CN106258761A - A kind of selection of Acer saccharum Marsh. - Google Patents

A kind of selection of Acer saccharum Marsh. Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106258761A
CN106258761A CN201610782577.1A CN201610782577A CN106258761A CN 106258761 A CN106258761 A CN 106258761A CN 201610782577 A CN201610782577 A CN 201610782577A CN 106258761 A CN106258761 A CN 106258761A
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seedling
plant
soil
selection
growth
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Inventor
郝炎辉
陈福志
赵锴
井海荣
巩云福
孙林
陈华昌
秦雪
李兴师
庄德祥
张金波
徐安乐
李茂菊
马明胜
孙政
张新鹏
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陈福志
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Priority to CN201610782577.1A priority Critical patent/CN106258761A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The present invention relates to the selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh., described selection comprises the following steps: (1), seedling propagation: use seed propagation, cottage propagation or propagation by grafiting;(2), plant: the nursery stock of breeding in step (1) is planted;(3), field management: the nursery stock after planting is carried out water and fertilizer management, weeding is loosened the soil and the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage;(4), pruning: the nursery stock at trophophase is pruned, to keep the stalwartness of nursery stock and crown normal;By the sugar maple tree strong adaptability of this method selection-breeding, happiness moist environment and well-drained subacidity soil.Drought resisting, cold-resistant, fast growth, resistant to diseases and insects is strong, and variable color natural law is longer, and sight is good.

Description

A kind of selection of Acer saccharum Marsh.
Technical field
The present invention relates to the breeding method of a kind of ornamental trees, concretely relate to the selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh..
Background technology
Acer saccharum Marsh., deciduous tree, plant height 12 24 meters, hat width is up to 9 15 meters.Vertical growth, tree-like for oval.Tree vigo(u)r Grand, elegant.Single leaf is to life, long up to 10 centimetres.Leaf is green, can become yellow autumn to golden yellow down to Chinese red.Flower Phase is in April, open before leaf launches, little brightly yellowish green.Myriopteron extensum (Wight) K. Schum, green, ripe October, overstrike.Treelet bark light Sliding, taupe, can become coarse after growing up, like Corium elephatis.Happiness is nice and cool, moist environment, and subacidity soil fertile, well-drained (5.5 7.3), the too low meeting of pH value causes fallen leaves.Happiness light, resistance to necessarily shelters from heat or light.The most anti-air pollution, lasting high heat, arid and salt Alkali.The soil of compacting is grown bad.Autumn, blade was beautiful in colour, and tree crown is dense, is suitable in the bigger flower garden of area or opens Ornamental tree species is done in wealthy region.Seed propagation.Can not plant in the region that soil compaction or growing space are little, be frequently by covering Lid measure makes root system keep nice and cool and moistening.
Sugar maple tree, plant height 5m-6m, hat width is up to 3m-4m, and tree crown is dense attractive in appearance, and trunk is upright, tall and straight, deeply by grower Welcome with consumer.But it is not strong generally to there is adaptability in present sugar maple tree, and resistant to diseases and insects is low, and variable color natural law is shorter, shadow Ring its sight.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide the selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh., to solve existing sugar maple tree adaptability Not strong, resistant to diseases and insects is low, and variable color natural law is shorter, the problem affecting its sight.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts the technical scheme that: the selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh., described selection-breeding side Method comprises the following steps:
(1), seedling propagation: use seed propagation, cottage propagation or propagation by grafiting;
(2), plant: the nursery stock of breeding in step (1) is planted;
(3), field management: the nursery stock after planting is carried out water and fertilizer management, weeding is loosened the soil and the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage;
(4), pruning: the nursery stock at trophophase is pruned, to keep the stalwartness of nursery stock and crown normal.
A kind of concrete prioritization scheme, the seed propagation in described step (1) comprises the steps:
Spring is sowed first 20 to 30 days, with 40 DEG C of water seed soakings, while pour the stirring of seed limit into, changes clear water after water natural cooling Soak 24 hours, within every 10 hours, change a clear water, drain after pulling out;
Disinfecting solution of potassium permanganate with 0.5% 4 hours, pulls out and washes down seed with clear water;
Then the wet sand of mixing 3 times, and uniform stirring, heap, in leeward area without shade, sprays a warm water every day, keeps moistening, The water content making sand is 60%, and hydrops to be prevented, to avoid seed decay;
Noon every day is stirred once, can sow when the seed of 50% shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, can drilling or program request, seeding row spacing 20 × 50 ㎝。
A kind of concrete prioritization scheme, the cottage propagation in described step (1) comprises the steps:
Cutting time: annual 6~JIUYUE are carried out;
The selection of cutting and process: select that robust growth, sprout be full, growing way and rugosity is basically identical, without pest and disease damage Give birth to semi-lignified young sprout then, cut the section of being cut into, every section 2 joint, length 8~12cm, retain 1 leaf;Its upper cut away from upper bud about 0.5~ 1cm truncation, lower cut is cut sth. askew, and is concentrated use in 500 times of immersion bubble 15min of 50% carbendazol wettable powder and carries out disinfection after shearing Standby;
The selection of hormone: through the cutting of sterilization, can be selected for IBA Yu NAA mixed liquor before inserting, concentration ratio for 2:1, 500mg/L carries out luring root to process, and will be placed in growth hormone immersion 2h at the lower cut of cutting, and soaking depth is with 1~2cm;
The cuttage degree of depth and density: the cuttage degree of depth is about the 2/3 of spike length, cutting density 15 × 15, become triangle disposition Arrangement, blade will be towards same direction, in order to avoid blocking mutually;
The control of humiture: after cuttage, waters the most permeable immediately, plugging soil both can have been made to touch with otch, can improve again soil Humidity, in control canopy, relative air humidity is 75%~90%, temperature 20~35 DEG C, if noon in summer, temperature was higher, can be from canopy Outward ceiling being carried out spray cooling, before cuttage rooting, water spray number of times can be some more, but injection flow rate should not be too big, especially in plugging soil Can not hydrops, be otherwise easily caused cutting lower end dead and rot, water spray number of times to be reduced after taking root, each water spraying time is wanted Short, to keep cutting blade face to moisten as degree, in order to avoid causing rotten;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: to put prevention first, Strengthening managing measure, grasp the pests occurrence rule of disease pest, carry out the pre-of pest and disease damage Survey, forecast, take integrated control way, contingent pest and disease damage is carried out prevention, the pest and disease damage having occurred and that is removed in time Control, insert after every 1 week with 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim to canopy in sterilize 1 time, with prevent and treat corruption mildew generation, the time is in the afternoon Carry out after last 1 water spray, find that diseased plant should be removed in time, infect serious plant and to burn immediately;
To catching and killing, trap and kill effective insect, the way such as available artificial and optical, electrical, hot is catched and killed, is trapped and killed;
Use medical treatment, be according to pesticide, protected nursery stock kind and pest and disease damage three's mutual relation, correctly select Pesticide species, dosage form, concentration, consumption and application process, accomplish can play drug effect to greatest extent, the most do not produce medicine Evil;
Seedling exercising: cuttage root-taking, germinate after, can first remove one layer of shade net, and in the morning, at dusk or the cloudy day opens the mouth that leaks informaton It is aerated, ventilates 0.5 hour every time, observe seedling growth at any time, can be according to growth of seedling situation, to foliage-spray phosphorus 500 times of liquid of acid dihydride potassium, 0.3% ferrous sulfate and carbamide mixed solution, to promote growth of seedling, along with the length of seedling young leaves Go out, gradually lengthen ventilation time, canopy film can be removed after whole day is leaked informaton 5-7 days, but still retain one layer of shade net, treat that seedling is complete Seedling can be planted to after adaptation field planting in land for growing field crops.
