CN103430759A - Method for planting polygonum capitatum as medicinal material of Relinqing granule - Google Patents

Method for planting polygonum capitatum as medicinal material of Relinqing granule Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103430759A
CN103430759A CN2013104067326A CN201310406732A CN103430759A CN 103430759 A CN103430759 A CN 103430759A CN 2013104067326 A CN2013104067326 A CN 2013104067326A CN 201310406732 A CN201310406732 A CN 201310406732A CN 103430759 A CN103430759 A CN 103430759A
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fertilizer
polygonum capitatum
seedling
soil
planting
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CN103430759B (en
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梁斌
杨槐
魏升华
张丽艳
李孟林
张怡
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GUIZHOU WARMEN PHARMACEUTICAL CO Ltd
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GUIZHOU WARMEN PHARMACEUTICAL CO Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for planting polygonum capitatum as a medicinal material of a Relinqing granule. The method specifically comprises the steps of: (1), selecting a cultivated land suitable for the growth of polygonum capitatum; (2), preparing land, namely, deeply ploughing the land for above 30cm before frost comes, and freezing partial pests and harmful microorganisms to death by using low temperature in winter; (3), carrying out lifting of seedlings between the last ten-day period of April to the middle ten-day period of the May; (4), transplanting and planting and filling gaps with seedlings, namely, transplanting in cloudy or rainy days or the afternoons of sunny days between the end of the April and the middle ten-day period of the May, and immediately filling the gaps with the seedlings within one week after transplanting; (5), carrying out field management, at least comprising intertilling and weeding, irrigation and drainage, prevention of water logging, fertilizer application, pest control, interplanting, crop rotation and the like, and carrying out crop rotation with the following plants such as radix pseudostellariae, mint and iris tectorum; (6), harvesting and processing, namely, harvesting from July to October, and processing by adopting manners of drying, airing and drying in the shade. The polygonum capitatum as the medicinal material of the Relinqing granule, planted by adopting the method disclosed by the invention, is capable of generating huge economic benefit and social benefit.

Description

Heat is drenched the implantation methods of clear particle medicinal material Polygonum capitatum
Technical field
The invention belongs to medicinal material planting technology field.Relate to a kind of method of planting polygonum capitatum, particularly relate to a kind of new heat and drench the implantation methods of clear particle with medicinal material Polygonum capitatum.
Background technology
The former plant of polygonum capitatum is polygonaceae (Polygonaceae) Polygonum (Polygonum) plant polygonum capitatum (Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don).Its medicinal part is acrial part or herb, using fresh herb or dry using; Recorded in " Guizhou Province's traditional Chinese medicine, national quality of medicinal material standard " (version in 2003).
Polygonum capitatum bitter, suffering, cool in nature.Return kidney, urinary bladder channel.There is clearing heat and promoting diuresis, promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, inducing diuresis for treating strangurtia function.Cure mainly dysentery, pyelonephritis, cystitis, lithangiuria, pelvic infecton, prostatitis, rheumatalgia, injury from falling down, the illness such as sore eczema.
The polygonum capitatum medicinal history is long, begins to be stated from " Guangxi Chinese medicinal herbal " (1963, second), is mainly used in treating rheumatalgia; Within 1977, record in " Chinese medicine voluminous dictionary " (1977, the first volume), be mainly used in treating dysentery, ephritis, cystitis, lithangiuria etc.; " Miao in Guizhou medical research and exploitation " (1999), " Guizhou Province's traditional Chinese medicine quality standard " (version in 1988) and " Guizhou Province's traditional Chinese medicine, national quality of medicinal material standard " (version in 2003) etc. are all given and being recorded.
Polygonum capitatum is the national folk medicinal herbs most in use, applies very extensive.Its in different regions, different nationalities has different addresses.With the literature survey statistics, polygonum capitatum once had more than 20 another name factually.For example: the four seasons red (" Guizhou Province's traditional Chinese medicine quality standard " version in 1988), himalayan creeper herb (" GUIHAIA register "), the water silk ball, economize fourth grass (" Guizhou Chinese herbal medicine register "), the red acid bar, Gypsophila acutifolia, stone food (" national Chinese herbal medicine compilation "), capitate knotweed herb, Polygonum capitatum Buch (" Guangxi Chinese medicinal herbal "), solar grass (" Yunnan Chinese herbal medicine "), completely red, fire pomegranate grass (" mountain of papers Chinese herbal medicine "), the safflower Chinese violet, straightstalk alpine meadowrue herb, little copper weed, small red grass (" choosing of Yunnan Chinese herbal medicine "), Sorrel, grass stone green pepper, heronsbill (" Yunnan spermatophyte register "), copper mine grass (" Traditional Chinese Medicine in Sichuan will "), the rock buckwheat, blue or green shadow (" Hubei flora ") etc.
Polygonum capitatum is again that multiple ethnic group is medicinal, particularly seedling doctor seedling medicine the most commonly used; Its name is called " Dlob dongd xok " (approximate Chinese phonetic is translated into " searching the gear rope ")." four seasons are red " is the most frequently used herbal medicine name of Guizhou province national folk; Some local ethnic groups of Guizhou also are called " completely red ", " drum fourth bubble " etc.
Guizhou is a multi-national province of living in concentrated communities, and 49 nationalitys such as the Chinese, seedling, Bouyei, Dong are arranged; Wherein maximum with Miao ethnic group, reach more than 400 ten thousand, account for more than 49% of national Miao ethnic group total population.Struggle for existence and production practices along with the ancients of Miao ethnic group, be accompanied by social development, progressively forms and develop into abundant in content and unique Miao ethnic group's medicine.The seedling medicine is the medicine of Miao people's tradition for prevention, treatment and health care; Be that the Miao people passes on cultural assets so far for thousands of years, there is long succession, outstanding national characteristic and region.Guizhou seedling medicine aboundresources, its source relates to autonomic drug, animal drugs and mineral drug.And the polygonum capitatum of special effect the Miao in Guizhou medicinal history is long just, at present research application is comparatively deep seedling medicine again.
The wild polygonum capitatum resource in Guizhou is very abundant, and all there is distribution in the whole province, at Guizhou national folk (particularly Miao ethnic group), is widely used.Since the eighties in last century, the relevant scientific research institutions in Guizhou just are studied its resource, chemistry and drug effect and clinical practice etc., and research and develop polygonum capitatum simple seedling medicine preparation " heat is drenched clear particle ".
Although wild polygonum capitatum resource is very abundant, yet in the Chinese medicine preparation industrialization in required traditional Chinese medicine production process, expectation is planted in the process that particularly medicinal material is planted and is found a kind of good method at medicinal material, to guarantee the high-quality of medicinal material for preparation production, supply constantly, to guarantee crude drug source, to stablize drug quality.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to seek effective medicinal material Polygonum capitatum planting technology.The inventor has carried out a large amount of effort in the process of medicinal material plantation, and has obtained the result of desirable, the present invention is based on these effort and result and is accomplished.
For this reason, first aspect present invention provides a kind of new heat to drench the implantation methods of clear particle with medicinal material Polygonum capitatum, and the method comprises the following steps:
(1) select to be applicable to the planting site of polygonum capitatum growth;
(2) wholely;
(3) lifting;
(4) transplant planting and filling the gaps with seedlings;
(5) field management, wherein at least comprise with next aspect: intertill and clean tillage, irrigation and drainage waterlogging prevention, fertilising, the extermination of disease and insect pest, interplanting, crop rotation;
(6) gather and process.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, the method comprises the following steps:
(1) select to be applicable to the planting site of polygonum capitatum growth, gentle slope or level land that this planting site is height above sea level 600-1500m area, and there is the soil that soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, fertile, irrigation condition is good;
(2) whole ground, it is more than before frost arrives, soil deeptillage reaches 30cm, utilizes the low temperature in winter freeze to death part insect, harmful microorganism etc.;
(3) lifting, it is to carry out in late April to mid-May, the seedbed seedling of booth or land for growing field crops shed breeding is carried out to lifting, or cave dish breeding seedling is carried out to lifting;
(4) transplant planting and filling the gaps with seedlings: by the end of April, to mid-May, in cloudy, rainy day or fine day, transplanted afternoon, filling the gaps with seedlings is in 1 week, to check the growth of cereal crop seedlings every day after transplanting, finds to be short of seedling, and fills the gaps with seedlings in time;
(5) field management wherein at least comprises with next aspect:
I) intertill and clean tillage: after transplanting 1 week, with hoe, carry out loosening soil, weeding for the first time, and should be strictly on guard against that moving root hinders seedling; Later once careless every 10 days hoes, until the envelope row;
Ii) irrigate and drainage waterlogging prevention: irrigate and refer to continuous and while not raining more than 5 days, carry out man-made irrigation; Described drainage waterlogging prevention refer to before transplanting open railway carriage or compartment wholely the time dug drain ditch along physical features, guarantee the unobstructed discharge of rainwater in rainy season;
Iii) fertilising: comprise applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer, and take farmyard manure as main, chemical fertilizer is auxiliary;
Iv) extermination of disease and insect pest: putting prevention first, the mode of integrated control carries out;
V) interplanting: interplant with soya bean;
Vi) crop rotation: be selected from following plant crop rotation: radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris;
(6) gather and process: gather July to October, then adopts the mode of drying, drying, drying in the shade to be processed.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, gentle slope or level land that wherein in step (1), selected planting site is height above sea level 600-1500m area.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (1), selected planting site atmospheric environment should meet the regulation requirement of national GB3095-1996 " ambient air quality ".
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (1), selected planting site has the soil that soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, fertile, irrigation condition is good.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (1), selected planting site meets the regulation requirement of national GAP Bases of Chinese Medicinal Crops soil environment quality GB15618-1995 " standard of soil environment quality (dry farming) ".
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (1), selected planting site possesses the water source that meets national GB5084-1992 " agricultural irrigation water quality standard (dry farming) " secondary standard.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, in step (2), be wherein more than before frost arrives, soil deeptillage reaches 30cm wholely, utilize the low temperature in winter freeze to death part insect, harmful microorganism etc.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein the whole ground in step (2) further is included in and transplants first 3~5 days, removes and chooses the foreign material such as weeds, stone in plot, with hoe, breaks up the clods, and makes the furrow of wide 1m, high 10cm, furrow spacing 30~40cm; Plough under subsequently in soil, mix in conjunction with whole fine earth earth and furrow soil, pick up various weeds perennial roots and larger chad simultaneously, then play furrow and drag for flat furrow face with hoe.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein the lifting in step (3) is to carry out in late April to mid-May.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein the lifting in step (3) is that seedbed seedling to the breeding of booth or land for growing field crops shed carries out lifting.In one embodiment, this plays seedling-growing method: in transplanting, seedbed is sprayed permeable the previous day, within the 2nd day, choose the seed shoots that meets the seedling quality standard, with the thumb of hand, food, in 3 fingers pinch the seedling base portion, one by one seedling is pulled up gently, the straw of water maceration is bundled into handle, then is placed in clean pollution-free vessel, cover wet cloth, be transported to and transplant ground.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein the lifting in step (3) is that cave dish breeding seedling is carried out to lifting.In one embodiment, this plays seedling-growing method and is: directly the seedling dish is transported between transplant field, with hand, seedling and matrix are tripped out, plant while rising.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein the lifting in step (3) is lifting transplanting on the same day on the same day.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (4) the transplant planting time for by the end of April to mid-May.In one embodiment, transplant planting is transplanted at the moon, rainy day or fine day afternoon.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (4) during transplant planting planting density be 25cm * 25cm.
