CN102845648B - Chinese herbal medicine feed additive for enhancing growth of prawns - Google Patents

Chinese herbal medicine feed additive for enhancing growth of prawns Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102845648B
CN102845648B CN 201210366543 CN201210366543A CN102845648B CN 102845648 B CN102845648 B CN 102845648B CN 201210366543 CN201210366543 CN 201210366543 CN 201210366543 A CN201210366543 A CN 201210366543A CN 102845648 B CN102845648 B CN 102845648B
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chinese herbal
feed additive
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prawn
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CN102845648A (en
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高桂生
史秋梅
张艳英
葛慕湘
靳晓敏
何振平
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QINHUANGDAO LIANGFENG MARINE ECOLOGY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CO., LTD.
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Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses a Chinese herbal medicine feed additive for enhancing the growth of prawns. The Chinese herbal medicine feed additive is characterized by comprising the following materials in parts by weight: 2-3 parts of radix achyranthis bidentatae, 2-3 parts of uniflower swisscentaury root, 2-3 parts of isatis root, 2-4 parts of eucommia ulmoides, 0.5-1 part of rheum officinale, 3-4 parts of echinacea, 3-4 parts of poria cocos and 1-2 parts of liquorice. The Chinese herbal medicine feed additive for enhancing the growth of prawns is added in feed to prepare granular bait. The Chinese herbal medicine feed additive for enhancing the growth of prawns disclosed by the invention has the advantages that the source of the material is wide, the price is cheap, and the production process is simple; for culturing the prawns, the growth can be effectively enhanced, and the disease is prevented; and the use is convenient, the cost is low and the safety and no toxic and side effect are achieved.

Description

Promote the Chinese herbal feed additive of prawn growth
Technical field
The present invention relates to the Chinese herbal feed additive that prawn culturing is used, be specifically related to a kind of Chinese herbal feed additive that promotes the prawn growth.
Background technology
Prawn is because of its meat flavour deliciousness, high protein, and low fat, nutritious, become the cuisines that people extremely praise highly, its consumption figure increases fast, thereby has driven the rapid expansion of prawn culturing scale.In recent years, in prawn culturing is produced, in order to promote growth, prevent that disease from taking place, a large amount of antibiotic are abused and are caused the cultured prawn outlet not smooth, and the food security fear that causes thus, bring heavy strike for the aquatic products aquaculture, seriously restricted the sound development of shrimp culture industry.For this reason, people constantly seek growth rate and the premunition that secure way improves prawn culturing; That Chinese herbal medicine has is natural, efficient, toxic and side effect is little, the resistance to the action of a drug not significantly, advantage such as noresidue, raising premunition be obvious, being applied to prawn culturing is a kind of development trend.The disclosed Chinese herbal feed additive of prior art, the effect that is applied to prawn culturing is not fully up to expectations.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is at the problems referred to above, a kind of Chinese herbal feed additive that promotes the prawn growth is provided, this Chinese herbal feed additive production cost is low, easy to use, is used for prawn culturing and can effectively promotes the prawn growth, the control shrimp disease.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of Chinese herbal feed additive that promotes the prawn growth, and it is made by the following weight proportion raw material: root of bidentate achyranthes 2-3 part, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis 2-3 part, Radix Isatidis 2-3 part, bark of eucommia 2-4 part, rheum officinale 0.5-1 part, Echinacea 3-4 part, Poria cocos 3-4 part, Radix Glycyrrhizae 1-2 part.
The present invention promotes the preferred feedstock weight proportion of the Chinese herbal feed additive of prawn growth to be: 2 parts of the roots of bidentate achyranthes, 2 parts of Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis, 2 parts of Radix Isatidis, 4 parts of the barks of eucommia, 1 part of rheum officinale, 4 parts of Echinaceas, 4 parts in Poria cocos, 1 part in Radix Glycyrrhizae.