A kind of concrete prioritization scheme, the propagation by grafiting in described step (1) comprises the steps:
Stock selects ' autumn days ' seed Seedling, and sprouting for 1~2 year of ' autumn days ' or ' traces ' middle and upper part, tree crown periphery is chosen in scion The healthy and strong branch that body is full;
Carry out after before annual March 10, bud grafting mode can be used;
Prick with thin film after connecing and sternly tighten, after grafting survives, release lashings in time, and cut at 1-2cm above interface Fall the adventitious bud that anvil is done, erased on stock;
Pushing aside burying soil gently in time of ridging, makes the exposed sprouting of fringe bud, and retaining 1 healthy and strong rudiment is trunk, many Remaining all erases with the rudiment on stock;
For preventing young sprout windbreak, bondage pillar.
A kind of concrete prioritization scheme, described step (2).In plant and comprise the steps:
Plant selection of time: spring, summer, Qiu Sanji all can plant;
Nursery lot selects: should select abundant water, convenient transportation, the smooth broad place of physical features, its area will be according to life Depending on product scale;
The arrangement of nursery lot: include turning over, rake the soil level, smooth, suppression, it is desirable to accomplish to deep plough the most whole, remove grass roots, stone, Ground grading is broken, and what ground, garden soil was barren will applying organic manure material year by year;Partially husky puddles peat soil;Partially viscous mixed sand;Meta-acid Liming, plant ash etc.;Meta-alkali puddle Gypsum Fibrosum or peat soil, pine forest soil;
The selection of nursery stock with plant: answer the annual seedling that growth selection is healthy and strong, growing way is consistent to plant, and in next year Spring is carrying out stump at ground 3~5cm so that it is again sprout trunk, stays 1 prosperous branch when trunk length to 30~50cm, And carrying out helping with 2~3cm bamboo poles, remaining branch is all removed, and after this method processes, seedling growth is neat and plant height is higher;
One year seedling seeding row spacing is 1m × 2m, for preventing seedling growth overstocked, should carry out thinning when the 4th year, can interlacing Remove row, make seeding row spacing become 2m × 2m, when the 5th year, become 2m × 4m, now can meet stem slightly for the seedling growth demand of 10cm.
A kind of concrete prioritization scheme, in described step (3), field management comprises the steps:
Rich water quality management: irrigate want in good time, appropriate, main attention period of drought in spring and autumn can not hydropenia, use sufficient base fertilizer before cultivation, with Fertilizer is main;Topdress and typically carry out at spring and summer, based on compound fertilizer, every mu of 25-30kg, annual 2~3 times, and irrigate in time Water;
Weeding and loosening the soil: weeding GPRS is except early, except principle little, that eliminate, and artificial weeding is uprooted when ground moistens Remove, use herbicide weed eradication, will first test and use afterwards;
Loosen the soil in addition to combining artificial, weeding by machine and carrying out, rainfall, also to loosen the soil after irrigation, loosen the soil and gradually to deepen, comprehensively Pine arrives, no seedling injury, does not press Seedling;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Boxelder leaf spot: their early stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder or 75% Bravo can 800 times of liquid of WP all can receive preferable effect;
Acer saccharum Marsh. a red-spotted lizard: strengthen rich water quality management, keeps tree vigo(u)r healthy and strong, and ventilation and penetrating light, in conjunction with pruning, wipes out deadwood and nymph The bigger branch of density, thoroughly removes the root turion branch that tree base sends, strikes off bark from old tress, removes the nymph in trunk, branch crack, collection In burn, reduce worm source, annual Winter-Spring and May, brushing in August overwintering nymphs and adult, reduce insect density;
Cnidocampa flavescens walker: find to extract worm leaf stepping on to die during newly hatched larvae, larva phase of causing harm sprays 50% Phoxim emulsion in time 1000~1500 times of liquid, or 1000 times of liquid of 50% Folithion Emulsion;
Anoplophora glabripennis: catching and killing adult, to the adult sprouted wings after leakage preventing and treating, sprays " Lu se weilei " between the 6-7 month 150~200 times of liquid or 40% speed are slaughtered 800~1000 times of liquid and are tagged adult;It is possible with its seemingly-dead property vibrations trunk, manually catches Kill adult, after Adult worms producting eggs, trunk is found the ovum above cutting, strikes off with knife, for larva, at trunk flow liquid or have Children's moth hand-hole is found in the place that wood flour is discharged, and draws out Excreta with crude iron silk, fills in zinc phosphide poison label or aluminum phosphide tablet, or uses Syringe injects omethoate medicinal liquid in worm channel, it is also possible to rayon balls dips in dichlorvos stock solution Serb worm channel, then by hole glue Mudding is dead, to strengthen prevention effect.
A kind of concrete prioritization scheme, in described step (4), trimming pruning comprises the following steps:
The plant strain growth phase all can carry out sparse branching pruning, but with after fall foliage as optimal period;
The branch of the orthostatic over growth grown from Miao Ganshang is cut off and to raw branch, verticillate branch and overstocked during pruning Intersection branch, in order to avoid destroying the most crown and form;
Seedling to be cut off hat growth inside is weak and has the branch of pest and disease damage, so that robust plant, it is to avoid the product of pest and disease damage Raw, the branch after pruning to use drug disinfection wound in time, and after preventing from drenching with rain, pathogenic bacteria invades, and causes rotting.
