopy film covers double-deck 50% sunshade net outward, accuracy is installed in canopy and can be controlled to semi-automatic spraying apparatus in seconds.Cutting medium adopts perlite to mix with the peat composed of rotten mosses, and by volume proportioning 4:1 mixes well, and packs in the nutritive cube of 12cm × 15cm, is close to and is thrown in cuttage shed, and both sides are apart from canopy wall 50cm, and passage is stayed in centre.Canopy inwall and exposed section are carried out to comprehensive spray disinfectant with 500 times of 50% carbendazol wettable powder liquid.Selection is urged and is bred as ripe substantial branch, cuts the section of being cut into, every segment length 8~10cm, account for 1~2 joint, retain 1 blade, its upper cut truncation is apart from the about 1cm of upper bud, lower cut is mitered into the shape of a hoof, soaks and carries out surface sterilization in 15 minutes with the carbendazim solutions of 800 times, obtains cutting; Soak cutting bottom 6h with ABT1 root-inducing powder 100ppm solution more for subsequent use, first that matrix is saturating with clear water spray when cuttage, in the nutritive cube that cutting vertically inserts in, blade facing one direction, avoid mutually hiding and pasting, the cuttage degree of depth is cutting length 1/2, flicking cuttings surrounding matrix after cuttage, cuttings is fully contacted with matrix, and spray again permeable 1 time.
After cuttage, 15d callus generates, and 15~25d root system is sprouted, and during this, in canopy, air humidity is controlled at more than 85%; Temperature is controlled at below 30 DEG C, does not surpass 30 DEG C and does not leak informaton; Injection flow rate had not only kept blade moistening but also do not drip, and blade is dry not to be sprayed, 2000 times of mould clever solution spraying matrix of evil for 3d after cuttage, and repeat to spray 1 time in the time of 15d, 25d; 500 times of urea liquids of blade face spray 1 time while inserting rear 20d, 800 times of first holder solution of 22d spray 1 time.
30d enters vegetative period later, and temperature of shed is the highest does not surpass 35 DEG C, and air humidity keeps 70~85%, and 1h ventilates sooner or later; 500 times of liquid of 35d blade face spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1 time after inserting, 800 times of first holder solution of 32d spray 1 time.After 50d, carry out hardening, start to leak informaton 2~5 hours every day, progressively extend and leak informaton the time, after 5d, extend to whole day and leak informaton, whole day is leaked informaton after 3d and is removed canopy film, but retains sunshade net, after removing to touch 3d, remove ground floor sunshade net, after 7d, remove second layer sunshade net, choosing dusk or cloudy day transplant, pouring in time after transplanting.
Through test, reach 98.5% by the method freeman maple ' illusion on autumn days ' cuttage root-taking rate, transplanting survival rate reaches 94%.
Case study on implementation 2, a kind of freeman maple is urged a cuttage seedling raising method,, comprises the following steps as example describes taking freeman maple ' autumn flame ':
Before entering the winter first year, excavate plantation ditch in greenhouse by solar heat, plantation ditch ditch is apart from being 1m, apart from booth thing both sides canopy wall 2m, ditch depth 50cm, furrow width 50cm; The farm organic fertilizer 5000kg/ mu that ditch bottom application retting is good, sulphur 30kg/ mu, and after soil uniform stirring fills and leads up ditch earthing, pours water heavy real.
Mid or late Febuary in next year is film button canopy above, and freeman maple ' autumn flame ' the seedling 911 root element 100ppm solution of choosing robust growth, well developed root system, anosis worm soak root 8h, spacing in the rows 1m, become " product " font to be colonizated in plantation ditch central authorities, groove face covers black mulch film, after surely dry apart from ground 30cm, irrigate field planting water, after 3d, spray 300ppm gibberellin (GA 3) 1 time.After 30d, 500 times of liquid of foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate, repeat after 15d 1 time;
When temperature of shed exceedes 35 DEG C, carry out aeration-cooling.Before and after May 1, branch length 68-72cm, now carries out pinching, and after pinching, 5d adopts and cuts preparation cuttings preparation cuttage.Cuttage facility adopts plastic canopy, and canopy film covers the sunshade net of double-layered sunshade rate 50% outward, and auto spraying equipment is installed in canopy.Cutting medium adopts perlite to mix with the peat composed of rotten mosses, and by volume proportioning 4:1 mixes well, and packs in the nutritive cube of 12cm × 15cm, is close to and is thrown in cuttage shed, and both sides are apart from canopy wall 50cm, and passage is stayed in centre.Canopy inwall and exposed section are carried out to comprehensive spray disinfectant with 500 times of 50% carbendazol wettable powder liquid.Selection is urged and is bred as ripe substantial branch, cuts the section of being cut into, and every segment length 8~10cm accounts for 1~2 joint, retain 1 blade, its upper cut truncation, the about 1cm of bud in distance, lower cut is mitered into the shape of a hoof, first soaks and carries out surface sterilization in 15 minutes with the carbendazim solution of 800 times, obtains cutting; Soak cutting bottom 5h with ABT1 root-inducing powder 100ppm solution more for subsequent use.First that matrix is saturating with clear water spray when cuttage, in the nutritive cube that cutting vertically inserts in, blade facing one direction, avoid mutually hiding and pasting, the cuttage degree of depth is cutting length 1/2, flicking cuttings surrounding matrix after cuttage, cuttings is fully contacted with matrix, and spray again permeable 1 time.
After cuttage, 15d callus generates, and 15~25d root system is sprouted, and during this, in canopy, air humidity is controlled at more than 85%; Temperature is controlled at below 30 DEG C, does not surpass and does not leak informaton; Injection flow rate can keep blade moistening but do not drip, and blade is dry not to be sprayed; After cuttage, 3d dislikes mould clever solution spraying matrix with 2000 times, and respectively repeats to spray 1 time in the time of 15d, 25d; 500 times of urea liquids of blade face spray 1 time while inserting rear 20d, 800 times of first holder solution of 22d spray 1 time.