The each component pharmacological effect is in the prescription of the present invention:
Root of bidentate achyranthes effect: root of bidentate achyranthes another name radix achyranthis bidentatae, achyranthes aspera, ox stem etc.Root for the amaranthaceous plant root of bidentate achyranthes.Property is put down, bitter, acid.Return liver, kidney channel.Its Main Ingredients and Appearance has triterpene saponin, polysaccharide, peptide class, ketosteroid etc., and ketosteroid mainly contains various insects metamorphosis hormones such as ecdysterone, Inokosterone and rubrosterone, still contains sylvite and mucilaginous substance in addition, and trace element has nickel, iron, copper, manganese, chromium etc.Ecdysone and Inokosterone can promote that protein and glycogen are synthetic in the liver, promote that shellfish casts off a skin.Have strengthening the bones and muscles, pursue the effect that the stasis of blood is stimulated the menstrual flow.Be used for loose hemostasis, subduing inflammation, growth promotion.
The Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis effect: Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis another name hammer flower, magnificent state Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis, centaurea monanthos Georgi, radix echinopsis latifolii etc. are the root of feverfew centaurea monanthos Georgi or radix echinopsis latifolii.Bitter is salty, and is cold.Return stomach, large intestine channel.The centaurea monanthos Georgi root contains volatile oil, and Xinjiang Echinops latifolius seed contains echinopsine and echinine, also contains ketosteroid compouds, and is identical with the pharmacologically active of ecdysterone.Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis water logging agent has in various degree inhibitory action to dermatophytes such as star-shaped nocardias in vitro.There are clearing heat and detoxicating, the carbuncle that disappears, Shujin to promote blood circulation, promote the effect that shellfish casts off a skin.Be used for ulcer carbuncle on the back, scrofula sore, arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness contraction, growth promotion etc.
The Radix Isatidis effect: indigo-blue of Radix Isatidis another name commonly used, indigo root, manyflower glorybower root are the root of crucifer ancient name for Chinese cabbage basket.Bitter, cold.Return liver, stomach warp.Contain indigo, indigo red, anthraquinone class, cupreol, clionasterol and several amino acids.Decoction has bacteriostasis to gram positive bacteria and negative bacterium; The acetone extract of root and leaf also has bacteriostasis.Ether extract 1% concentration plate punch method has inhibitory action to staphylococcus aureus.The effect that heat-clearing, detoxifcation, cool blood are arranged.Be used for febrile virulent maculae, high heat, major part pestilence, the infection of various bacteriums, virus.
Bark of eucommia effect: the bark of eucommia is the dry bark of the Eucommiaceae plant bark of eucommia.The sweet little suffering of nature and flavor, temperature.Return liver, kidney channel.Bark of eucommia skin, leaf contain 14 kinds of lignanoids and lignanoid's glucoside, and the plain disaccharide glucoside of rosin, flavone compound, contained flavone compound are mainly Kaempferol, Quercetin, Chinese milk vetch glycosides, land brocade glycosides, rutin.From bark of eucommia skin, also be separated to cupreol, ursolic acid, vanillic acid, bark of eucommia skin and leaf also contain 15 kinds of trace elements such as 17 kinds of free amino acids comprising phenylalanine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, glutamic acid, cystine, histidine and germanium, selenium, zinc, copper, iron, vitamin C, vitamin E, Cobastab and beta carotene etc.Have rubbish in the body of removing, strengthen metabolism, prevent effects such as muscle skeleton is aging, decomposer inner cholesterol, reduction body fat, broad-spectrum antiseptic, raising blood middle leukocytes quantity, enhancing immunity of organisms.