Method according to first aspect present invention, wherein adopt cave to plant during transplant planting in step (4), select plant height 7~8cm left and right of choosing in the booth seedbed, leaf age, between 7~8 leaves, and in the same size, robust growth, well developed root system, is transplanted as transplant without the polygonum capitatum seedling of damage by disease and insect.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (4) during transplant planting, uproot the cave of digging dark about 5cm with little iron, put into a young plant, the earthing compacting, then water normal root water.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (4), described filling the gaps with seedlings is in 1 week, to check the growth of cereal crop seedlings every day after transplanting, finds to be short of seedling, and fills the gaps with seedlings in time.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (5), described intertill and clean tillage is after transplanting 1 week, with hoe, carries out loosening soil, weeding for the first time, and should be strictly on guard against that moving root hinders seedling; Later once careless every 10 days hoes, until envelope row (whole furrow face is paved with polygonum capitatum); Feng Hanghou must manual weed out the rank grass to the first half of the month of gathering.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein polygonum capitatum is not used weed killer herbicide whole vegetative period.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (5), described irrigation refers to continuous while not raining more than 5 days, carries out man-made irrigation.In one embodiment, the man-made irrigation time is before 11 o'clock mornings or after at 17 o'clock in afternoon.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (5), described drainage waterlogging prevention refer to before transplanting open railway carriage or compartment wholely the time dug drain ditch along physical features, guarantee the unobstructed discharge of rainwater in rainy season.Further, described drainage waterlogging prevention refers to, within whole vegetative period, checks the field drainage situation every day in rainy season, if find the plot of ponding, should dredge in time draining, is strictly on guard against that ponding causes rotten of polygonum capitatum.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (5), described fertilising comprises applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer.In one embodiment, described fertilising is to take farmyard manure as main, and chemical fertilizer is auxiliary.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (5), described fertilising comprises uses base manure and topdresses.In one embodiment, described fertilising is to take base manure as main, and it is auxiliary topdressing.In one embodiment, described fertilising is to take base manure as main, and it is auxiliary topdressing, and wherein phosphate fertilizer is all made the base manure applied once; Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60% topdresses uses; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses uses.In one embodiment, described topdressing at Feng Hangqian.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (5), described fertilising comprises applied nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer.In one embodiment, described fertilising is to take nitrogenous fertilizer as main, phosphorus potash fertilizer compounding application.In one embodiment, described nitrogenous fertilizer is for example urea of amide nitrogen fertilizer.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (5), described fertilising comprises applications of farmyard manure 2000~2500kg/ mu, nitrogenous fertilizer 12kg/ mu, phosphate fertilizer 10kg/ mu, potash fertilizer K 2o6kg/ mu.In one embodiment, described farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer are all made the base manure applied once; Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60%g topdresses and uses in envelope row previous crops; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses and uses in envelope row previous crops.In one embodiment, described farmyard manure is the farmyard manure through fully becoming thoroughly decomposed.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein in step (5), the described extermination of disease and insect pest be put prevention first, the mode of integrated control carries out.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (5), described interplanting can be to interplant with soya bean.In one embodiment, the spacing in the rows of each density in planting of described soya bean is 15cm.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (5), described crop rotation is and is selected from following plant crop rotation: radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris.In one embodiment, described crop rotation is and radix pseudostellariae or peppermint crop rotation; Crop rotation method is: polygonum capitatum and radix pseudostellariae, peppermint crop rotation 1 year, all after polygonum capitatum is gathered September, carry out radix pseudostellariae or thin He kind is planted November, after crown prince participates in and gathers the June of next year, peppermint was gathered the August of next year, Second Year carries out the polygonum capitatum crop rotation again.In one embodiment, described crop rotation is and the iris crop rotation; Crop rotation method is: with iris crop rotation 3 years,, after polygonum capitatum 9 is gathered, October, carry out the iris plantation, gather September after 3 years, next year is carried out the polygonum capitatum crop rotation again.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (6), described gathering is to gather in July to October.According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (6), described gathering is to gather once or secondary in July to October.
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (6), described gathering is to extract acrial part (base portion can retain old stem 10-15cm) with reaping hook
According to the method for first aspect present invention, wherein, in step (6), described processing method is selected from: 1) dry (for example, gather the same day, and put in drying room and dry, temperature is controlled at 50 ℃ of left and right, within general 24 hours, can dry, and the rate of giving money as a gift is 20% left and right); 2) dry (for example, select fine day, dry on the spot); 3) dry in the shade (for example, choose back, put the ventilation be not caught in the rain and dry in the shade).
In addition, can for example, with reference to prior art (CN1481666A) or the routine operation that carries out the polygonum capitatum plantation according to those skilled in the art's experience.
In the present invention, certain operations can be carried out with reference to following standards or standard:
The GB3094-1996 ambient air quality;
The GB4084-1992 agricultural irrigation water quality standard;
The GB14618-1994 standard of soil environment quality;
The atmosphere pollution maximum permissible concentration of GB9137-1988 protection crops;
GB/T3543.2 crop seeds inspection procedure sample;
GB/T3543.3 crop seeds inspection procedure cleanliness is analyzed;
GB/T3543.4 crop seeds inspection procedure germination test;
GB/T3543.5 crop seeds inspection procedure authenticity and varietal purity are identified;
The determination of moisture of GB/T3543.6 crop seeds inspection procedure;
GB4284-1989 chemistry security Application standard;
Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission's Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (version was one one in 2010);
The WM/T2-2004 of The Ministry of the Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation of the People's Republic of China, MOFTEC " medicinal plant and preparation are imported and exported green industry standard ";
National Drug Administration's " traditional Chinese medicine quality of production management regulation (GAP) " (trying);
Guizhou Province Drug Administration " Guizhou Province's Chinese medicine, national quality of medicinal material standard " (version in 2003).
In the present invention, can carry out as follows seed collection and processing and storage:
1, acquisition time and seed selection: 8~November, from the breeding Breeding base select healthy and strong without the damage by disease and insect plant as the seed collecting plant, undergrowth or undesired, strain shape is not good, the plant that has damage by disease and insect to infect must not be for seed collecting;
2, germplasm maturity symbol: when polygonum capitatum seed (achene) is ripe, whole capitulum starts to become loose, and the perianth that deposit place becomes white, and seed is black, can gather;
3, gather: gently pinch capitulum with thumb, forefinger and middle finger, seed falls within the centre of the palm naturally, then is put in the little Plastic Drum of carrying or in other container.Attention: the polygonum capitatum seed maturity is inconsistent, should gather in time, and the not easily collecting otherwise the meeting nature is scattered;
4, seed processing: the seed that will gather the same day spreads out in indoor the drying in the shade of ventilation, drying.Then the impurity such as flat seed of winnowing with a dustpan with dustpan.Attention: can not be exposed to the sun after the polygonum capitatum seed collection;
5, seed storage: the seed processed is loaded in cotton bag, puts shady and cool dry place storage, prevent from going mouldy and damaging by worms;
In the present invention, can carry out as follows seed quality and detection:
1,, as the polygonum capitatum seed, the appearance character aspect, be brown, glossy, full, damaged disease-free, the free from insect pests of nothing by the gross, purity >=99%, moisture≤12%; In addition, the cleanliness of primes >=95%, germination rate >=90%, thousand kernel weight >=0.90g, the cleanliness of seconds is 90~94%, germination rate is 85~89%, thousand kernel weight is 0.83~0.89g, and the cleanliness of three grades of product is 85~89%, germination rate is 75~84%, thousand kernel weight is 0.78~0.82g;
2, seed testing
(1) sample: press GB/T3543.2 crop seeds detection method and carry out.The maximum weight of seed lot is 100kg, 10 bags of packing, 10kg/ bag.With every bag of single tube sampling sharp-pointed tube sample all, extract to send and test sample 100g, mix, divide sample by the Interventions Requested requirement;
(2) physical purity of seed is measured: press GB/T3543.3 crop seeds detection method and carry out.The clean seed of polygonum capitatum refers to that the seed had or achlamydeous achene, the damaged achene over originally half as large greatly, pericarp or kind skin portion came off reaches the damaged seed over large pericarp half as large or kind skin portion come off originally.Cleanliness analytical sample 10g.Standard: polygonum capitatum physical purity of seed >=95%;
(3) thousand grain weigth is measured: the polygonum capitatum seed is fully mixed, take out at random 1000 and use the analytical balance weighing, be accurate to 2 figure places after decimal point, repeat 3 times, calculating mean value, be the thousand kernel weight of seed.Standard: polygonum capitatum thousand grain weigth >=0.85g;
(4) seed moisture content is measured: press GB/T3543.6 crop seeds detection method and carry out.The polygonum capitatum seed moisture content is measured and is adopted high-temperature oven drying method, and determination of moisture sample 15g, be divided into three parts (every part of about 5g).Standard: polygonum capitatum seed moisture content≤12%;
(5) seed germination experiment: press GB/T3543.4 crop seeds detection method and carry out.The germination test of polygonum capitatum is made the paper bed with filter paper or blotting paper, and the pH value is 6.0~7.5, and temperature is carried out under 20~25 ℃ of conditions.In the clean seed mixed, number is got 150 seeds, take 50 as a repetition, repeats 3 times.Standard: the germination rate of polygonum capitatum seed >=85%;
(6) Purity: press GB/T3543.5 crop seeds detection method item and carry out, standard: purity >=99%.
In the present invention, the plantation polygonum capitatum environmental requirement can comprise every as follows:
1, terrain environment requires: base height above sea level 800m~1700m, and the gradient is less than 30 °, and existing irrigation conditions, more than drainage condition ,Ju highway 100m is arranged again, is not planted congener in peripheral 50m;
2, weather conditions require: weather is all warm moistening, and the temperature Change amplitude is less throughout the year, and average temperature of the whole year is more than 12 ℃, and year effective accumulated temperature is respectively 5147.4 ℃ and 5585 ℃, and frost-free season is more than 270 days/year.Rainfall is plentiful, more than average annual rainfall 1000mm, in relative moisture in vegetative period higher (70~90%); Annual sunshine duration 1100~1500 hours;
3, the base quality of air environment requires: air is pollution-free, meet GB3095-1996 " standard for atmosphere environment quality " one-level or secondary standard and GB9137-1988 " atmosphere pollution maximum permissible concentration standard ", air quality index II is between 0.6~1.0.The base air quality can directly adopt air monitoring on the same day data in city, place;
4, soil environment quality requires: the plot requirement fertile soil of plantation polygonum capitatum is loose, the good content of organic matter of draining is abundant, neutral Acid soil (the pH value is 5.5~7.5), plow layer 20~25cm left and right.Protection should take into account the various environmental forms of wild polygonum capitatum growth with fostering.Soil environment quality meets GB15618-1995 " national standard of soil environment quality " one-level or secondary standard.Soil quality detects 1 time in every 4 years;
5, the base water quality requires: having can be for water source and the facility of irrigating, water nonpollution.Quality of irrigation water meets national GB5084-1992 " field irrigation standards of water quality (dry farming) "; The irrigation water quality is annual to be detected once.