30d enters vegetative period later, and temperature of shed is the highest can reach 35 DEG C, and air humidity keeps 70~85%, sooner or later each ventilation 1.5h; 500 times of liquid of 35d blade face spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1 time after inserting, 800 times of first holder solution of 32d spray 1 time.After 50d, carry out hardening, start to leak informaton 2~5 hours every day, progressively extend and leak informaton the time, after 5d, extend to whole day and leak informaton, whole day is leaked informaton after 3d and is removed canopy film, but retains sunshade net, after striping 3d, remove ground floor sunshade net, after 7d, removing second layer sunshade net can transplant, and transplants choosing dusk or cloudy day and carries out, pouring in time after transplanting.
Through test, reach 99.1% by the method freeman maple ' autumn flame ' cuttage root-taking rate, transplanting survival rate reaches 92.8%.
Be more than to disclose the present invention taking the illusion on autumn days of freeman maple Representative Cultivars, autumn flame as embodiment, but not in order to limit the present invention, all employings are equal to replaces or technical scheme that equivalent transformation obtains, all should be within protection scope of the present invention.
Finally it should be noted that: the foregoing is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, be not limited to the present invention, although the present invention is had been described in detail with reference to previous embodiment, for a person skilled in the art, its technical scheme that still can record aforementioned each embodiment is modified, or part technical characterictic is wherein equal to replacement.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment of doing, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. freeman maple is urged a cuttage seedling raising method, it is characterized in that: described cuttage seedling raising method comprise successively urge educate cuttings, purchase booth and matrix, adopt cut cuttings and cuttage and insert after management process by stages;
Described urging educated cuttings step: before entering the winter first year, excavate plantation ditch in greenhouse by solar heat, plantation ditch ditch is apart from being 1m, apart from booth thing both sides canopy wall 2m, ditch depth 50cm, furrow width 50cm; Farm organic fertilizer 5000kg/ mu, sulphur 30kg/ mu that ditch bottom application retting is good, and after soil uniform stirring fill and lead up ditch earthing, pours water heavy real;
Mid or late Febuary in next year is film button canopy above, and the freeman maple seedling 911 root element 100ppm solution of choosing robust growth, well developed root system, anosis worm soak root 6~8h, spacing in the rows 1m, become " product " font to be colonizated in plantation ditch central authorities, groove face covers black mulch film, after surely dry apart from ground 30cm, irrigate field planting water, after 3d, spray the gibberellin GA of 300ppm 31 time, the long 20~30cm of branch after 30d, now 500 times of liquid of foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate, repeat 1 time every 15d; When temperature of shed exceedes 35 DEG C, carry out aeration-coolingly, before and after May 1, branch length 67-73cm, carries out pinching, controls growth, and branch development maturation after 5~7d after pinching, can adopt and cut preparation cuttings.
2. freeman maple as claimed in claim 1 is urged a cuttage seedling raising method, it is characterized in that: described in purchase booth and matrix step: cuttage adopts plastic canopy, and canopy film covers the sunshade net of double-deck shading rate 50% outward, and spraying apparatus is installed in canopy;
Adopt perlite and the peat composed of rotten mosses to be mixed and made into cutting medium, by volume proportioning is 4:1, matrix is used nutritive cube that wide height is 12cm × 15cm to contain to be close to and is thrown in canopy, both sides are apart from canopy wall 50cm, passage is stayed in centre, before inserting, with 500 times of 50% carbendazol wettable powder solution, canopy inwall and exposed section is carried out to comprehensive spray disinfectant.
3. freeman maple as claimed in claim 2 is urged a cuttage seedling raising method, it is characterized in that: described in adopt and cut cuttings and cuttage step: cuttings is selected to urge and is bred as ripe substantial branch, cut the section of being cut into, every section 1~2 joint, long 8~10cm, retain 1 blade, its upper cut truncation, the about 1cm of bud in distance, lower cut is mitered into the shape of a hoof, soak and carry out surface sterilization in 15 minutes with the carbendazim solutions of 800 times, obtain cutting;
Use ABT1 root-inducing powder 100ppm solution to soak cutting bottom 4~6h, gained matrix is saturating with clear water spray, cutting vertically inserts in the nutritive cube that contains matrix, blade facing one direction, the cuttage degree of depth is 1/2~2/3 of cutting length, flicking cuttings surrounding matrix after cuttage, and spray again permeable 1 time.
4. freeman maple as claimed in claim 3 is urged a cuttage seedling raising method, it is characterized in that: management process by stages after described inserting: after cuttage, within 15d, be callus generation, 15~25d is the phase of taking root, and in canopy, air humidity is controlled at more than 85% during this time, and temperature is controlled at below 30 DEG C;
After cuttage, 3d dislikes mould clever solution spraying matrix with 2000 times, sprays 1 time at interval of 10d, sprays altogether 3 times; Take root in the phase 500 times of urea liquids of blade face spray 1 time, 800 times of first holder solution 1 time;
30d enters vegetative period later, temperature of shed is controlled at below 35 DEG C, air humidity keeps 70~85%, sooner or later each 1~2h that ventilates, 500 times of liquid of blade face spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1 time in vegetative period, 800 times of first holder solution 1 time, 45~50d root system development stalwartness, every strain is more than 20, enter the hardening phase, extend time to the whole day of leaking informaton and leak informaton, whole day is leaked informaton after 3d and is removed canopy film, retains sunshade net, after Routine Management 7d, removing at twice sunshade net can transplant, transplanting should be between the lights or the cloudy day carry out, pouring in time after transplanting.
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