Rheum officinale effect: rheum officinale another name general, yellow good, fiery ginseng, Sichuan troops etc.Dry root and rhizome for polygonum rheum palmatum, the ancient especially big Huang of Tang or Rheum officinale.The nature and flavor hardship, cold.Return spleen, stomach, large intestine, liver, pericardium channel.Roots and stems of rhubarb contains dissociated anthraquinone derivatives such as Rhein, archen, Chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, Physcion.The Rhein that contains, archen, aloe-emodin have effects such as anti-inflammation.Rheum officinale is to sensitivities such as staphylococcus, hemolytic streptococcus, micrococcus gonococcus, corynebacterium diphtheriae, typhoid bacillus, shigella dysenteriaes, effective to influenza virus, hepatitis B, poliovirus etc., other responsive microorganisms there are Amoeba, blood fluke and Leptospira etc.Stomach invigorating, astriction when taking, low dose are arranged.The contained tannin of rheum officinale has good antioxidation, and anthraquinone derivative can suppress non-specific immune function.The effect of attacking stagnant, clearing away damp-heat, purging intense heat, cool blood, detoxifcation is arranged; Be used for that real hot constipation, the thermojunction feeling of stuffiness in chest, damp-heat dysentery, jaundice, oedema abdomen are full, the diseases such as infection of bacterial virus.
The Poria cocos effect: Poria cocos is commonly called as Yun Ling, Song Ling, Fu spirit, for colonizing in the fungi plant on the pine roots.The Poria cocos flavor is sweet, and is light flat.The thoughts of returning home, lung, the spleen channel.Effective ingredient has polysaccharide to be mainly pachyman, carboxymethyl pachymose, the not acid of triterpene carboxylic acid pachymic acid, soil, eburicoic acid, loose Siberian cocklebur acid, loose Siberian cocklebur eo-acid etc.In addition, contain histidine, adenine, choline, β-pachyman enzyme, protease, sad, laurate, palmitic acid, fat, lecithin, ergosterol, phosphatid ylcholine and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine etc.Poria cocos can strengthen body's immunity.Effect with eliminating dampness and diuresis, strengthening the spleen and stomach.The swelling of can harnessing the river is full, it is contrary to vomit, vomiting during early pregnancy, disease such as have loose bowels.
Echinacea effect: Echinacea another name Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea.Contain polysaccharide, flavones, caffeinic derivative, essential oil, polyyne, alkylamine and alkaloid.Echinacea has immunostimulation, reduces inflammation, and helps body to antibacterium and virus.Relevant test shows uses the Echinacea feeding animals, can improve the quantity of phagocytic activity and the periphery lymphocyte of neutrophil cell, the immunocompetence of effective stimulus animal body.Effects such as antibiotic, antiallergy are arranged, and external in vivo have cytophagy facilitation and an antiviral activity.
Radix Glycyrrhizae effect: Radix Glycyrrhizae another name lantern, close sweet, close grass, old, the sweet grass of state.It is sweet to distinguish the flavor of, flat.Return spleen, stomach, lung channel.Mainly contain compositions such as glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, 24-hydroxyl enoxolone, licoflavone, glycyrrhizin, isoliquiritigenin, licorice polysaccharide, have the effects such as phagocytic function of antiulcer, adjusting macrophage.Glycyrrhizic acid is natural antidote, can be used for body anti-ageing, strengthen immunity, keep water-electrolyte metabolism balance etc.; Licorice polysaccharide has anti-adenovirus type III, herpes simplex virus I-form activity.Have invigorate the spleen and benefit qi, the effect of clearing heat and detoxicating, coordinating the drug actions of a prescription.Be used for body weakness, lassitude hypodynamia, gastral cavity abdomen, carbuncle sore tumefacting virus, cushion toxicity and strong etc.