6, other conditional request: (1) fosters ground 1 kilometer industrial and mining enterprises that pollute with interior nothing generation on every side in medicinal material planting base and protection, without " three wastes " pollution, without soot; (2) the ,You highway (comprising country road) that has a good transport service; (3) to should be the less gramineous plants of damage by disease and insect be main to plot, planting base preceding crop, avoids the polygonum capitatum continuous cropping as far as possible; (4) concentrate in flakes in plot, and area is not less than 30 mu, forms scale, industrialization production; (5) protection should have wild polygonum capitatum to grow well with fostering.
In the present invention, can carry out as follows stock breeding:
(1) prepare in seedbed:
1, plastic tunnel: before sowing, in plastic tunnel with the seedling bed of the wide 1m of brick one-tenth, high 20cm, personal attendant's canopy; Fill out the thin mellow soil of mistake 8 mesh sieves that 15cm is thick in seedbed, then the every even 2000kg of spreading well-rotted farmyard manure per mu and composite fertilizer 20kg make base fertilizer, after mixing thoroughly with bed soil, with scraper plate, strike off bed surface;
2, land for growing field crops shed seedling method: the 30cm that turns over before sowing is dark, in conjunction with whole soil, pick up various perennial roots and large chad, along canopy to the furrow of making wide 1m, high 10cm, the furrow spacing is 40cm, and the furrow face evenly spreads farmyard manure (2000kg/ mu) and composite fertilizer's (20kg/ mu) of becoming thoroughly decomposed, and every mu of consumption is respectively 2000kg and 20kg makees base fertilizer, mix in conjunction with whole fine earth earth and furrow soil, then water permeable;
(2) sowing:
1, the selection criteria of seed: germination rate >=85%, thousand kernel weight >=0.85g, degree of purity >=99%, cleanliness >=95%, and seed is without the quarantine damage by disease and insect;
2, the sowing time: late Febuary~mid-March;
3, type of seeding: with seed (2g~3g/m 2) mix with 200 times of fine earths, with hand evenly be spread on the face of railway carriage or compartment while sowing seeds hand apart from ground about 30cm, along furrow face left and right, sow seeds, sow seeds as good with the wind, then with film, cover, with heat and moisture preserving;
(3) management:
1, take off in time film: after 80% seed sprouting, throw off film;
2, water spray: after taking off film, spray 1~2 water with sprayer every day;
3, uprooting weed: pull out at any time the weeds that sprout in seedbed;
4, thinning: when true leaf appears in seedling, in conjunction with uprooting weed, pull out in time closeer seedling, density remains on 2cm * 2cm~4cm * 4cm;
5, aeration-cooling: as when temperature of shed reaches 30 ℃, to open the two ends of canopy, strengthen ventilating in canopy, reduce temperature of shed and relative moisture, prevent that high temperature from burning the generation of seedling and disease;
6, draining: deep-cut drain ditch in surrounding, furrow width 40cm, ditch depth 10cm, drainage waterlogging prevention has been cleared up the railway carriage or compartment ditch between the interior canopy of nursery and canopy simultaneously, makes unimpeded the entering in the surrounding ditch to external drainage of rainwater energy;
7, the extermination of disease and insect pest: the damage by disease and insect between nursery stage is adhered to the principle of relying mainly on prevention, and notes ventilating in canopy, prevents the damage by disease and insect intrusion; The discovery disease is pulled out diseased plant, and carries out soil disinfection with lime; Find artificial elimination for a small amount of insect;
8, hardening: transplant first 1 week, the two ends of throwing off canopy, and reduce and water.
In the present invention, as the polygonum capitatum seed shoots, can meet following quality requirement: aspect appearance character, outward appearance is even by the gross, and root system is complete, without the wilting phenomenon, without damage by disease and insect; In addition, one-level seedling height of seedling is several 7~9 of 8~9.9cm, true leaf, well developed root system, and secondary seedling height of seedling is that several 10~11 of 10~12cm, true leaf, root system are more flourishing, and three grades of seedling heights of seedling are that several 5~6 of 6~7.9cm, true leaf, root system are general.
In the present invention, can carry out as follows the field planting transplanting:
(1) selection of land: polygonum capitatum is the perennial herbaceous plant that crawls; The nice and cool weather of happiness, more cold-resistant; The soil is porous, the well behaved sand loam of water-permeable and air permeable in requirement; Soil reaction with slant acidity (pH value 5~7.5) for well; All gluing heavily hardened, and the clay that water content is large and ground barren, the easy ponding in the high and low low-lying area of subterranean water level all should not be planted; Therefore to select fertile soil, irrigation and drainage husky territory easily, more than soil thickness 30cm; Require: surrounding air reaches country's " atmosphere quality secondary standard " simultaneously, and quality of irrigation water reaches country's " field irrigation standards of water quality (dry farming) ", and soil environment quality reaches country's " soil environment quality secondary standard (dry farming) "; Plough deeply soil 20~30cm in the previous moon of field planting, remove and choose the foreign material such as weeds, stone in plot;
(2) wholely:
1, time of site preparation: the late April~to transplant first 3~4 days the first tenday period of a month in May, choosing has the whole ground of the weather of the sun;
2, method of soil preparation: weeds in the ground that first hoe goes to have turned over, shine on the spot 3~4 days, dry up weeds; The farmyard manure that before transplanting, every even 2000kg of spreading per mu becomes thoroughly decomposed, composite fertilizer 20kg/ mu, plough under in soil subsequently, then make the furrow of wide 1m, high 10cm according to landform, furrow spacing 30~40cm in conjunction with drawing the ditch furrow face of raking, picks up various perennial roots on the furrow face, weeds and the large foreign material such as chad simultaneously;
(3) transplant:
1, transplanting time: the late April~to transplant the first tenday period of a month in May, the choosing cloudy day transplants;
2, lifting: lifting sprays seedbed permeable the previous day, within the 2nd day, select that stem is sturdy, blade is large and abundant, height of seedling 8~10cm, without the seedling of damage by disease and insect, then with thumb, food, in 3 fingers pinch the seedling base portion, one by one seedling is pulled up gently, the straw of every 100 strain water macerations is bundled into one, then is loaded in basket to be transported to transplant ground; Attention: lifting as required, planted the preferably same day of rising the same day;
3, transplanting method:
(1) density: 25cm * 25cm
(2) method: press line-spacing 25cm stay cord and surely go on whole good furrow face, then along rope, by spacing in the rows 25cm, with forefinger and middle finger, dig the cave that 3~4cm is dark, seedling is put into to cave tight with hand, every cave 1 seedling; Field planting irrigated normal root water the same day.
In the present invention, can carry out as follows field management
(1) fill the gaps with seedlings: in 1 week, check the growth of cereal crop seedlings every day after transplanting, polishing is short of seedling in time.Discovery because of cutworm cause be short of seedling the time, first find out cutworm and kill again and mend before filling the gaps with seedlings, in case endanger again;
(2) cultivation uproot: after transplanting, hoed up weeds 1 time every 10 days, until the envelope row.Feng Hanghou is to before gathering, and every two weeks weeds out the rank grass 1 time.All weeds to concentrate be stacked at farmyard manure become thoroughly decomposed the hole in, allow its fermentation maturity become fertilizer.Ban use of weed killer herbicide whole vegetative period;
(3) sprinkling irrigation is taked precautions against drought: within continuous 5 days, do not rain, start sprinkling irrigation system water spray 1 time every afternoon, and each 1 hour, or manually water;
(4) drainage waterlogging prevention: polygonum capitatum is afraid of waterlogging, before transplanting drag for railway carriage or compartment wholely the time dug drain ditch along physical features, guarantee the unobstructed discharge of rainwater in rainy season; Within whole vegetative period, will check the field drainage situation every day in rainy season, finds the plot of ponding, should dredge in time, avoids ponding to cause rotten of polygonum capitatum;
(5) topdress: dressing time: before sealing row June; Amount of application: composite fertilizer 10kg/ mu; Application process: evenly spread fertilizer over the fields on the furrow face with hand, in conjunction with loosening the soil, plough under in furrow soil subsequently;
In the present invention, can carry out as follows the extermination of disease and insect pest and integrated control: with " putting prevention first ", use the method for " integrated control ".
In the present invention, can in planting process, be interplanted: polygonum capitatum (density is 25m * 25m) and soya bean different densities (in the furrow face both sides of making wide 1m, high 10cm, the spacing in the rows of pressing 10cm, 15cm, 20cm) interplanting.The results showed, polygonum capitatum and output and the economic benefits comparison of interplanting the different densities soya bean, the root yield of interplanting soya bean does not have significant difference, and by the output of spacing in the rows 10cm, 15cm, 20cm interplanting soya bean, different is arranged respectively, increase income respectively 412 yuan/mu, 444 yuan/mu, 197 yuan/mu than contrast, can improve soil per mu yield income; But soya bean planting density spacing in the rows is advisable with 15cm.
In the present invention, can in planting process, carry out crop rotation: polygonum capitatum can carry out crop rotation with radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris, and the planting density of polygonum capitatum is advisable with 25cm * 25cm, and other medicinal material carries out with general planting density.The results showed, as polygonum capitatum and radix pseudostellariae, peppermint crop rotation 1 year, can be all after polygonum capitatum is gathered September, carry out radix pseudostellariae or thin He kind is planted November, after crown prince participates in and gathers the June of next year, peppermint was gathered the August of next year, Second Year carries out the polygonum capitatum crop rotation again; As with iris crop rotation 3 years,, after polygonum capitatum 9 is gathered, October, carry out the iris plantation, after 3 years, September, gather, next year is carried out the polygonum capitatum crop rotation again.From upper test, the output of polygonum capitatum continuous cropping on same plot has and is downward trend year by year, later not only can improve the output of polygonum capitatum with radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris crop rotation, can reach the stable high yield purpose, but also can improve the growing environment of other medicinal material, can greatly improve the income of unit are.
Embodiment
By the following examples, can conduct further description the present invention, yet scope of the present invention is not limited to following embodiment.One of skill in the art can understand, and under the prerequisite that does not deviate from the spirit and scope of the present invention, can carry out various variations and modification to the present invention.The present invention carries out generality and/or concrete description to the material and the test method that use in test.Although, for to realize that many materials and method of operating that the object of the invention is used are well known in the art, the present invention still does to describe in detail as far as possible at this.
Since calendar year 2001, the principle that the inventor selects in strict accordance with the polygonum capitatum Suitable planting area, carry out the selection of polygonum capitatum planting site, take the Shibing of the southeast of Guizhou Province and the Wudang, Guiyang in Guizhou Province when etc. the most suitable region be polygonum capitatum standardized planting and GAP Demonstration Base and Demonstration And Extension base.
embodiment 1, the research of polygonum capitatum standardized planting key technology and practice
one, planting site is selected
(1) topography and geomorphology
According to field investigation, the ground such as level land, gentle slope, abrupt slope, rock crevice, wall, fort Kan Bi all find that there is polygonum capitatum, the growth of this explanation polygonum capitatum is not very tight to the requirement of landform, but, in order to be convenient to carry out normal agrotechnique operation, select gentle slope or level land as polygonum capitatum standardized planting ground.Simultaneously, require near pollution-free source base, more than highway 100m; Atmospheric environment should meet the regulation requirement of national GB3095-1996 " ambient air quality ".