Owing to have employed technique scheme, the invention have the characteristics that:
By the sugar maple tree strong adaptability of this method selection-breeding, happiness moist environment and well-drained subacidity soil.Drought resisting, Cold-resistant, fast growth, resistant to diseases and insects is strong, and variable color natural law is longer, and sight is good.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment: the selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh., described selection comprises the following steps:
(1), seedling propagation: use seed propagation, cottage propagation or propagation by grafiting;
(2), plant: the nursery stock of breeding in step (1) is planted;
(3), field management: the nursery stock after planting is carried out water and fertilizer management, weeding is loosened the soil and the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage;
(4), pruning: the nursery stock at trophophase is pruned, to keep the stalwartness of nursery stock and crown normal.
Seed propagation in described step (1) comprises the steps:
Spring is sowed first 20 to 30 days, with 40 DEG C of water seed soakings, while pour the stirring of seed limit into, changes clear water after water natural cooling Soak 24 hours, within every 10 hours, change a clear water, drain after pulling out;
Disinfecting solution of potassium permanganate with 0.5% 4 hours, pulls out and washes down seed with clear water;
Then the wet sand of mixing 3 times, and uniform stirring, heap, in leeward area without shade, sprays a warm water every day, keeps moistening, The water content making sand is 60%, and hydrops to be prevented, to avoid seed decay;
Noon every day is stirred once, can sow when the seed of 50% shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, can drilling or program request, seeding row spacing 20 × 50 ㎝。
Cottage propagation in described step (1) comprises the steps:
Cutting time: annual 6~JIUYUE are carried out;
The selection of cutting and process: select that robust growth, sprout be full, growing way and rugosity is basically identical, without pest and disease damage Give birth to semi-lignified young sprout then, cut the section of being cut into, every section 2 joint, length 8~12cm, retain 1 leaf;Its upper cut away from upper bud about 0.5~ 1cm truncation, lower cut is cut sth. askew, and is concentrated use in 500 times of immersion bubble 15min of 50% carbendazol wettable powder and carries out disinfection after shearing Standby;
The selection of hormone: through the cutting of sterilization, can be selected for IBA Yu NAA mixed liquor before inserting, concentration ratio for 2:1, 500mg/L carries out luring root to process, and will be placed in growth hormone immersion 2h at the lower cut of cutting, and soaking depth is with 1~2cm;
The cuttage degree of depth and density: the cuttage degree of depth is about the 2/3 of spike length, cutting density 15 × 15, become triangle disposition Arrangement, blade will be towards same direction, in order to avoid blocking mutually;
The control of humiture: after cuttage, waters the most permeable immediately, plugging soil both can have been made to touch with otch, can improve again soil Humidity, in control canopy, relative air humidity is 75%~90%, temperature 20~35 DEG C, if noon in summer, temperature was higher, can be from canopy Outward ceiling being carried out spray cooling, before cuttage rooting, water spray number of times can be some more, but injection flow rate should not be too big, especially in plugging soil Can not hydrops, be otherwise easily caused cutting lower end dead and rot, water spray number of times to be reduced after taking root, each water spraying time is wanted Short, to keep cutting blade face to moisten as degree, in order to avoid causing rotten;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: to put prevention first, Strengthening managing measure, grasp the pests occurrence rule of disease pest, carry out the pre-of pest and disease damage Survey, forecast, take integrated control way, contingent pest and disease damage is carried out prevention, the pest and disease damage having occurred and that is removed in time Control, insert after every 1 week with 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim to canopy in sterilize 1 time, with prevent and treat corruption mildew generation, the time is in the afternoon Carry out after last 1 water spray, find that diseased plant should be removed in time, infect serious plant and to burn immediately;
To catching and killing, trap and kill effective insect, the way such as available artificial and optical, electrical, hot is catched and killed, is trapped and killed;
Use medical treatment, be according to pesticide, protected nursery stock kind and pest and disease damage three's mutual relation, correctly select Pesticide species, dosage form, concentration, consumption and application process, accomplish can play drug effect to greatest extent, the most do not produce medicine Evil;
Seedling exercising: cuttage root-taking, germinate after, can first remove one layer of shade net, and in the morning, at dusk or the cloudy day opens the mouth that leaks informaton It is aerated, ventilates 0.5 hour every time, observe seedling growth at any time, can be according to growth of seedling situation, to foliage-spray phosphorus 500 times of liquid of acid dihydride potassium, 0.3% ferrous sulfate and carbamide mixed solution, to promote growth of seedling, along with the length of seedling young leaves Go out, gradually lengthen ventilation time, canopy film can be removed after whole day is leaked informaton 5-7 days, but still retain one layer of shade net, treat that seedling is complete Seedling can be planted to after adaptation field planting in land for growing field crops.
Propagation by grafiting in described step (1) comprises the steps:
Stock selects ' autumn days ' seed Seedling, and sprouting for 1~2 year of ' autumn days ' or ' traces ' middle and upper part, tree crown periphery is chosen in scion The healthy and strong branch that body is full;
Carry out after before annual March 10, bud grafting mode can be used;
Prick with thin film after connecing and sternly tighten, after grafting survives, release lashings in time, and cut at 1-2cm above interface Fall the adventitious bud that anvil is done, erased on stock;
Pushing aside burying soil gently in time of ridging, makes the exposed sprouting of fringe bud, and retaining 1 healthy and strong rudiment is trunk, many Remaining all erases with the rudiment on stock;
For preventing young sprout windbreak, bondage pillar.
Described step (2).In plant and comprise the steps:
Plant selection of time: spring, summer, Qiu Sanji all can plant;
Nursery lot selects: should select abundant water, convenient transportation, the smooth broad place of physical features, its area will be according to life Depending on product scale;
The arrangement of nursery lot: include turning over, rake the soil level, smooth, suppression, it is desirable to accomplish to deep plough the most whole, remove grass roots, stone, Ground grading is broken, and what ground, garden soil was barren will applying organic manure material year by year;Partially husky puddles peat soil;Partially viscous mixed sand;Meta-acid Liming, plant ash etc.;Meta-alkali puddle Gypsum Fibrosum or peat soil, pine forest soil;
The selection of nursery stock with plant: answer the annual seedling that growth selection is healthy and strong, growing way is consistent to plant, and in next year Spring is carrying out stump at ground 3~5cm so that it is again sprout trunk, stays 1 prosperous branch when trunk length to 30~50cm, And carrying out helping with 2~3cm bamboo poles, remaining branch is all removed, and after this method processes, seedling growth is neat and plant height is higher;
One year seedling seeding row spacing is 1m × 2m, for preventing seedling growth overstocked, should carry out thinning when the 4th year, can interlacing Remove row, make seeding row spacing become 2m × 2m, when the 5th year, become 2m × 4m, now can meet stem slightly for the seedling growth demand of 10cm.