Prescription foundation of the present invention: Chinese herbal medicine can improve prawn growth and bait utilization after deliberation, can prevent and treat shrimp disease again.The growth of prawn must rely on shelling, and under the suitable situation of environment, the about 4~6d of the young shrimp of body weight 1~5g shells once, and above general two weeks of prawn of 15g shell once, the hardening of prawn shelling 1~2d back cover, and growth is at this moment accelerated.Prawn is the most weak period of shrimp body during shelling, is invaded by cause of disease easily, and each shelling all is the life difficulty of prawn, thus make every effort to prawn shelling speed unanimity, and shorten the shelling time, the generation of various diseases could improve the survival rate of prawn during the pre-anti-hulling.According to the growth rhythm of prawn, use in good time can promote the Chinese herbal feed additive of prawn growth, is conducive to shelling, the growth of prawn.Contain compositions such as saponin(e, ecdysterone in the root of bidentate achyranthes, the Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis in the present invention's prescription, can promote prawn to cast off a skin and growth; Radix Isatidis, the bark of eucommia, rheum officinale contain multiple anti-gram-negative bacteria and anti-gram positive bacteria and antiviral composition, can be clearing heat and detoxicating, and anti-inflammation; The bark of eucommia, Echinacea, Poria cocos contain nutritions such as several amino acids, vitamin, polysaccharide, inorganic salts, flavones and trace element, can promote the prawn growth and strengthen the nospecific immunity effect; Radix Glycyrrhizae is regulated body's immunity, sweet Wen Yiqi, coordinating the drug actions of a prescription; Prescription adds in the feed in proportion, can reach the effect that promotes shelling growth, clearing heat and detoxicating, anti-inflammation, raising immunity of organisms and premunition; This Chinese herbal feed additive is applicable to each use in growth period of prawn.
The present invention promotes the Chinese herbal feed additive of prawn growth, is on the basis of having carried out a large amount of practical applications, according to the traditional medicine ancient prescription, forms in conjunction with prawn physiology, modern immunologic theoretical screening.The present invention promotes that the raw material sources of the Chinese herbal feed additive that prawn grows are extensive, low price, and production technology is simple.The present invention promotes the Chinese herbal feed additive of prawn growth to be used for prawn culturing, can promote growth, prevent and treat disease, easy to use, with low cost, safe without toxic side effect.
The specific embodiment
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with embodiment.
Embodiment:
1, takes by weighing raw material respectively: root of bidentate achyranthes 100g, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis 100g, Radix Isatidis 100g, bark of eucommia 200g, rheum officinale 50g, Echinacea 200g, Poria cocos 200g, Radix Glycyrrhizae 50g;
2, above-mentioned raw materials is ground into fine powder respectively, crosses 100 mesh sieves;
3, the above-mentioned raw materials powder is fully mixed, the present invention promote the Chinese herbal feed additive of prawn growth.
The present invention promotes the Chinese herbal feed additive of prawn growth to add in the feed, makes granular bait for fish and feeds.
Culture experiment: culture experiment continued for 8 weeks, add Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention the influence that Chinese prawn shells is seen Table 1, add Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention the influence of Chinese prawn nospecific immunity index is seen Table 2, add Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention the influence of Chinese prawn growth is seen Table 3.
Table 1 adds Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention to the influence of Chinese prawn shelling
Figure DEST_PATH_IMAGE001
As can be seen from Table 1, after adding Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention, the prawn shelling can be shortened 5-7d the time, the shelling death rate and the non-shelling death rate reduce 2-4 doubly about, but add each group difference of Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention not significantly (P〉0.05).Do not add the Chinese herbal feed additive group shelling death rate 18% of the present invention, adding feed addictive group concentration of the present invention is 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, the shelling death rate is respectively 3.5%, 3.0%, 3.1%, three groups of differences are not remarkable, and do not add the Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention shelling death rate 18% and compare significant difference (P<0.05).Owing to the death rate after adding Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention reduces greatly, the quantity that successfully shells obviously increases simultaneously.Therefore, do not compare with adding Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention, the prawn gross weight is improved respectively in the unit water surface, and is the highest with 0.5% group.