Niu great Chang town, Shibing County polygonum capitatum research Demonstration Base is ground, gentle slope, and surrounding is dense masson pine forest, and height above sea level is 600-900m; Wudang District new field, Guiyang, Newcastle polygonum capitatum Demonstration And Extension planting base are surrounding level land surrounded by mountains, and height above sea level is 1260~1340m.The atmospheric environment of two places, monitor the primary standard that all reaches national GB3095-1996 " ambient air quality " through environmental administration.
(2) soil
According to the field investigation result, show, be mainly yellow earth, purple soil and mountain yellow brown soil three major types in polygonum capitatum self-sow district, the yellow earth class comprises the soil species of sa yellow earth, irony yellow earth and yellow mud penus, and the purple great soil group mainly contains sheep hepatolith soil and purple earth, but the thinner growing way of soil layer is poor.In soil loosens the environment fertile, that hydro-thermal is abundant, illumination is good, growth is vigorous.In main producing region, well-grown on the chesson of sand shale or the growth of coal measures layer, normal growth in flakes, form more single ground cover plant.Habit of growth through the Introduction Observation polygonum capitatum is learnt, polygonum capitatum growing way on the soil of more barren, poor water retention property or ponding is poor, and deep at soil layer, the soil is porous, fertile local growing way is good, therefore, select the soil that soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, fertile, irrigation condition is good.Simultaneously, also the soil environment quality of large the polygonum capitatum experiment and demonstration base of Shibing County ox and Wudang District new field, Kweiyang, Newcastle detected, result shows, the soil fertility of two places belongs to better-than-average level, and should meet the regulation requirement of national GAP Bases of Chinese Medicinal Crops soil environment quality GB15618-1995 " standard of soil environment quality (dry farming) ".
(3) irrigation water
Polygonum capitatum experiment and demonstration ground, Niu great Chang town, Shibing County source of irrigation water is the other natural river in base of flowing through, and has the facilities such as sprinkling irrigation system that pumping irrigation station, cistern and computer are controlled, and water is pollution-free, takes conveniently.The source of irrigation water of Wudang District new field, Guiyang, Newcastle polygonum capitatum GAP Demonstration And Extension planting base, also accumulate the nature rainwater for natural river and cistern by the base of flowing through, and water is pollution-free, takes conveniently.
Above-mentioned experiment and demonstration base and Demonstration And Extension base, after testing, all meet the requirement of traditional Chinese medicine GAP regulation.Its soil environment meets the secondary standard of national GB15618-1995 " standard of soil environment quality (dry farming) "; Water source meets national GB5084-1992 " agricultural irrigation water quality standard (dry farming) " secondary standard.
two, wholely
More than soil deeptillage reaches 30cm before frost arrives, utilize the low temperature in winter freeze to death part insect, harmful microorganism etc.In transplanting first 3~5 days, remove and choose the foreign material such as weeds, stone in plot, with hoe, break up the clods, make the furrow of wide 1m, high 10cm, furrow spacing 30~40cm.Plough under subsequently in soil, mix in conjunction with whole fine earth earth and furrow soil, pick up various weeds perennial roots and larger chad simultaneously, then play furrow and drag for flat furrow face with hoe.
three, lifting
(1) the lifting time: late April~mid-May.
(2) play seedling-growing method
1, the seedbed seedling of booth or the breeding of land for growing field crops shed: transplant and seedbed is sprayed permeable the previous day, within the 2nd day, choose the seed shoots that meets the seedling quality standard, with the thumb of hand, food, in 3 fingers pinch the seedling base portion, one by one seedling is pulled up gently, the straw of every 100 strain water macerations is bundled into one, then be placed in clean pollution-free vessel, cover wet cloth, be transported to and transplant ground.Attention: lifting as required, the seedling risen the same day must be transplanted the same day.
2, cave dish breeding seedling: directly the seedling dish is transported between transplant field, with hand, seedling and matrix are tripped out, plant while rising.
four, transplant planting
(1) the transplant planting time: after polygonum capitatum GAP authentication in 2006, we are still transplanted according to the result of study of the plantation of the polygonum capitatum before authentication suitable time, and be the suitable transplanting time of polygonum capitatum take by the end of April~mid-May.And should select the moon, rainy day or fine day to be transplanted afternoon.
(2) planting density
After polygonum capitatum GAP authentication in 2006, we find in practice, if the polygonum capitatum planting density is too high, often ventilated bad, under especially hot and humid condition, the base leaf easily comes off in advance and rots, and has affected to a certain extent output and the quality of medicinal material.
Therefore, we have further carried out the experimental study of polygonum capitatum rational density.Particularly, the purpose of this test is, growth characteristic and characteristic according to polygonum capitatum, under equal managerial skills condition, adopt different planting densities to be tested, the impact of the different planting densities of research polygonum capitatum on output and quality, select the Optimum Planting Density requirement, for polygonum capitatum plantation section development provides scientific basis.
1, experimental scheme scheme: this test is single factor randomized block experiment, establishes 8 processing (processing A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H), repeats (being I, II, III) 3 times.Each community area is 13.7m 2(in Table 1).
Table 1: level of density table
2, test method
This is tested in the late Febuary sowing, and transplant the first tenday period of a month in May, carries out sample prescription mid-September and surveys product and quality testing.Test site: large village head's col production base of traditional Chinese medicine of Niu great Chang town, Shibing County ox.
Concrete test period is: respectively at the February~October of 2006,2007, grows seedlings for 2~March, and 4-5 month transplant planting, sample prescription was surveyed to produce and was checked and accepted September, summarized October and analyzed.
Test area: experimental field the gross area is 1.0 mu.Test plot area 328.8m wherein 2,Mei community area 13.7m 2, protection railway carriage or compartment, Hang He community face is by the wide 1.3m accurate railway carriage or compartment of opening bid, the high 10cm in railway carriage or compartment.
Plan design:
(1) arrangement of sample plot: select plot that the fertility level gradient is relatively consistent for experimental field, the community of test is set as rectangle, and the direction of Ying Yu gentle slope, Chang limit, community inclination is parallel, and the different districts of same repetition should be on identical contour;
(2) arrangement mode: adopt random district group to arrange, determine the arrangement position of community different disposal in the mode of drawing lots, from left to right, from top to bottom, make each processing, in any community, equal chance be arranged;
(3) level of density setting: the different densities level is (seeding row spacing): A, 15cm * 15cm; B, 15cm * 20cm; C, 20cm * 20cm; D, 20cm * 25cm; E, 25cm * 25cm; F, 25cm * 30cm; G, 30cm * 30cm; H, 30cm * 35cm.In addition, the seeding row spacing of protection row is 30cm * 30cm.
(4) test block design: long 37.2m experimental field, wide 18.2m, the length of its small area and the wide 10.4m of being respectively and 1.3m open railway carriage or compartment, maintenance railway carriage or compartment face length 10m, wide 1.0m, working line 0.3m.1 railway carriage or compartment is established in every community, protection line width 3.9m.
(5) transplanting method
Selection of land: select plot soil fertility level gradient opposing parallel, the good plot of irrigation condition, approximately 1~1.5 mu of area.
Whole ground: the 25cm~30cm that turns over, and evenly spread fertilizer over the fields well-rotted farmyard manure 2000kg/ mu, and before April, completed, before transplanting, by arrangement of sample plot requirement bedding, protection ground part is also consistent with it.
Transplant: adopt cave to plant, plant height 7~8cm left and right of selecting to choose in the booth seedbed, leaf age between 7~8 leaves, and in the same size, robust growth, well developed root system, without the polygonum capitatum seedling of damage by disease and insect as the test transplantation of seedlings.Dig the cave of dark about 5cm during transplanting with little iron hoe, put into a young plant, the earthing compacting, then water normal root water.
The processing of seeding row spacing 15cm * 15cm, every row is planted 66 strains, and every railway carriage or compartment plants 6 row;
The processing of seeding row spacing 15cm * 20cm, every row is planted 66 strains, and every railway carriage or compartment plants 5 row;
The processing of seeding row spacing 20cm * 20cm, every row is planted 50 strains, and every railway carriage or compartment plants 5 row;
The processing of seeding row spacing 20cm * 25cm, every row is planted 50 strains, and every railway carriage or compartment plants 4 row;
The processing of seeding row spacing 25cm * 25cm, every row is planted 40 strains, and every railway carriage or compartment plants 4 row;
The processing of seeding row spacing 25cm * 30cm, every row is planted 40 strains, and every railway carriage or compartment plants 3 row;
The processing of seeding row spacing 30cm * 30cm, every row is planted 33 strains, and every railway carriage or compartment plants 3 row;
The processing of seeding row spacing 30cm * 35cm, every row is planted 33 strains, and every railway carriage or compartment plants 2 row.
Field management:
(1) fertilising: early June, mu spread fertilizer over the fields railway carriage or compartment, community face equably with composite fertilizer 10kg in conjunction with weeding with a hoe, and was overlying in soil to impose and carries seed manure.
(2) irrigate: dry weather, 7~10 days while not raining, be watered in good time, guarantee soil moisture supply.
(3) field observation: weed out the rank grass in good time, strengthen the control management of the extermination of disease and insect pest, particularly black cutworm and purple shell flea beetle.Carry out the investigation of field growing amount simultaneously, fill in record sheet.
Gather and preliminary working:
(1) collecting time produces with survey: adopt September real mode of cutting actual measurement to select fine day to gather in and survey product, with reaping hook, extract acrial part, shrug off earth, claim immediately fresh weight, fill in record sheet.
(2) preliminary working: adopt the counter sample product and be put in plastic tunnel dry in the shade (temperature, time), put after taking-up and claim dry weight in indoor a day, fill in record sheet.
3, test results and analysis
The density test results and analysis of (1) 2006 year: in Table 2 to table 4.
Table 2:2006 density test sample prescription is surveyed and is produced statistical form (unit: kg)
Mean difference table (kg/13.7m between the processing of table 3:2006 density test 2)
Table 4:2006 density test quality testing analytical table
From table 2,3,4, process E, D, F and processing A, H difference is extremely remarkable, processing E and treatments B, G significant difference; Process C extremely remarkable with processing A difference, with processing H significant difference; Process G, B and processing A significant difference; Other processing is not remarkable.Density is the most aobvious advantage of 25cm * 25cm, and quality is up to specification.
The density test results and analysis of (2) 2007 years: in Table 5~7.
Table 5:2007 density test field sample prescription is surveyed and is produced statistical form (unit: kg)
Mean difference table (kg/13.7m between the processing of table 6:2007 density test 2)
Table 7:2007 density test quality testing analytical table
From table 5,6,7, process E and process A, B, F, G, H difference is extremely remarkable, and processes the C significant difference; Process D, C and processing A, H, G difference is extremely remarkable, with processing F, B significant difference; Process F, B and processing A, H significant difference; Other processing is not remarkable.Density 25cm * 25cm is good, and quality is up to specification.
embodiment 2, standardized planting key technology
one, fill the gaps with seedlings and intertill and clean tillage
(1) fill the gaps with seedlings
In 1 week, check the growth of cereal crop seedlings every day after planting, find to be short of seedling, should fill the gaps with seedlings in time.Because of being short of seedling that black cutworm is caused, after should first finding out black cutworm and killing, then fill the gaps with seedlings, in case harm again.