In described step (3), field management comprises the steps:
Rich water quality management: irrigate want in good time, appropriate, main attention period of drought in spring and autumn can not hydropenia, use sufficient base fertilizer before cultivation, with Fertilizer is main;Topdress and typically carry out at spring and summer, based on compound fertilizer, every mu of 25-30kg, annual 2~3 times, and irrigate in time Water;
Weeding and loosening the soil: weeding GPRS is except early, except principle little, that eliminate, and artificial weeding is uprooted when ground moistens Remove, use herbicide weed eradication, will first test and use afterwards;
Loosen the soil in addition to combining artificial, weeding by machine and carrying out, rainfall, also to loosen the soil after irrigation, loosen the soil and gradually to deepen, comprehensively Pine arrives, no seedling injury, does not press Seedling;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Boxelder leaf spot: their early stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder or 75% Bravo can 800 times of liquid of WP all can receive preferable effect;
Acer saccharum Marsh. a red-spotted lizard: strengthen rich water quality management, keeps tree vigo(u)r healthy and strong, and ventilation and penetrating light, in conjunction with pruning, wipes out deadwood and nymph The bigger branch of density, thoroughly removes the root turion branch that tree base sends, strikes off bark from old tress, removes the nymph in trunk, branch crack, collection In burn, reduce worm source, annual Winter-Spring and May, brushing in August overwintering nymphs and adult, reduce insect density;
Cnidocampa flavescens walker: find to extract worm leaf stepping on to die during newly hatched larvae, larva phase of causing harm sprays 50% Phoxim emulsion in time 1000~1500 times of liquid, or 1000 times of liquid of 50% Folithion Emulsion;
Anoplophora glabripennis: catching and killing adult, to the adult sprouted wings after leakage preventing and treating, sprays " Lu se weilei " between the 6-7 month 150~200 times of liquid or 40% speed are slaughtered 800~1000 times of liquid and are tagged adult;It is possible with its seemingly-dead property vibrations trunk, manually catches Kill adult, after Adult worms producting eggs, trunk is found the ovum above cutting, strikes off with knife, for larva, at trunk flow liquid or have Children's moth hand-hole is found in the place that wood flour is discharged, and draws out Excreta with crude iron silk, fills in zinc phosphide poison label or aluminum phosphide tablet, or uses Syringe injects omethoate medicinal liquid in worm channel, it is also possible to rayon balls dips in dichlorvos stock solution Serb worm channel, then by hole glue Mudding is dead, to strengthen prevention effect.
In described step (4), trimming pruning comprises the following steps:
The plant strain growth phase all can carry out sparse branching pruning, but with after fall foliage as optimal period;
The branch of the orthostatic over growth grown from Miao Ganshang is cut off and to raw branch, verticillate branch and overstocked during pruning Intersection branch, in order to avoid destroying the most crown and form;
Seedling to be cut off hat growth inside is weak and has the branch of pest and disease damage, so that robust plant, it is to avoid the product of pest and disease damage Raw, the branch after pruning to use drug disinfection wound in time, and after preventing from drenching with rain, pathogenic bacteria invades, and causes rotting.
The following is experimentation and result.
Cultivar origin and characteristic
Introduced variety and source thereof
Acer saccharum Marsh. kind catalog introduced by table 1
Company is from March, 2006, by Bo Lin town J.F.Schmidt company of Ore. Clarke Maas county gardens money Garden, source introduce 6 North America maple kinds, each 200 strains of each kind, plant in my small towns get profit agriculture and forestry science and technology company nursery in, Carry out selection and breeding test.
' autumn days ' Acer saccharum Marsh. (formal name used at school: Acer saccharum ' Fall fista ')
Morphological characteristic: deciduous tree.Plant height 5m-6m, hat width is up to 3m-4m.Tree crown is dense, and trunk is upright, tall and straight, tree-like For oval.Bark taupe, shallow lobe.Sprig is green, without hair.Little floral clock shape, yellow green, diameter 5-6mm, bennet hairiness, Sagging, long 30-40mm, the florescence at the beginning of-4 months by the end of March, opening before leaf launches.Leaf is green, and single leaf is to life, long up to 8cm. Yellow can be become autumn to orange-yellow.Myriopteron extensum (Wight) K. Schum, green, overstrike after October maturation.
' traces ' Acer saccharum Marsh. (formal name used at school: Acer saccharum ' Legacy ')
Morphological characteristic.Deciduous tree.Plant height 5m-6m, hat width is up to 2m-3m.Tree crown is dense, and trunk is upright, tall and straight, tree-like For oblong.Bark taupe, shallow lobe.Sprig is green, without hair.Little floral clock shape, yellow green, diameter 5-6mm, bennet has Hair, sagging, long 30-40mm, the florescence at the beginning of-4 months by the end of March, opening before leaf launches.Leaf is green, single leaf to life, long up to 8cm.Yellow can be become autumn to orange red.Myriopteron extensum (Wight) K. Schum, green, overstrike after October maturation.
Breeding Process
Progressive remodeling is studied
Acer monoes is to use the most universal indigenous tree in urban afforestation, is all aceraceous sight leaf Qiao with exotic tree Wood, therefore this test selects acer monoes for comparison, by the investigation to exotic tree phenological period, increment, resistance etc., thus sieves Select the seeds that growth adaptability is strong.
Test period
Each kind all in field planting in 2006, seeding row spacing 1m × 2m, uses identical cultivation condition and control measures, carries out each The investigation of item index, investigation in December, 2013 only, observes 5 years phases from February, 2009.
Test site
Test status, nursery, in Qingzhou Tan Fangzhen, is located in monsoon region, north temperate zone, and it is big that weather belongs to warm temperate zone monsoon type semi-moist Land type, annual mean temperature 12~12.5 DEG C, cold and summer-heat is changed significantly.1 monthly mean temperature is between-5.9~-0.5 DEG C, and July puts down All temperature is between 23.8~28.7 DEG C.Mean annual precipitation is at about 650mm, and year is according to number 2500~2800h, frost-free period time total 185~211d.
Observation content and method
Observation content includes: phenological observation, plant strain growth situation to when observation of growth increment, observation of surviving the winter, more summer observation, Disease pest is observed.The observation and analysis main meteorological factor on the spot, the annidation of Acer saccharum Marsh., temperature, illumination, moisture etc. are introduced a fine variety in research External factor is on leaf color, the impact of pattern change.Intend by introducing a fine variety the tolerance to cold of Acer saccharum Marsh., thermostability, growth rhythm and being subject to Research in terms of harmful organism infestation situation, analyzes the exotic tree annidation in test area, comprehensively analyzes, filter out Show preferable fine quality.
Phenological period observation content and method
Observation time:
In February, 2009~in December, 2013, totally 5 Growing season, from annual February, weekly observe record once, Every 1~2 day of the transitional period observation meeting phenophase is recorded once, observes and terminate after fall foliage.
The content of observation and standard:
Plant 20 strain of every Fruit variety robust growth is as observation material.