Table 2 adds Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention to the influence of Chinese prawn nospecific immunity index
Group Lysozyme concentration u/ml Phenol oxidase concentration OD/mol Superoxide dismutase u/mol Haemocyte sum * 10 6Individual/ml
Do not add additive of the present invention 0.142 44.23 48.56 2.40
0.1% group of additive of the present invention 0.156 53.22 49.69 3.57
0.5% group of additive of the present invention 0.171 56.13 49.80 3.82
1% group of additive of the present invention 0.182 54.91 50.66 3.52
As can be seen from Table 2, lysozyme concentration brings up to 1% and significantly rise along with adding Chinese herbal feed additive concentration of the present invention in the feed from 0.1% in the Chinese prawn serum, do not add in the Chinese herbal feed additive group prawn serum of the present invention lysozyme concentration and significantly be lower than and add Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention, and it is not remarkable to add 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% Chinese herbal feed additive group lysozyme concentration differences of the present invention.Chinese herbal feed additive concentration of the present invention in the feed is increased to 0.5% from 0.1%, and phenol oxidase concentration work raises in the prawn serum, yet along with Chinese herbal feed additive concentration of the present invention in the feed is increased at 1% o'clock from 0.5%, phenol oxidase concentration significantly reduces.It is not remarkable to the influence of serum superoxide dismutases concentration to add Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention in the feed, although the superoxide dismutase concentration of 1% Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention is the highest, however ANOVA showed significant, each group difference is not remarkable.The haemocyte sum does not add Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention and significantly is lower than and adds Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention in the prawn blood plasma, and it is not remarkable to add 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% Chinese herbal feed additive haemocyte sum group difference of the present invention.Be to add concentration and the haemocyte sum that Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention can significantly improve prawn lysozyme and phenol oxidase in the feed.Best with 0.5% interpolation group.
Table 3 adds Chinese herbal feed additive of the present invention to the Chinese prawn growth influenced unit: cm, g, %
Group Just body is long End-body is long First body weight End-body is heavy Relative growth rate The relative weight gain rate
Do not add additive of the present invention 10.27 10.47 9.2 11.3 1.95 22.83
0.1% group of additive of the present invention 10.22 10.55 8.9 11.1 3.20 24.71
0.5% group of additive of the present invention 10.21 10.61 8.9 11.6 3.92 30.33
1% group of additive of the present invention 10.26 10.53 9.2 11.2 2.63 21.70
As can be seen from Table 3, throw something and feed contain the feed of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention after, the growth rate of prawn and the relative weight gain rate all are significantly improved, and do not add Chinese herbal feed additive group significant difference of the present invention (P<0.05).The growth rate of not adding Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention after the off-test is 2.63 %~3.20%, and the relative weight gain rate is 21.70 %~30.33%; And the growth rate of 0.5% Chinese herbal feed additive group of the present invention reaches 3.92%, and the relative weight gain rate reaches 30.33%, and is better with 0.5% Chinese herbal feed additive group effect of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. Chinese herbal feed additive that promotes prawn growth is characterized in that it is made by the following weight proportion raw material: root of bidentate achyranthes 2-3 part, Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis 2-3 part, Radix Isatidis 2-3 part, bark of eucommia 2-4 part, rheum officinale 0.5-1 part, Echinacea 3-4 part, Poria cocos 3-4 part, Radix Glycyrrhizae 1-2 part.
2. the Chinese herbal feed additive of promotion according to claim 1 prawn growth is characterized in that it is made by the following weight proportion raw material: 2 parts of the roots of bidentate achyranthes, 2 parts of Radix Rhapontici seu Radix Echinopsis, 2 parts of Radix Isatidis, 4 parts of the barks of eucommia, 1 part of rheum officinale, 4 parts of Echinaceas, 4 parts in Poria cocos, 1 part in Radix Glycyrrhizae.
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CN105393957A (en) * 2015-11-16 2016-03-16 袁生咬 Aquaculture method for freshwater shrimp incubation seedling
CN105639205A (en) * 2016-01-23 2016-06-08 黄庆辉 Chinese herbal medicine feed additive capable of lowering death rate of macrobrachium rosenbergii
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CN107927449A (en) * 2017-12-04 2018-04-20 李六秀 The preparation method of microbial fermentation prawn feed
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CN115590113A (en) * 2022-10-14 2023-01-13 宁波大学(Cn) Chrysanthemum indicum feed additive and application thereof in prawn culture
CN116268193B (en) * 2023-04-17 2023-11-03 广东信豚生物科技有限公司 Composition for promoting growth and shelling of shrimps and crabs and preparation method thereof

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