(2) intertill and clean tillage
After transplanting 1 week, with hoe, carry out loosening soil, weeding for the first time, and should be strictly on guard against that moving root hinders seedling.Later once careless every 10 days hoes, until envelope row (whole furrow face is paved with polygonum capitatum).Feng Hanghou must cut weeds with hand-lifting to the first half of the month of gathering.Attention: all weeds to concentrate be stacked at farmyard manure become thoroughly decomposed the hole in, allow its fermentation maturity become fertilizer; Ban use of weed killer herbicide whole vegetative period.
two, irrigation and drainage waterlogging prevention
While not raining, should carry out in time man-made irrigation (time is before 11 o'clock mornings or after at 17 o'clock in afternoon) when continuous many days (general more than 5 days).In polygonum capitatum experiment and demonstration base, Niu great Chang town, Shibing County, be that the automatic sprinkling system that adopts computer to control is irrigated.
Polygonum capitatum is afraid of waterlogging, before transplanting open railway carriage or compartment wholely the time act in accordance with physical features and dug drain ditch, guarantee the unobstructed discharge of rainwater in rainy season.Within whole vegetative period, will check the field drainage situation every day in rainy season, if find the plot of ponding, should dredge in time draining, is strictly on guard against that ponding causes rotten of polygonum capitatum.
three, the rational application of fertilizer
After polygonum capitatum GAP authentication in 2006, on the front rational application of fertilizer Research foundation of our GAP authentications, further explored the correlation of the polygonum capitatum rational application of fertilizer and good quality and high output in 2007~2008 years, result still has significant production-increasing function with farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer and composite fertilizer to polygonum capitatum, optimum spraying amount is respectively 2000kg/ mu, 30kg/ mu and 20kg/ mu, singly execute nitrogen or potash fertilizer to polygonum capitatum without significant production-increasing function, and should June polygonum capitatum Feng Hangqian impose composite fertilizer, output to polygonum capitatum has remarkable production-increasing function, and suitable amount of application is 10kg/ mu.2009~2011 years, we are again in conjunction with the enforcement of Eleventh Five-Year Plan Ministry of Science and Technology supporting plan project and the great special problem in Guizhou Province, we cooperate with the Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Science, then the correlation of the polygonum capitatum rational application of fertilizer and good quality and high output is furtherd investigate.Main research situation and result are as follows:
(1) impact (2009 year) of different fertilizer type on the polygonum capitatum quantity and quality
1, test site
Experimental field be positioned at Niu great Chang village, Niu great Chang town, Shibing County, Guizhou Province, height above sea level 947m, gentle slope, soil is yellow soil.The soil chemistry proterties is: organic 28.00g/kg, full nitrogen 1.49g/kg, full phosphorus 0.31g/kg, full potassium 7.71g/kg, hydrolyzable nitrogen 95.85mg/kg, available phosphorus 4.03mg/kg, effective potassium 73.35mg/kg, pH5.63.
2, test material
(1) for planting experimentally seedling: adopt booth to educate mu in large village head's col base of Niu great Chang town, Shibing County, Guizhou ox in March, 2009~May.Height of seedling 10cm left and right, 5~6 pieces, blade.
(2) for examination fertilizer: nitrogenous fertilizer is urea, containing N46%, is that produce in Guizhou; Phosphate fertilizer is superphosphate, containing P 2o 515%, be that produce Fuquan City; Potash fertilizer is potassium sulphate, containing K 2o50% is that produce in Suzhou; Composite fertilizer is that is produced from Xi Feng county, Guizhou Province, N, P 2o 5with K 2the O content ratio is 15:15:15.
3, experimental scheme
Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), 4 processing of composite fertilizer are established in test, and each processing is established 3 repetitions by slope aspect (under Zhong, slope, Shang, slope, slope), and random district group is arranged, and the community area is 10m 2.The fertilizer amount level is in Table 8.
Table 8: rate of fertilizer and usage table
Sequence number The fertilizer title Consumption (kg/ mu) Remarks
1 Urea 16 Topdress
2 Fused calcium magnesium phosphate 50 Making base fertilizer once applies
3 Potassium sulphate 15 Making base fertilizer once applies
4 Composite fertilizer 50 1/3 makes base fertilizer, and 2/3 topdresses
4, test is implemented
(1) wholely with transplanting: furrow are also done in the whole ground of carefully choosing, the wide 100cm of furrow, the high 10cm of furrow, furrow spacing 30cm, the furrow face is smooth.Protection ground part is also consistent with it.On May 25th, 2009 transplants, and transplants seeding row spacing 25cm * 25cm, waters normal root water after cultivation.
(2) fertilization time and method: urea (N) topdresses as rhizosphere, in by the end of June or early July Feng Hangqian in conjunction with cultivation uproot, once apply; Potassium sulphate (K) is made base fertilizer and is once applied; Fused calcium magnesium phosphate (P) is made base fertilizer and is once applied; Composite fertilizer 1/3 makes base fertilizer and applies when whole ground, and 2/3 topdresses as rhizosphere, in by the end of June or early July Feng Hangqian in conjunction with cultivation uproot, once apply.
(3) quantity and quality is measured: tested September and select fine day gather and carry out community and survey product, natural seasoning, gather the censorship of representational medicinal material sample.
5, results and analysis
(1) impact of different fertilizer type on polygonum capitatum output: use the different fertilizer type to polygonum capitatum yield effect obvious (table 9), the highest with composite fertilizer's output, single potassium application output is minimum.Variance analysis (Ft=99.1>F 0.01=9.78 differences are extremely remarkable; Fr=5.79>F 0.05=5.14 significant differences) show: between processing, difference reaches utmost point significance level; District's group difference reaches significance level.Result of the test: the yield increasing effect of dissimilar fertilizer is phosphate fertilizer > nitrogenous fertilizer > potash fertilizer; The fertile compounding application effect of N, P, K is best; Also there is larger impact in hillside fields on polygonum capitatum output, and polygonum capitatum output is that the bottom, slope is significantly higher than middle part, slope, top, slope.
Table 9: different disposal polygonum capitatum output (dry weight)
Annotate: test site is Niu great Chang village, Niu great Chang town, Shibing County, and the time is in March, 2009~September, and surveying the product time is on September 25th, 2009, by polygonum capitatum output, arranges from high to low.
(2) impact of different fertilizer type on the polygonum capitatum quercetin content: as seen from Table 10, N, P, the K different fertilizer is used that the polygonum capitatum quercetin content is had to significant impact.Phosphate fertilizer has the greatest impact to the polygonum capitatum quercetin content, executes phosphate fertilizer processing polygonum capitatum quercetin content the highest, and potash fertilizer takes second place, and nitrogenous fertilizer is minimum.
Table 10: the impact of different disposal on the polygonum capitatum Quercetin
Annotate: the sampling time: on August 5th, 2009, the headdress flower quality of medicinal material be take Quercetin as index, arranges from high to low.
6, brief summary
(1) N, P, K different fertilizer are used the polygonum capitatum yield effect greatlyr, singly execute the effect of phosphate fertilizer > nitrogenous fertilizer > potash fertilizer; The fertile compounding application effect of N, P, K is best.
(2) also there is larger impact at the position, hillside fields on polygonum capitatum output, and polygonum capitatum output is that the bottom, slope is significantly higher than middle part, slope, top, slope.
(3) N, P, the K different fertilizer is used that the polygonum capitatum quercetin content is had to significant impact.Phosphate fertilizer has the greatest impact to the polygonum capitatum quercetin content, executes phosphate fertilizer processing polygonum capitatum quercetin content the highest, and potash fertilizer takes second place, and nitrogenous fertilizer is minimum.
(2) different fertilizer is used the impact (2010) on polygonum capitatum output and quality
2010, on the study base of 2009, carried on the different nitrogen of polygonum capitatum, phosphorus, potassium fertilizing standards and applicating ratio field trial and different nitrogen, potassium form and used field trial, result of the test is as follows.
1, the field trial of the different nitrogen of polygonum capitatum, phosphorus, potassium fertilizing standards and applicating ratio
(1) experimental scheme
1. test is processed: 3 levels are set, and 12 processing, three repetitions are established in each processing, and random district group is arranged, and the community area is 10m 2.Test is processed in Table 11.
Table 11: test is processed
Test number Process N, kg/ mu P 2O 5, kg/ mu K 2O, kg/ mu
1 N 0P 0K 0 0 0 0
2 N 0P 1K 1 0 5 6
3 N 0P 2K 2 0 10 12
4 N 1P 0K 1 8 0 6
5 N 1P 1K 2 8 5 12
6 N 1P 2K 0 8 10 0
7 N 2P 0K 2 16 0 12
8 N 2P 1K 0 16 5 0
9 N 2P 2K 1 16 10 6
10 N 2P 2K 2 16 10 12
11 N 1P 1K 1 8 5 6
12 N 2P 2K 0 16 10 0
2. fertilization mode: with nitrogenous fertilizer (urea, containing N46%), (superphosphate, containing P for phosphate fertilizer 2o 516%), (potassium chloride, containing K for potash fertilizer 2o60%) carry out.Wherein phosphate fertilizer is all made the base manure applied once; Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60% topdresses uses; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses uses.Test is processed the community fertilizing amount in Table 12.
Table 12: different disposal community fertilizing amount
(2) results and analysis
1. N, P, K different fertilizer amount of application and the ratio impact on polygonum capitatum output: from following table 13, table 14, can find out, between processing, difference reaches utmost point significance level; District's group difference is not remarkable.Result of the test shows: process 9 polygonum capitatum output the highest, with processing, 8,10 differences are not remarkable, and between all the other processing, difference reaches utmost point significance level; Process 1 polygonum capitatum output minimum, with processing, 2 differences are not remarkable.
A large amount nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer are better than low amount nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer, and low amount potash fertilizer is better than a large amount potash fertilizer.Best of breed is: a large amount nitrogen, phosphorus+low amount potash fertilizer (N 2p 2k 1).
Table 13: different disposal polygonum capitatum output
Annotate: test site-Niu great Chang village, Niu great Chang town, Shibing County, the time be in March, 2010 to October, surveying and producing the date is on September 18th, 2010.
Table 14: variance analysis table
Source of variation Sum of squares Degree of freedom All square The F value Significance level
Between district's group 22.7756 2 11.3878 2.928 0.0746>0.05
Between processing 993.4223 11 90.3111 23.222 0<0.01
Error 85.5578 22 3.889 ? ?
Total variation 1101.7556 35 ? ? ?