1. the budding period: start to sprout from field more than 5% plant and count day;
2. taking out tip leaf stretching period: mushroom out with young sprout, first 10% Newborn Leaves launches to count day;
3. florescence: from 5% the flowers are in blossom be put into 95% blossom fall till;
4. seed maturity collection period: to be as the criterion more than 95% fruit, seed development maturation day.
5. the autumn leaves variable color phase: be as the criterion with blade variable color day with 25%.
6. the leaf fall period: with the leaf abscission of 10% rise to more than 90% leaf abscission only.
7. variable color natural law: with 25% with rise blade variable color day to 90% leaf abscission day only, have and necessarily view and admire effect Total natural law of fruit.
Plant strain growth situation is to the observation content of when year increment and method
Plant strain growth situation contrasts: each kind randomly selects 20 strains, observes the tree of each 5 years age of tree plant of introduced variety Gesture, tree performance, investigate the indexs such as the height of tree, tree crown, meter Jing, maximum branched base part diameter, and each index is averaged.
Year increment observe: kind each to test material randomly chooses 20 strains, measure annual 3~November during growth Amount, measuring content is: 50 stems slightly increase, maximum compound stem slightly increases, annual shoot bough length, plant height increase, hat width increases Add.Plant height, hat width, branch long employing Sopwith staff and ribbon are measured, and stem slightly uses vernier caliper measurement.To measurement data memory record And adjust meansigma methods, retain 2 decimals.
The observed content of tolerance to cold and method
Freezing damage index is that field test forest survives the winter cold resistant common counter, generally forest freeze injury is divided by national standard It it is 5 grades.
Table 2 tolerance to cold evaluation criterion
Plant 20 strain of each Fruit variety robust growth is as observation material, and cold damage was observed winter (January) for the first time After extreme low temperature appearance, 2~3d temperature are carried out when ging up, i.e. mid or late January;There is cold spell in later spring after trees rudiment in second time Later 2~3d temperature are carried out when ging up, i.e. mid-March;Observational record Tissue Browning and growth recovery situation.Relevant with reference to country Trees winter resistance examination criteria, in conjunction with the basic condition of exotic tree, formulates tolerance to cold evaluation criterion.
According to morphological index in table 3, add up plant quantity at different levels, calculate tolerance to cold average index, to reflect that trees are resisted cold The general conception of property, l, 2,3,4,5 in formula represent different grades, A~E represents different grade strain numbers of being injured, denominator On Y for investigate total strain number.Trees overall tolerance to cold evaluation criterion is shown in Table 4.
Tolerance to cold average index=(1A+2B+3C+4D+5E)/Y.
The overall tolerance to cold evaluation of table 3
The observed content of thermostability and method
Table 4 individual plants Evaluation of Heat Tolerance standard
Taking random sampling, the strain of every Varietal Investigation 20, with summer weekly, there is thermal extremes sky in control time Gas will record, when there is damage symptoms, immediately to whole plant general surveys, for the last time after summer high temperature, i.e. 8 below the moon Ten days.Trees thermostability is evaluated by morphologic observation.Formulate the Evaluation of Heat Tolerance of seeds according to observation practical situation, be divided into 5 grades.
According to morphological index in table 5, add up each rank plant quantity, calculate thermostability average index, to reflect that trees are resistance to Hot general conception, 1,2,3,4,5 in formula represent different grades, A~E represents different grade strain numbers of being injured, point Y on mother is for investigating total strain number.The overall Evaluation of Heat Tolerance of trees is shown in Table 6.
Thermostability average index=(1A+2B+3C+4D+5E)/Y.
The overall Evaluation of Heat Tolerance of table 5
By pest and disease damage infringement situation observation content and method
Table 6 individual plant trees diseases and insect pests resistance evaluation criterion
Using land for growing field crops random searching, the strain of every Varietal Investigation 20, timing statistics carries out (4~10 in the plant whole season of growth Month), investigate with weekly, find immediately all plant to be carried out general survey during damage symptoms.By evaluating exotic tree Resistance against diseases, with reference to Plant Inst. botanical garden fitting evaluation standard to coniferous species, combine introduction nursery stock Basic condition, formulate be suitable for Acer saccharum Marsh. resistance against diseases evaluation criterion, be divided into 5 grades.It is shown in Table 7.
Observed result is analyzed
Phenological period survey result
Table 7 exotic tree phenological observation result
According to table 8 recorded phenological period data analysis, 3 Acer saccharum Marsh. kinds phenological period slightly difference during 5 years, but total From the point of view of more stable unanimously its growth phase is complete, blossom and bear fruit, the growth and development process such as leaf complexion changed is all acted normally.Number According to display:
Phenological period in 2011, ratio, 2013 Zao about 7~10d in 2010, more Zao than 2012 5~7d, 2013 years the most the earliest Evening;Variable color in autumn natural law with 2013,2009 longer, within 2010,2011, take second place, 2012 the shortest, this with 2013, Within 2009, autumn air temperature smooth decreasing is the most relevant, autumn air temperature big rise and fall in 2012, and strong wind weather is many, views and admires color leaf There is certain impact phase.
' autumn days ' and ' traces ' phenological period change close, be variable color the earliest, the seeds that variable color natural law is the longest.Next to that it is sugared Maple, its variable color natural law is 25-29d, and variable color phase outline is later than the two seeds.And compare acer monoes not only variable color the latest and variable color Natural law only has 11-15d, is viewing period the shortest seeds.
Increment inventory result
Table 8 exotic tree increment inventory table
Kind each to test material randomly chooses 20 strains, during measuring 2010~2012, and annual 3~the growth in November Amount, concrete survey result such as table 9.
Year increment size is to evaluate the important indicator of institute's exotic tree adaptability height, measures knot from the increments of 3 years From the point of view of Guo, plant height, hat width, stem are thick, the increment change of branch length and base portion rugosity has concordance (annual shoot bough Long because being affected by plant height, 2011,2012 annual datas fail to measure), all present the increase along with the age of tree, the speed of growth is accelerated Trend;Positive correlation is shown between plant height, hat width, stem are thick.This proves that each maple kind growth promoter is normal.
The plant height increments on ' autumn days ' is the highest, average out to 62.3cm, and the 50 thick incrementss of stem in ' traces ' are maximum, average out to 1.04cm, comparison its average plant height increments of acer monoes is 38.98cm, is the seeds of plant height increments minimum, and Acer saccharum Marsh. is 50 The seeds that the thick increments of stem is minimum, only 0.92cm.