2. N, P, the K different fertilizer yield increasing effect to polygonum capitatum: the yield increasing effect difference of different fertilizer type fertilizer, employing table 15 experimental data is calculated respectively the comprehensive yield increasing effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash fertilizer, and result is respectively:
The nitrogenous fertilizer effect
={(N 2P 2K 0-N 1P 2K 0)+(N 1P 1K 1-N 0P 1K 1)+(N 2P 2K 2-N 0P 2K 2)/2}/3
={(27.5-21.2)+(22.3-14.2)+(28.1-19.1)/2}3
=6.3kg/ district
=420.2kg/ mu (52.5kg/kgN);
The phosphate fertilizer effect
={(N 2P 2K 0-N 2P 1K 0)+(N 1P 1K 1-N 1P 0K 1)+(N 2P 2K 2-N 2P 0K 2)/2}/3
={(27.5-28.6)+(22.3-20.5)+(28.1-24.6)/2}/3
=0.82kg/ district
=54.4kg/ mu (10.9kg/kg P 2o 5);
Potash fertilizer effect={ (N 2p 2k 2-N 2p 2k 1)+(N 1p 1k 2-N 1p 1k 1)+(N 2p 2k 1-N 2p 2k 0)/3
={(28.1-29.6)+(22.9-22.3)+(29.6-27.5)}/3
=0.40kg/ district
=26.7kg/ mu (4.5kg/kg K 2o);
Can find out, the nitrogenous fertilizer effect is the highest and be significantly higher than phosphorus, potash fertilizer effect; The phosphate fertilizer effect is taken second place, and is significantly higher than the potash fertilizer effect; The potash fertilizer effect is the poorest, and application effect is not good.
3. the impact of different disposal on the polygonum capitatum quality of medicinal material: different fertilizer is used polygonum capitatum quercetin content and quality influence larger, and (table 15) differs greatly between processing.With process 3 polygonum capitatum quercetin contents the highest, process 12,2 and take second place, process 11 minimum; Polygonum capitatum Quercetin quality the highest for processing 12, process 8,10 and take second place, process 1 minimum.N, P, the K different fertilizer is used that the polygonum capitatum quercetin content is had to significant impact.Nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer are larger on the impact of polygonum capitatum quercetin content, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer application polygonum capitatum Quercetin quality are the highest.
Table 15: different disposal polygonum capitatum Quercetin quality
Annotate: test site-Niu great Chang village, Niu great Chang town, Shibing County, the time m-in March, 2010 to October, survey and produce and 18, on September of Date of Sampling-2010.
(3) brief summary
1. N, P, K different fertilizer are used the polygonum capitatum yield effect greatlyr, and between processing, difference reaches utmost point significance level, and district's group difference is not remarkable.The highest to process 9 polygonum capitatum output, process 1 polygonum capitatum output minimum.
2. the nitrogenous fertilizer effect is the highest, and is significantly higher than phosphorus, potash fertilizer; The phosphate fertilizer effect is taken second place and is significantly higher than potash fertilizer; The potash fertilizer effect is the poorest, and application effect is not good.
3. a large amount nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer are better than low amount nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer, and low amount potash fertilizer is better than a large amount potash fertilizer.Best of breed is: a large amount nitrogen, phosphorus+low amount potash fertilizer (N 2p 2k 1).
4. N, P, the K different fertilizer is used that the polygonum capitatum quercetin content is had to significant impact.Nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer are larger on the impact of polygonum capitatum quercetin content, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer application polygonum capitatum Quercetin output are the highest.
2, the different Fertilizer N Forms of polygonum capitatum and Different Potassium Fertilizer kind are used field trial
(1) experimental scheme
1. test is processed: test arranges 6 processing, and three repetitions are established in each processing, and random district group is arranged, and the community area is 10m 2(table 16).
Table 16: different Fertilizer N Forms and Different Potassium Fertilizer are used processing
2. fertilization mode: fertilizing amount is pure N8kg/ mu, P 2o 55kg/ mu, K 2o6kg/ mu.Phosphate fertilizer is all made the base manure applied once; Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60% topdresses uses; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses uses.Test is processed the community fertilizing amount in Table 17.
Table 17: process the community fertilizing amount
(2) results and analysis
1. the impact of different disposal on the polygonum capitatum root yield: from table 14 variance analysis explanation, between processing, difference reaches utmost point significance level; District's group difference reaches significance level.As seen from Table 18, process 6 polygonum capitatum output the highest, with processing, 3 differences are not remarkable, and 1,2,4,5 difference of processing reaches utmost point significance level; Process 1,2,3 difference not remarkable, and 4,5,6 difference differences of processing reach significance level.Process 5 polygonum capitatum output minimum, with processing, 4 differences are not remarkable.Find out thus, different shape nitrogenous fertilizer is all influential to polygonum capitatum output, and nitrogenous fertilizer all has significant production-increasing function to polygonum capitatum.Wherein the effect of amide nitrogen fertilizer significantly is better than ammonium fertilizer and nitrate fertilizer, and between ammonium fertilizer and nitrate fertilizer, difference is not remarkable.The Different Potassium Fertilizer kind is on polygonum capitatum output without impact, and test has no significant effect polygonum capitatum output with potassium sulphate, potassium chloride, and its effect difference is not remarkable.
Table 18: the medicinal material of polygonum capilalum output of different disposal
Annotate: test site-Niu great Chang village, Niu great Chang town, Shibing County, the time m-in March, 2010 to October, survey and produce and 18, on September of Date of Sampling-2010.
Table 19: variance analysis table
Source of variation Sum of squares Degree of freedom All square The F value Significance level
Between district's group 13.9544 2 6.9772 5.642 0.01<0.0229<0.05
Between processing 48.5044 5 9.7009 7.845 0.0031<0.01
Error 12.3656 10 1.2366 ? ?
Total variation 74.8244 17 ? ? ?
2. the impact of different disposal on the medicinal material of polygonum capilalum quercetin content: as seen from Table 20, different shape nitrogenous fertilizer, Different Potassium Fertilizer type on the polygonum capitatum quercetin content to affect difference not remarkable, and it is larger on the impact of polygonum capitatum root yield, wherein the effect of amide nitrogen fertilizer significantly is better than ammonium fertilizer and nitrate fertilizer, using on the basis of amide nitrogen fertilizer, the effect of potassium sulphate significantly is better than potassium chloride.
Table 20: different disposal polygonum capitatum quercetin content
Annotate: test site-Niu great Chang village, Niu great Chang town, Shibing County, the time m-in March, 2010 to October, survey and produce and 18, on September of Date of Sampling-2010.
(3) brief summary
1. nitrogenous fertilizer all has significant production-increasing function to polygonum capitatum, and wherein the effect of amide nitrogen fertilizer significantly is better than ammonium fertilizer and nitrate fertilizer, and between ammonium fertilizer and nitrate fertilizer, difference is not remarkable.
2. without obvious impact, its effect difference is not remarkable on polygonum capitatum output for different shape potash fertilizer.
3. different shape N, potash fertilizer on the polygonum capitatum quercetin content to affect difference not remarkable, and it is larger on the impact of polygonum capitatum root yield, wherein the effect of amide nitrogen fertilizer significantly is better than ammonium fertilizer and nitrate fertilizer, is using on the basis of amide nitrogen fertilizer, and the effect of potassium sulphate significantly is better than potassium chloride.
(3) rational application of fertilizer technology
Through the research of 2007~2010 years relevant rational applications of fertilizer and medicinal material of polygonum capilalum Yield and quality correlation, we are as follows to the short summary of medicinal material of polygonum capilalum rational application of fertilizer key technology.
1, fertilization principle
(1) take farmyard manure as main, chemical fertilizer is auxiliary: on the basis of applications of farmyard manure, use chemical fertilizer, can getting the length benefit of two seed manures, it is short, and emergency is helped mutually, improves constantly soil supplying nutrient capability.Can improve the availability of chemical fertilizer, overcome the side effect of using merely chemical fertilizer, to improve the quality of traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously.
(2) take base manure as main, it is auxiliary topdressing: due to polygonum capitatum envelope in July row, Feng Hanghou is difficult for fertilising, and therefore, the fertilising of polygonum capitatum be take base manure as main.Wherein phosphate fertilizer is all made the base manure applied once; Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60% topdresses uses; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses uses.Polygonum capitatum is topdressed should be at Feng Hangqian.Feng Hanghou, can adopt the mode of top dressing.
(3) take nitrogenous fertilizer as main, phosphorus potash fertilizer compounding application: nitrogenous fertilizer unit nutrient yield increasing effect is the most obvious, during the polygonum capitatum cultivation, should take nitrogenous fertilizer as main, coordinates phosphorus potash fertilizer balance to use, and obtains best effect of increasing production.
2, measures of fertilizer
(1) nitrogenous fertilizer type selecting: according to result of the test, the nitrogenous fertilizer type, with amide nitrogen fertilizer, is selected urea the best.
(2) determining of fertilizing amount: farmyard manure is 2000~2500kg/ mu approximately, N12kg/ mu, P 2o 510kg/ mu, K 2o6kg/ mu.According to the soil fertility situation, suitably adjust fertilizing amount.
(3) fertilizer distributes: farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer are all made the base manure applied once.Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60%g topdresses and uses in envelope row previous crops; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses and uses in envelope row previous crops.
3, points for attention
(1) according to the soil fertility situation, apply fertilizer: Niu great Chang base, Shibing County due to rich potassium, lack phosphorus, to enrich nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer in actual production, can Shaoshi or potassium application not.
(2) phosphate fertilizer: the available phosphorus content of normal superphosphate, fused calcium magnesium phosphate differs greatly, and when using two kinds of phosphate fertilizer, should be noted that its available phosphorus content.Buy the phosphate fertilizer variety of high-load as far as possible, the one, guarantee phosphorus application amount, the 2nd, reduce the heavy metal pollution that phosphate fertilizer brings.
(3) farmyard manure of using must fully become thoroughly decomposed
1. the method for becoming thoroughly decomposed: the barnyard manure of mew is taken out, pile up from level to level and compress, high to 1.5m, wide 2m.Then outside covers tightly with plastic film.
2. the standard of becoming thoroughly decomposed: without the stink before piling up, do not see original shape, color is black dull brown, piles up material softness and rots, and with pulling to pinch, very easily breaks brokenly, and pH is neutrality or alkalescence.
3. other: forbid to use domestic waste, industrial refuse and hospital waste and ight soil.
In season and the area of low temperature, drying, preferably use the fertilizer become thoroughly decomposed, to improve the gentle soil moisture conservation in ground, and fertilizer will early be executed, deep placement, to give full play to fertilizer efficiency.And, in high temperature, rainy season and area, it is fast that fertilizer decomposes, the plant capacity of decomposition is strong, thus be difficult for executing too early, topdress that it is time many to measure less, to reduce nutrient loss.
According to the work of above fertilising, have been found that in the method for either side of the present invention, when being applied fertilizer, described fertilising comprises applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer; Described fertilising is to take farmyard manure as main, and chemical fertilizer is auxiliary; Described fertilising comprises uses base manure and topdresses; Described fertilising is to take base manure as main, and it is auxiliary topdressing; Described fertilising is to take base manure as main, and it is auxiliary topdressing, and wherein phosphate fertilizer is all made the base manure applied once.Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60% topdresses uses; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses uses.Described topdressing at Feng Hangqian.Described fertilising comprises applied nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer.Described fertilising is to take nitrogenous fertilizer as main, phosphorus potash fertilizer compounding application; Described nitrogenous fertilizer is for example urea of amide nitrogen fertilizer.Described fertilising comprises applications of farmyard manure, and amount of application can obtain optimum root yield with 2000~2500kg/ mu, and during lower than this scope with higher than this scope, root yield all swashs acute decline; For example, reach maximum output during in farmyard manure amount of application 2350kg/ mu, 2000 and the output of 2500kg/ mu be respectively with respect to this maximum output 97% and 98%; But with the farmyard manure amount of application during lower than 1800kg/ mu, root yield swash acute descend and fertilizer amount more low yield descend greatlyr, for example output during 1800kg/ mu is only with respect to this maximum output 81%; But with the farmyard manure amount of application during higher than 2500kg/ mu, root yield swash acute descend and fertilizer amount more high yield descend greatlyr, for example output during 2650kg/ mu is only with respect to this maximum output 83%.Therefore in arbitrary embodiment of the present invention, the amount of application of farmyard manure is 2000~2500kg/ mu.
In addition, the inventor has been found that when using chemical fertilizer, and nitrogenous fertilizer (in N), phosphate fertilizer (in P), potash fertilizer are (with K 2the O meter) three's amount of application ratio is best at 12:10:6.With amount of nitrogenous fertilizer, fix, when the phosphate fertilizer relative quantity (for example 12:8.5:6) below 9 or more than 11 for example, when (12:11.5:6) the total Quercetin output in every mu of medicinal material (can be described as per mu yield Quercetin amount, be the every mu of Quercetin total amount in medicinal material of producing) obviously lower than the optimum spraying amount of above-mentioned 12:10:6, and when the potash fertilizer relative quantity (for example 12:10:5) below 5.4 or more than 6.6 for example, when (12:10:7) the total Quercetin output in every mu of medicinal material obviously lower than the optimum spraying amount of above-mentioned 12:10:6, and the larger decline of deviation is larger.For example,, with nitrogenous fertilizer: phosphate fertilizer: reach the highest per mu yield Quercetin amount during potash fertilizer=12:10:6; When the phosphate fertilizer relative quantity is in 9~11 scopes, per mu yield Quercetin amount is equivalent to 97~99% of the highest above-mentioned per mu yield Quercetin amount, and when the potash fertilizer relative quantity is in 5.4~6.6 scopes, per mu yield Quercetin amount is equivalent to 98~99.7% of the highest above-mentioned per mu yield Quercetin amount.
But when the phosphate fertilizer relative quantity 8.8 the time or the potash fertilizer relative quantity 5.2 the time, per mu yield Quercetin amount is equivalent to respectively 84% and 79% of the highest above-mentioned per mu yield Quercetin amount, and phosphate fertilizer or potash fertilizer relative quantity the highest lower per mu yield Quercetin amount descend larger.Also surprisingly, when the phosphate fertilizer relative quantity 11.2 the time or the potash fertilizer relative quantity 6.8 the time, per mu yield Quercetin amount is equivalent to respectively 81% and 82% of the highest above-mentioned per mu yield Quercetin amount, and phosphate fertilizer or potash fertilizer relative quantity the highest higher per mu yield Quercetin amount descend larger.Above-mentioned nitrogenous fertilizer: phosphate fertilizer: the variation of the relative amount of application of potash fertilizer and per mu yield Quercetin amount
In other again test, take above-mentioned nitrogenous fertilizer: phosphate fertilizer: the K Amounts fixed proportion is tested as 12:10:6, but the consumption of three kinds of fertilizer of synchronous change is all explained with the nitrogenous fertilizer variable quantity, have been surprisingly found that, total fertilizer amount change can cause the remarkable change of gallic acid amount.Test method: carry out with farmyard manure amount of application 2350kg/ mu, nitrogenous fertilizer: phosphate fertilizer: the Potassium Fertilizer ratio is 12:10:6, but when using chemical fertilizer, regulate applying quantity of chemical fertilizer (fixing aforementioned proportion, only with nitrogenous fertilizer, change and mean), nitrogen fertilizer amount is 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25kg/ mu, found that when nitrogen fertilizer amount is 12kg/ mu, in every mu of medicinal material, total gallic acid output (can be described as per mu yield gallic acid amount, it is the every mu of gallic acid total amount in medicinal material of producing, gallic acid is a kind of important component in medicinal material of polygonum capilalum, its assay has many art methods) reach maximum.11 and during the consumption of 13kg/ mu per mu yield gallic acid amount be equivalent to respectively 98% and 97% of the highest above-mentioned per mu yield gallic acid amount.But surprisingly, when fertilizing amount lower than/by the time in 10kg/ mu or higher than/while equaling 14kg/ mu, per mu yield gallic acid amount significantly reduces, and and fertilizer amount depart from this 12kg/ mu more per mu yield gallic acid amount reduce greatlyr, for example the per mu yield gallic acid amount of fertilizing amount 10kg/ mu and 14kg/ mu is equivalent to respectively 87% and 84% of the highest above-mentioned per mu yield gallic acid amount.
In other again test, take above-mentioned nitrogenous fertilizer: phosphate fertilizer: the K Amounts fixed proportion is tested as 12:10:6, but the consumption of three kinds of fertilizer of synchronous change is all explained with the nitrogenous fertilizer variable quantity, have been surprisingly found that, total fertilizer amount change can cause the remarkable change of gallic acid amount.Test method: carry out with farmyard manure amount of application 2350kg/ mu, nitrogenous fertilizer: phosphate fertilizer: the Potassium Fertilizer ratio is 12:10:6, but when using chemical fertilizer, regulate applying quantity of chemical fertilizer (fixing aforementioned proportion, only with nitrogenous fertilizer, change and mean), nitrogen fertilizer amount is 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25kg/ mu, found that when nitrogen fertilizer amount is 12kg/ mu, in every mu of medicinal material, total gallic acid output (can be described as per mu yield gallic acid amount, it is the every mu of gallic acid total amount in medicinal material of producing, gallic acid is a kind of important component in medicinal material of polygonum capilalum, its assay has many art methods) reach maximum.11 and during the consumption of 13kg/ mu per mu yield gallic acid amount be equivalent to respectively 98% and 97% of the highest above-mentioned per mu yield gallic acid amount.But surprisingly, when fertilizing amount lower than/by the time in 10kg/ mu or higher than/while equaling 14kg/ mu, per mu yield gallic acid amount significantly reduces, and and fertilizer amount depart from this 12kg/ mu more per mu yield gallic acid amount reduce greatlyr, for example the per mu yield gallic acid amount of fertilizing amount 10kg/ mu and 14kg/ mu is equivalent to respectively 87% and 84% of the highest above-mentioned per mu yield gallic acid amount.
Therefore, in an embodiment of either side of the present invention, fertilising comprises applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer (nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer).In an embodiment of either side of the present invention, described farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer are all made the base manure applied once.In an embodiment of either side of the present invention, nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60%g topdresses and uses in envelope row previous crops.In an embodiment of either side of the present invention, potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses and uses in envelope row previous crops.In an embodiment of either side of the present invention, the farmyard manure amount of application is 2000~2500kg/ mu, preferably 2350kg/ mu.In an embodiment of either side of the present invention, nitrogenous fertilizer (in N), phosphate fertilizer (in P), potash fertilizer are (with K 2the O meter) three's amount of application ratio is 12:9~10:5.4~6.6, preferably 12:10:6.In an embodiment of either side of the present invention, applying quantity of chemical fertilizer is counted 11~13kg/ mu in nitrogenous fertilizer (with N), preferably 12kg/ mu.In an embodiment of either side of the present invention, applying quantity of chemical fertilizer is nitrogenous fertilizer (in N) 12kg/ mu, phosphate fertilizer (in P) 10kg/ mu, and potash fertilizer is (with K 2the O meter) 6kg/ mu.In an embodiment of either side of the present invention, farmyard manure amount of application 2000~2500kg/ mu, applying quantity of chemical fertilizer is nitrogenous fertilizer (in N) 12kg/ mu, phosphate fertilizer (in P) 10kg/ mu, potash fertilizer is (with K 2the O meter) 6kg/ mu.
(4) problem and suggestion
1, crop yield and quality are the results of nutritive element comprehensive function, and this test has only been carried out field trial to nitrogen, phosphorus, the potassium three elements that affect the polygonum capitatum yield and quality, trace element in Calcium Magnesium Sulphur, iron, manganese, boron etc. are not conducted a research.Micro-element nutrition effect study in polygonum capitatum is carried out in suggestion, for further improving the polygonum capitatum yield and quality, provides technical support.
2, the suitable nitrogen of polygonum capitatum, phosphorus, potassium three essential fertilizer ratio have been explored in test, and suggestion exploitation polygonum capitatum composite fertilizer special, improve in large tracts of land production, particularly Cotton Varieties by Small Farming Households the arrival rate of polygonum capitatum measures of fertilizer.
four, the extermination of disease and insect pest
The plant protection policy " put prevention first, integrated control " of China of take is principle, according to national traditional Chinese medicine GAP, produce and the national green product requirement, by a series of comprehensive preventive health measuress, create one and be conducive to polygonum capitatum and grow and be unfavorable for the environment that damage by disease and insect occurs, by Pest management within the scope of economic injury level.
five, interplanting, crop rotation experimental study
(1) interplanting experimental study
After polygonum capitatum GAP authentication in 2006, we carried out the interplanting test of polygonum capitatum (density is 25m * 25m) with soya bean different densities (in the furrow face both sides of making wide 1m, high 10cm, the spacing in the rows of pressing 10cm, 15cm, 20cm) in 2008.Output and the economic benefit of polygonum capitatum interplanting different densities soya bean, in Table 21,22.
Table 21: medicinal material and the yield of soybean (kg) of polygonum capitatum interplanting different densities soya bean
Annotate: (1) is surveyed and produced area is 50m 2, its output is the amount of gathering of 1 time in September; (2) contrast is not for interplanting soya bean; (3) above-mentioned test period is 2008, lower same.
Table 22: the economic benefit of polygonum capitatum interplanting different densities soya bean
Annotate: be the market price calculating with soya bean by medicinal material in 2008.
From, the root yield of interplanting soya bean does not have significant difference, and by the output of spacing in the rows 10cm, 15cm, 20cm interplanting soya bean, different is arranged respectively, than contrast, increases income respectively 412 yuan/mu, 444 yuan/mu, 197 yuan/mu, can improve soil per mu yield income; But soya bean planting density spacing in the rows is advisable with 15cm.
(2) crop rotation experimental study
After polygonum capitatum GAP in 2006 authentication in the past few years, we set up different test plots number since 2008 in large experiment and demonstration base of Shibing ox, carry out respectively the crop rotation (planting density of polygonum capitatum all is as the criterion with 25cm * 25cm, and other medicinal material is with general planting density research experiment) of polygonum capitatum and radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris on different sample ground number.
1, crop rotation test
Polygonum capitatum and radix pseudostellariae, peppermint crop rotation 1 year, all after polygonum capitatum is gathered September, carry out radix pseudostellariae or thin He kind is planted November, and after crown prince participates in and gathers the June of next year, peppermint was gathered the August of next year, Second Year carries out the polygonum capitatum crop rotation again; With iris crop rotation 3 years,, after polygonum capitatum 9 is gathered, October, carry out the iris plantation, after 3 years, September, to gather, next year is carried out the polygonum capitatum crop rotation again.
2, result of the test: in Table 23,24.