Tolerance to cold survey result
Table 9 tolerance to cold application form
Show according to meteorological record: Qingzhou Tan Fang December in 2012 based on fine to cloudy weather, the moon high/low temperature 2 DEG C, the lowest temperature-9 DEG C, average low temperature-4 DEG C;In January, 2013 high/low temperature 0 DEG C, the lowest temperature (January 3)-17.2 DEG C, Average low temperature-7.8 DEG C;February based on cloudy weather, high/low temperature 2 DEG C, the lowest temperature-13 DEG C, average low temperature-3.9 DEG C. Low temperature is concentrated and is occurred in December in 2012 23 days between 7 days January in 2013, is less than-10 DEG C, up to 15d.
The winter resistance of 3 Acer saccharum Marsh. kinds is entered respectively by the winter resistance investigation of each introduced variety according to trees winter resistance grade scale Row is observed, and observes bud and trunk freeze injury rate respectively, makes Evaluation of Cold-Resistance.As can be seen from Table 10,3 Acer saccharum Marsh. kind winter resistances The strongest, trunk and bud are all without freeze injury, and overall tolerance to cold is evaluated as I grade, illustrate in cold-resistant aspect several Acer saccharum Marsh. kind the suitableeest Plant in preferably this area
Thermostability survey result
Table 10 thermostability application form
Show according to meteorological record: within 2013, Tan Fang highest temperature in June in Qingzhou is 36 DEG C, and minimum high temperature is 21 DEG C, high Temperature meansigma methods is 30.8 DEG C;July, the highest temperature was 36 DEG C based on cloudy and overcast and rainy, and minimum high temperature is 26 DEG C, and high temperature is put down Average is 31.5 DEG C, and August, the highest temperature was (August 16) 38 DEG C, and minimum high temperature is 25 based on cloudy and thunder shower weather DEG C, high temperature meansigma methods is 33.4 DEG C.Continuous high temperature weather occurs between August 4 to August 17, and day, high temperature was at 35 DEG C~38 Hovering between DEG C, the persistent period is longer, for 13d.
As can be seen from Table 11,3 Acer saccharum Marsh. kinds are not by high temperature damage, and temperature capacity is the strongest, belongs to I grade, whole individual plants There is no the withered even obscission of leaf margin, illustrate that plant in all suitable this area of several Acer saccharum Marsh. kinds in terms of thermostability.
Pests result
Table 11 main diseases and insect pests is added up
Table 12 resistant to diseases and insects application form
According to observational record for many years, the pest and disease damage that Acer saccharum Marsh. occurs mainly has longicorn beetle, longicorn beetle, anoplophora glabripennis, Huang Limacodidae, leaf blight etc..Acer monoes common disease and pest is aphid, Limacodidae, psychid and Anoplophorae seu Aprionae etc..To disease pest between the different cultivars of Acer saccharum Marsh. The resistance of evil is variant, and survey result shows, 3 exotic tree resistant to diseases and insects are the strongest, are I grade.And ' autumn days ', ' something lost Mark ' and acer monoes there are 2 strains and receive aphid damage but little on appreciation effect impact, and Acer saccharum Marsh. has 2 strains to reach 2 grades of harm, 1 strain Reach 3 grades endanger and occur in that anoplophora glabripennis, not only have impact on sight and arboreal growth is affected.
Sight observational study
Test period
In March, 2011~in November, 2012.
Test site
Testing site is in Qingzhou City De Li agriculture and forestry science and technology company limited.
Observation content and method
By the strain shape of Acer saccharum Marsh. and acer monoes, branch and leaf, flower, really, the content such as viewing period is observed comparing.Contrast uses " composes Point-score " carry out overall merit, compose the content divided and standard is shown in Table 14, the factors such as leaf color, flower, form of giving prominence to the key points.
Table 13 sight evaluation criterion
Sight evaluation result
Table 14 sight is evaluated
By inquiry it was found that ' autumn days ', ' traces ' and Acer saccharum Marsh. dry type are logical straight, leaf complexion changed uniformity, autumn leaf Sheet is golden yellow, and leaf viewing period is longer, and acer monoes dry type is general, and leaf viewing period is smaller than ' autumn days ', ' traces ' and Acer saccharum Marsh., and Leaf complexion changedization is uneven, and therefore, its sight is worst.
Screening varieties brief summary
By thinking after 3 are introduced the researching and analysing of the adaptability of Acer saccharum Marsh. seeds and sight: though Acer saccharum Marsh. sight is strong, But its resistant to diseases and insects will be less than comparison acer monoes, so being not suitable for planting in this area.And ' autumn days ' and ' traces ' is growing Adaptability and sight aspect performance are superior to acer monoes, are suitable fine tree species of planting in this area.
Regional testing
Regional testing scale
From 2008, has been carried out cottage propagation ' autumn days ' and ' traces ' filtered out, and respectively in Xintai City, Shouguang, Anqiu carries out Regional Cultural Experiment.Each plantation 5 mu, every 90 strains are one group, and seeding row spacing is 2m × 2m, is all repeated 3 times, and to work as Ground acer monoes is comparison, and its growth adaptability and sight are carried out investigation records.
Result of the test
Phenological period is investigated
In December, 2013, from annual February, observed weekly and recorded once, meet phenophase in February, 2009~ The observation of every 1~2 day of transitional period is recorded once, observes and terminate after fall foliage.Concrete survey result such as table 16.
Table 15 phenological observation result
The phenological period of Xintai City 1-2d more Zao than Qingzhou as can be seen from Table 16, the phenological period 1-2d more late than Qingzhou in Shouguang, peace The phenological period 2-3d more late than Qingzhou on mound.Bloom natural law and leaf variable color natural law basically identical with area, Qingzhou, be still ' autumn days ' variable color Natural law to be longer than ' traces '.
Increment inventory result
Table 16 increment inventory table
As can be seen from Table 17, the increment of Xintai City and In Anqiu Area is little with the difference in area, Qingzhou, area, Shouguang Increment be greater than area, Qingzhou, it may be possible to because Xintai City, Anqiu and Qingzhou are mountain region, soil fertility is poor, and irrigates and be stranded Difficulty, arboreal growth is restricted, and area, Shouguang is irrigated farmland, and soil fertility is good, irrigates abundance, provides well to trees Growing environment, so Shouguang area increment be greater than Qingzhou, Anqiu and Xintai City area.
Tolerance to cold, thermostability survey result
Table 17 tolerance to cold application form
Table 18 thermostability application form
From table 18 and table 19 it can be seen that ' autumn days ' and ' traces ' in Shouguang, freezing all do not occur in Anqiu and area, Xintai City Evil and heat evil phenomenon, all growths are normal, and heat resistanceheat resistant and winter resistance are I grade, and heat-resisting tolerance to cold is strong.
Resistant to diseases and insects survey result
Table 19 resistant to diseases and insects application form
As can be seen from Table 20, the resistant to diseases and insects in ' autumn days ' and ' traces ' is more by force I grade, but ' traces ' disease-resistant Worm energy force rate ' autumn days ' is poor, and ' autumn days ' has 2 strains to reach 2 grades of harm in Xintai City and Shouguang, has 1 strain to reach 2 grades of harm in Anqiu.And ' traces ' in Xintai City, Anqiu and Shouguang, are also respectively arranged with 1 strain and reach 3 grades of harm in addition to having plant and reaching 2 grades of harm, and victimization state to overweight ' autumn days ', this is poorer than the resistant to diseases and insects in area, Qingzhou.
Assessment of result
Morphological characteristic and major technique, economic indicator
' autumn days ' Acer saccharum Marsh. (formal name used at school: Acer saccharum ' Fall fista ')
Morphological characteristic: deciduous tree.Plant height 5m-6m, hat width is up to 3m-4m.Tree crown is dense, and trunk is upright, tall and straight, tree-like For oval.Bark taupe, shallow lobe.Sprig is green, without hair.Little floral clock shape, yellow green, diameter 5-6mm, bennet hairiness, Sagging, long 30-40mm, the florescence at the beginning of-4 months by the end of March, opening before leaf launches.Leaf is green, and single leaf is to life, long up to 8cm. Yellow can be become autumn to orange-yellow.Myriopteron extensum (Wight) K. Schum, green, overstrike after October maturation.
' traces ' Acer saccharum Marsh. (formal name used at school: Acer saccharum ' Legacy ')
Morphological characteristic.Deciduous tree.Plant height 5m-6m, hat width is up to 2m-3m.Tree crown is dense, and trunk is upright, tall and straight, tree-like For oblong.Bark taupe, shallow lobe.Sprig is green, without hair.Little floral clock shape, yellow green, diameter 5-6mm, bennet has Hair, sagging, long 30-40mm, the florescence at the beginning of-4 months by the end of March, opening before leaf launches.Leaf is green, single leaf to life, long up to 8cm.Yellow can be become autumn to orange red.Myriopteron extensum (Wight) K. Schum, green, overstrike after October maturation.
Major advantage
' autumn days '
Tree-like grace, tree height is the tallest and the most straight, and flourishing, autumn, blade was beautiful in colour, in yellow or orange-yellow, leaf variable color Phase is long, and fruit type is peculiar, has higher ornamental value, adaptable, drought resisting, cold-resistant, fast growth.It is wooden hard, holds The most durable, quality gloss is attractive in appearance, can be used to make furniture, floor, bookcase, musical instrument etc..It still makes the important former of Mel Material, includes abundant phosphate.
' traces '
Trunk is upright, tree-like grace, and flourishing, autumn, blade was beautiful in colour, in yellow or orange-yellow, and the leaf variable color phase Long, fruit type is peculiar, has higher ornamental value, adaptable, drought resisting, cold-resistant, fast growth.Trunk is wooden hard, can It is used for making furniture etc., is the important source material making Mel, includes abundant phosphate.Compared with acer monoes, trunk is more endured Pulling out, blade variable color more neat and consistent, sight is higher.
' autumn days '
Strong adaptability, happiness moist environment and well-drained subacidity soil.Drought resisting, cold-resistant, fast growth.China east North, North China, East China and South China all can plant.
' traces '
Strong adaptability, happiness moist environment and well-drained subacidity soil.Drought resisting, cold-resistant.China northeast, North China, China East and South China all can plant.

Claims (7)

1. the selection of an Acer saccharum Marsh., it is characterised in that: described selection comprises the following steps:
(1), seedling propagation: use seed propagation, cottage propagation or propagation by grafiting;
(2), plant: the nursery stock of breeding in step (1) is planted;
(3), field management: the nursery stock after planting is carried out water and fertilizer management, weeding is loosened the soil and the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage;
(4), pruning: the nursery stock at trophophase is pruned, to keep the stalwartness of nursery stock and crown normal.
The selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh. the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the sowing in described step (1) is numerous Grow and comprise the steps:
Spring is sowed first 20 to 30 days, with 40 DEG C of water seed soakings, while pour the stirring of seed limit into, changes clear water and soak after water natural cooling 24 hours, within every 10 hours, change a clear water, drain after pulling out;
Disinfecting solution of potassium permanganate with 0.5% 4 hours, pulls out and washes down seed with clear water;
Then the wet sand of mixing 3 times, and uniform stirring, heap, in leeward area without shade, sprays a warm water every day, keeps moistening, makes sand Water content be 60%, hydrops to be prevented, to avoid seed decay;
Noon every day is stirred once, can sow when the seed of 50% shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, can drilling or program request, seeding row spacing 20 × 50.
The selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh. the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the cuttage in described step (1) is numerous Grow and comprise the steps:
Cutting time: annual 6~JIUYUE are carried out;
The selection of cutting and process: select that robust growth, sprout be full, growing way and rugosity is basically identical, without pest and disease damage then Raw semi-lignified young sprout, cuts the section of being cut into, every section 2 joint, length 8~12cm, retains 1 leaf;Its upper cut is away from upper bud about 0.5~1cm Truncation, lower cut is cut sth. askew, and is concentrated use in 500 times of immersion bubble 15min of 50% carbendazol wettable powder and carries out disinfection standby after shearing With;
The selection of hormone: through the cutting of sterilization, can be selected for IBA Yu NAA mixed liquor before inserting, concentration ratio is for 2:1,500mg/L Carrying out luring root to process, will be placed in growth hormone immersion 2h at the lower cut of cutting, soaking depth is with 1~2cm;
The cuttage degree of depth and density: the cuttage degree of depth is about the 2/3 of spike length, cutting density 15 × 15, become triangle disposition arrangement, Blade will be towards same direction, in order to avoid blocking mutually;
The control of humiture: after cuttage, waters the most permeable immediately, plugging soil both can have been made to touch with otch, can improve again soil moisture, In control canopy, relative air humidity is 75%~90%, temperature 20~35 DEG C, if noon in summer, temperature was higher, and can be to canopy from canopy Jacking row spray cooling, before cuttage rooting, water spray number of times can be some more, but injection flow rate should not be too big, especially not energy product in plugging soil Water, is otherwise easily caused cutting lower end dead and rotten, water spray number of times to be reduced after taking root, and each water spraying time is short, to protect Hold cutting blade face to moisten as spending, in order to avoid causing rotten;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: to put prevention first, Strengthening managing measure, grasp the pests occurrence rule of disease pest, carry out the prediction of pest and disease damage, pre- Report, takes integrated control way, contingent pest and disease damage is carried out prevention, wipe out and treat insect pests and plant diseases the pest and disease damage having occurred and that in time, inserts After every 1 week with 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim to canopy in sterilize 1 time, with the generation of the rotten mildew of preventing and treating, time the most last 1 Carry out after secondary water spray, find that diseased plant should be removed in time, infect serious plant and to burn immediately;
To catching and killing, trap and kill effective insect, the way such as available artificial and optical, electrical, hot is catched and killed, is trapped and killed;
Use medical treatment, be according to pesticide, protected nursery stock kind and pest and disease damage three's mutual relation, correctly select pesticide Kind, dosage form, concentration, consumption and application process, accomplish can play drug effect to greatest extent, the most do not produce poisoning;
Seedling exercising: cuttage root-taking, germinate after, can first remove one layer of shade net, and in the morning, at dusk or the cloudy day opens the mouth that leaks informaton and carries out Ventilate, ventilate 0.5 hour every time, observe seedling growth at any time, can be according to growth of seedling situation, to foliage-spray di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate 500 times of liquid of hydrogen potassium, 0.3% ferrous sulfate and carbamide mixed solution, to promote growth of seedling, along with growing of seedling young leaves, by Gradually lengthen ventilation time, canopy film can be removed after whole day is leaked informaton 5-7 days, but still retain one layer of shade net, treat that seedling adapts to completely After seedling can be planted to field planting in land for growing field crops.
The selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh. the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the grafting in described step (1) is numerous Grow and comprise the steps:
Stock selects ' autumn days ' seed Seedling, and scion is chosen the body of sprouting for 1~2 year of ' autumn days ' or ' traces ' middle and upper part, tree crown periphery and satisfied Full healthy and strong branch;
Carry out after before annual March 10, bud grafting mode can be used;
Prick with thin film after connecing and sternly tighten, after grafting survives, release lashings in time, and above interface, at 1-2cm, cut anvil The adventitious bud done, erase on stock;
Pushing aside burying soil gently in time of ridging, makes the exposed sprouting of fringe bud, and retaining 1 healthy and strong rudiment is trunk, unnecessary All erase with the rudiment on stock;
For preventing young sprout windbreak, bondage pillar.
The selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh. the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described step (2).In plant and include Following steps:
Plant selection of time: spring, summer, Qiu Sanji all can plant;
Nursery lot selects: should select abundant water, convenient transportation, the smooth broad place of physical features, its area will be according to producing rule Depending on mould;
The arrangement of nursery lot: include turning over, rake the soil level, smooth, suppression, it is desirable to accomplish to deep plough the most whole, remove grass roots, stone, Horizon Soil is broken, and what ground, garden soil was barren will applying organic manure material year by year;Partially husky puddles peat soil;Partially viscous mixed sand;Meta-acid execute stone Ash, plant ash etc.;Meta-alkali puddle Gypsum Fibrosum or peat soil, pine forest soil;
The selection of nursery stock with plant: answer the annual seedling that growth selection is healthy and strong, growing way is consistent to plant, and spring next year At ground 3~5cm, carry out stump so that it is again sprout trunk, when trunk length to 30~50cm, stay 1 prosperous branch, and with 2 ~3cm bamboo pole carries out helping, remaining branch is all removed, and after this method processes, seedling growth is neat and plant height is higher;
One year seedling seeding row spacing is 1m × 2m, for preventing seedling growth overstocked, should carry out thinning when the 4th year, interlacing can remove row, Make seeding row spacing become 2m × 2m, when the 5th year, become 2m × 4m, now can meet stem slightly for the seedling growth demand of 10cm.
The selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh. the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: field management in described step (3) Comprise the steps:
Rich water quality management: irrigate want in good time, appropriate, main attention period of drought in spring and autumn can not hydropenia, use sufficient base fertilizer before cultivation, with organic Fertilizer is main;Topdress and typically carry out at spring and summer, based on compound fertilizer, every mu of 25-30kg, annual 2~3 times, and water permeable in time;
Weeding and loosening the soil: weeding GPRS is except early, except principle little, that eliminate, and artificial weeding roots out when ground moistens, and makes Use herbicide weed eradication, will first test and use afterwards;
Loosen the soil in addition to combining artificial, weeding by machine and carrying out, rainfall, also to loosen the soil after irrigation, loosen the soil and gradually to deepen, Quan Miansong Arrive, no seedling injury, do not press Seedling;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Boxelder leaf spot: their early stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder or 75% Bravo wettability 800 times of liquid of powder all can receive preferable effect;
Acer saccharum Marsh. a red-spotted lizard: strengthen rich water quality management, keeps tree vigo(u)r healthy and strong, and ventilation and penetrating light, in conjunction with pruning, wipes out deadwood and nymphal density Bigger branch, thoroughly removes the root turion branch that tree base sends, strikes off bark from old tress, remove the nymph in trunk, branch crack, concentrate and burn Ruin, reduce worm source, annual Winter-Spring and May, brushing in August overwintering nymphs and adult, reduce insect density;
Cnidocampa flavescens walker: find to extract worm leaf stepping on to die during newly hatched larvae, larva phase of causing harm sprays 50% Phoxim emulsion 1000 in time ~1500 times of liquid, or 1000 times of liquid of 50% Folithion Emulsion;
Anoplophora glabripennis: catching and killing adult, to the adult that sprouted wings after leakage preventing and treating, spray between the 6-7 month " Lu se weilei " 150~ 200 times of liquid or 40% speed are slaughtered 800~1000 times of liquid and are tagged adult;Being possible with its seemingly-dead property vibrations trunk, manual catching and killing becomes Worm, after Adult worms producting eggs, finds the ovum above cutting on trunk, strikes off with knife, for larva, at trunk flow liquid or there is wood flour Children's moth hand-hole is found in the place discharged, and draws out Excreta with crude iron silk, fills in zinc phosphide poison label or aluminum phosphide tablet, or with injecting Device injects omethoate medicinal liquid in worm channel, it is also possible to rayon balls dips in dichlorvos stock solution Serb worm channel, then is sealed by hole clay Extremely, to strengthen prevention effect.
The selection of a kind of Acer saccharum Marsh. the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: in described step (4), trimming is pruned Comprise the following steps:
The plant strain growth phase all can carry out sparse branching pruning, but with after fall foliage as optimal period;
The branch of the orthostatic over growth grown from Miao Ganshang is cut off and to raw branch, verticillate branch and overstocked intersection during pruning Branch, in order to avoid destroying the most crown and form;
Seedling to be cut off hat growth inside is weak and has the branch of pest and disease damage, so that robust plant, it is to avoid the generation of pest and disease damage, repair Branch after cutting to use drug disinfection wound in time, and after preventing from drenching with rain, pathogenic bacteria invades, and causes rotting.
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CN109588126A (en) * 2019-02-19 2019-04-09 福建省林业科学研究院 A kind of acer fabri engrafting method

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Application publication date: 20170104