Table 23: polygonum capitatum and radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris crop rotation tests study analysis record sheet
Table 24: land utilization rate analytical table
Therefore, the output of polygonum capitatum continuous cropping on same plot has and is downward trend year by year, later not only can improve the output of polygonum capitatum with radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris crop rotation, can reach the stable high yield purpose, but also can improve the growing environment of other medicinal material, greatly improved the income of unit are, for a crucial step has been walked out in the development of polygonum capitatum GAP industry.But, about polygonum capitatum also needs further to explore and research from the crop rotation test of more crop and different medicinal material kinds.
The plantation medicinal material of polygonum capilalum is gathered and is processed, and can carry out according to those skilled in the art's known method or experience, can also carry out with reference to following mode:
(1) collecting time: can gather twice every year, but must about July, gather for the first time, do not surpass the latest for the second time early October, guarantee can seal row before frost arrives, prevent freeze injury, pass the winter safely in order to polygonum capitatum, if only gather once, 7-10 all can gather the first tenday period of a month month;
(2) collecting method: extract acrial part with reaping hook, base portion retains old stem 10-15cm, in order to shoot, sprouts;
(3) processing method is selected from:
1) dry: gather the same day, and put in drying room and dry, temperature is controlled at 50 ℃ of left and right, within general 24 hours, can dry, and the rate of giving money as a gift is 20% left and right;
2) dry: select fine day, dry on the spot;
3) dry in the shade: choose back, put the ventilation be not caught in the rain and dry in the shade.

Claims (10)

1. heat is drenched the implantation methods of clear particle with medicinal material Polygonum capitatum, and the method comprises the following steps:
(1) select to be applicable to the planting site of polygonum capitatum growth;
(2) wholely;
(3) lifting;
(4) transplant planting and filling the gaps with seedlings;
(5) field management, wherein at least comprise with next aspect: intertill and clean tillage, irrigation and drainage waterlogging prevention, fertilising, the extermination of disease and insect pest, interplanting, crop rotation;
(6) gather and process.
2. according to the method for claim 1, the method comprises the following steps:
(1) select to be applicable to the planting site of polygonum capitatum growth, gentle slope or level land that this planting site is height above sea level 600-1500m area, and there is the soil that soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, fertile, irrigation condition is good;
(2) whole ground, it is more than before frost arrives, soil deeptillage reaches 30cm, utilizes the low temperature in winter freeze to death part insect, harmful microorganism etc.;
(3) lifting, it is to carry out in late April to mid-May, the seedbed seedling of booth or land for growing field crops shed breeding is carried out to lifting, or cave dish breeding seedling is carried out to lifting;
(4) transplant planting and filling the gaps with seedlings: by the end of April, to mid-May, in cloudy, rainy day or fine day, transplanted afternoon, filling the gaps with seedlings is in 1 week, to check the growth of cereal crop seedlings every day after transplanting, finds to be short of seedling, and fills the gaps with seedlings in time;
(5) field management wherein at least comprises with next aspect:
I) intertill and clean tillage: after transplanting 1 week, with hoe, carry out loosening soil, weeding for the first time, and should be strictly on guard against that moving root hinders seedling; Later once careless every 10 days hoes, until the envelope row;
Ii) irrigate and drainage waterlogging prevention: irrigate and refer to continuous and while not raining more than 5 days, carry out man-made irrigation; Described drainage waterlogging prevention refer to before transplanting open railway carriage or compartment wholely the time dug drain ditch along physical features, guarantee the unobstructed discharge of rainwater in rainy season;
Iii) fertilising: comprise applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer, and take farmyard manure as main, chemical fertilizer is auxiliary;
Iv) extermination of disease and insect pest: putting prevention first, the mode of integrated control carries out;
V) interplanting: interplant with soya bean;
Vi) crop rotation: be selected from following plant crop rotation: radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris;
(6) gather and process: gather July to October, then adopts the mode of drying, drying, drying in the shade to be processed.
3. according to the method for claim 1 to 2, wherein in step (1):
Gentle slope or level land that selected planting site is height above sea level 600-1500m area;
Selected planting site atmospheric environment should meet the regulation requirement of national GB3095-1996 " ambient air quality ";
Selected planting site has the soil that soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, fertile, irrigation condition is good;
Selected planting site meets the regulation requirement of national GAP Bases of Chinese Medicinal Crops soil environment quality GB15618-1995 " standard of soil environment quality (dry farming) "; And/or
Selected planting site possesses the water source that meets national GB5084-1992 " agricultural irrigation water quality standard (dry farming) " secondary standard.
4. according to the method for claims 1 to 3, wherein in step (2):
Be more than soil deeptillage reaches 30cm before frost arrives wholely, utilize the low temperature in winter freeze to death part insect, harmful microorganism etc.; And/or
Whole ground further is included in transplants first 3~5 days, removes and chooses the foreign material such as weeds, stone in plot, with hoe, breaks up the clods, and makes the furrow of wide 1m, high 10cm, furrow spacing 30~40cm; Plough under subsequently in soil, mix in conjunction with whole fine earth earth and furrow soil, pick up various weeds perennial roots and larger chad simultaneously, then play furrow and drag for flat furrow face with hoe.
5. according to the method for claim 1 to 4, wherein in step (3):
Lifting is to carry out in late April to mid-May;
Lifting is that the seedbed seedling to the breeding of booth or land for growing field crops shed carries out lifting;
Playing seedling-growing method is: in transplanting, seedbed is sprayed permeable the previous day, within the 2nd day, choose the seed shoots that meets the seedling quality standard, with the thumb of hand, food, in 3 fingers pinch the seedling base portion, one by one seedling is pulled up gently, the straw of water maceration is bundled into handle, then be placed in clean pollution-free vessel, cover wet cloth, be transported to and transplant ground;
Lifting is that cave dish breeding seedling is carried out to lifting;
Playing seedling-growing method is: directly the seedling dish is transported between transplant field, with hand, seedling and matrix are tripped out, plant while rising; And/or
Lifting is lifting transplanting on the same day on the same day.
6. according to the method for claim 1 to 5, wherein in step (4):
The transplant planting time is for by the end of April to mid-May;
Transplant planting is transplanted at the moon, rainy day or fine day afternoon;
During transplant planting, planting density is 25cm * 25cm;
During transplant planting, adopt cave to plant, plant height 7~8cm left and right of selecting to choose in the booth seedbed, leaf age, between 7~8 leaves, and in the same size, robust growth, well developed root system, is transplanted as transplant without the polygonum capitatum seedling of damage by disease and insect;
During transplant planting, dig the cave of dark about 5cm with little iron hoe, put into a young plant, the earthing compacting, then water normal root water; And/or
Filling the gaps with seedlings is in 1 week, to check the growth of cereal crop seedlings every day after transplanting, finds to be short of seedling, and fills the gaps with seedlings in time.
7. according to the method for claim 1 to 6, wherein in step (5):
Intertill and clean tillage is after transplanting 1 week, with hoe, carries out loosening soil, weeding for the first time, and should be strictly on guard against that moving root hinders seedling; Later once careless every 10 days hoes, until envelope row (whole furrow face is paved with polygonum capitatum); Feng Hanghou must manual weed out the rank grass to the first half of the month of gathering;
Do not use weed killer herbicide whole vegetative period at polygonum capitatum;
Irrigation refers to continuous while not raining more than 5 days, carries out man-made irrigation;
The man-made irrigation time is before 11 o'clock mornings or after at 17 o'clock in afternoon;
Drainage waterlogging prevention refer to before transplanting open railway carriage or compartment wholely the time dug drain ditch along physical features, guarantee the unobstructed discharge of rainwater in rainy season; And/or
Drainage waterlogging prevention refers to, within whole vegetative period, checks the field drainage situation every day in rainy season, if find the plot of ponding, should dredge in time draining, is strictly on guard against that ponding causes rotten of polygonum capitatum.
8. according to the method for claim 1 to 7, wherein in step (5):
Described fertilising comprises applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer;
Described fertilising is to take farmyard manure as main, and chemical fertilizer is auxiliary;
Described fertilising comprises uses base manure and topdresses;
Described fertilising is to take base manure as main, and it is auxiliary topdressing;
Described fertilising is to take base manure as main, and it is auxiliary topdressing, and wherein phosphate fertilizer is all made the base manure applied once; Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60% topdresses uses; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses uses;
Described topdressing at Feng Hangqian;
Described fertilising comprises applied nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer;
Described fertilising is to take nitrogenous fertilizer as main, phosphorus potash fertilizer compounding application;
Described nitrogenous fertilizer is for example urea of amide nitrogen fertilizer;
Described fertilising comprises applications of farmyard manure 2000~2500kg/ mu, nitrogenous fertilizer 12kg/ mu, phosphate fertilizer 10kg/ mu, potash fertilizer K2O6kg/ mu;
Described farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer are all made the base manure applied once; Nitrogenous fertilizer 40% is made base manure, and 60%g topdresses and uses in envelope row previous crops; Potash fertilizer 60% is made base manure, and 40% topdresses and uses in envelope row previous crops; And/or
Described farmyard manure is the farmyard manure through fully becoming thoroughly decomposed.
9. according to the method for claim 1 to 8, wherein in step (5):
The described extermination of disease and insect pest be put prevention first, the mode of integrated control carries out;
Described interplanting can be to interplant with soya bean; The spacing in the rows of each density in planting of described soya bean is 15cm;
Described crop rotation is and is selected from following plant crop rotation: radix pseudostellariae, peppermint, iris;
Described crop rotation is and radix pseudostellariae or peppermint crop rotation, crop rotation method is: polygonum capitatum and radix pseudostellariae, peppermint crop rotation 1 year, all after polygonum capitatum is gathered September, carry out radix pseudostellariae or thin He kind is planted November, after crown prince participates in and gathers the June of next year, peppermint was gathered the August of next year, Second Year carries out the polygonum capitatum crop rotation again; And/or
Described crop rotation is and the iris crop rotation; Crop rotation method is: with iris crop rotation 3 years,, after polygonum capitatum 9 is gathered, October, carry out the iris plantation, gather September after 3 years, next year is carried out the polygonum capitatum crop rotation again.
10. according to the method for claim 1 to 9, wherein in step (6):
Described gathering is to gather in July to October; Described gathering is to gather once or secondary in July to October;
Described gathering is to extract acrial part with reaping hook; And/or
Described processing method is selected from: dry, dry, dry in the shade.
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CN104855111A (en) * 2015-05-28 2015-08-26 安顺市西秀区春实绿化苗木有限公司 Method for planting polygonum capitatum
CN104855072A (en) * 2015-04-03 2015-08-26 梁志华 Planting method for improving quality and yield of Chinese thorowax root
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104855072A (en) * 2015-04-03 2015-08-26 梁志华 Planting method for improving quality and yield of Chinese thorowax root
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CN108064645A (en) * 2017-11-22 2018-05-25 怒江昂可达农林生物科技开发有限公司 A kind of panax japonicus majoris fast breeding implantation methods
CN111345219A (en) * 2020-03-25 2020-06-30 贵州弘康药业有限公司 Special base fertilizer for planting polygonum capitatum and fertilizing method
CN111373990A (en) * 2020-03-25 2020-07-07 贵州弘康药业有限公司 Polygonum capitatum planting method
CN111373989A (en) * 2020-03-25 2020-07-07 贵州弘康药业有限公司 Method for planting polygonum capitatum by taking herb residues as base fertilizer

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Denomination of invention: Method for planting polygonum capitatum as medicinal material of Relinqing granule

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