CN102318502B - Root grating and seedling raising method of beach plum - Google Patents

Root grating and seedling raising method of beach plum Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102318502B
CN102318502B CN 201110287801 CN201110287801A CN102318502B CN 102318502 B CN102318502 B CN 102318502B CN 201110287801 CN201110287801 CN 201110287801 CN 201110287801 A CN201110287801 A CN 201110287801A CN 102318502 B CN102318502 B CN 102318502B
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grafting
root
seedling
dosage
scion
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CN102318502A (en
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宰学明
朱士农
纪易帆
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Jinling Institute of Technology
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Jinling Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of plant asexual propagation, and particularly relates to a root grating and seedling raising method of beach plum. By using the method, the problems that the interfaces of the grafted beach plum seedlings are easy to rot, the stock root dies, the survival rate is low and the grafted seedling stage management is complicated are overcome, the growth and development and rejuvenation of roots, stalks and leaves in the beach plum seedling grafting process are enhanced by acclimatization, the field plantation survival rate is greatly improved, and a solid foundation is laid for cultivation and popularization of characteristic forest fruit beach plum seedlings.

Description

Shore plum root connects seedling-cultivating method
Technical field
This invention belongs to the plant asexual multiplication technology field, is specifically related to a kind of shore plum root graft seedling-cultivating method.
Background technology
The shore plum ( Prunus maritima) have another name called beach plum, husky Lee, be subordinate to the rose family (Rosaceae) Prunus ( Prunus), it is littoral to originate in the Northeastern United States North Atlantic Ocean.Characteristics such as that the shore plum has is drought-enduring, impoverishment tolerant, salt tolerant alkali can be used for reparation and sand dune fixing of links; Its fruit sweet and sour taste can be processed into jelly, fruit juice series of products; Shore plum elder generation leaf is bloomed, and spends greatly and closely, is applicable to the ornamental plantation greening.Characteristics such as shrub shape that it is short and multi-branched can be made potted landscape.The shore plum will be a pioneer that stands in the breach in the development of beach and salt tolerant orchard, other solonchak zone industry.Domestic successful introduction, but the bottleneck of brood body supply has greatly limited its popularization cultivation in China.Make remarkable progress aspect breeding at cell engineering Seedling with the research team headed by the Nanjing University, but also have problems such as cost is too high, the survival rate of the open-air field planting of tissue cultivating seedling is not high.Cuttage is fast another the numerous means of shore plum seedling, but common cottage method is difficult for taking root, and administrative skill requires very highly, and efficient is low.Therefore carry out the propagation in scale road of a light beyond doubt through low-cost, graft technology easy and simple to handle.In the practice process, the shore plum adopts scion grafting and bud grafting typical problems such as interface rots, stock root is downright bad, survival rate is low often to occur, and process management is strict, and operation easier is high.Therefore; Choosing and the simplification of processing, grafting and managing after grafting method of the selection of grafting type, stock and scion; Raising to the interface healthy growth of shore plum seedling, rooting rate, survival rate; Healthy and strong growth of seedling body and seedling-cultivating method are promoted most important, and optimizing and combining of correlative factor is the grafting key of success.
Summary of the invention
The problem that the present invention need solve is: overcome the problem that shore plum grafting interface is perishable, stock root is downright bad, survival rate is low.
Concrete technical scheme of the present invention is: the present invention is directed to characteristic and the biological property of shore plum and the grafting interface is perishable, stock root is downright bad, survival rate is low and grafting period management complicated problems, the shore plum root of having invented " the choosing and handling of the choosing and handling of anvil root → scion → anvil root combines with scion → grafting period management → refining seedling and transplanting " connects method.Difficult problems such as interface rots, stock root is downright bad, survival rate is low in the plum root termination process of shore, have been solved; Perfect moisture and nutrition (particularly nitrogen, P elements) supply conditions; Strengthened growing and rejuvenation of shore plum grafting shoot root, stem, leaf; Significantly improved its survival rate, promoted laying a solid foundation for the cultivation of characteristic woods fruit shore plum seedling.
The present invention compared with prior art, its beneficial effect is:
Shore plum root connects the reproduction coefficient height of growing seedlings, and survival rate is high, and cost is low and can keep parent's proterties.The shore plum is in scion grafting or bud grafting process, and the normal typical problem that occurs is: interface is perishable, stock root is downright bad, survival rate is low and the grafting complex management.Use the present invention to address the above problem effectively, significantly improve survival rate, and the strong stress resistance of seedling.Innovation part of the present invention mainly contains following points: 1. the selection of stock, scion kind and processing method 2. anvil root and scion associated methods 3. callus handle the 4. grafting management method in seedling stage.The survival rate of using shore of the present invention plum root to connect seedling can reach more than 87%, and open-air transplanting survival rate can reach more than 95%, really realizes the asexual fast numerous advantage of shore plum seedling, promotes cultivation for its large tracts of land reliable guarantee is provided.
One, embodiment
1. the anvil root choosing and handling
In grafting morning on the same day, the root of 2 years livings shore plum seedlings is got in pick, chooses thick 1 ~ 2 centimetre of root, has no mechanical damage, do not have the root segment of scab, removes adnation radicula and clean earth on the root segment, is cut into the segment of 15 ~ 20 centimeter length.1 centimeters in the root segment upper end is whittled into horse ear shape inclined-plane, and otch is not stained with Ni Heshui.
2. scion choosing and handling
In grafting morning on the same day, get and enrich spring tip branch full, no damage by disease and insect, be cut into 5 centimetres scion, the bud of 2 ~ 3 stalwartnesses of reservation on it.Suitable for readingly cut flat for 1 centimetre apart from bud.The lower end is whittled into horse ear shape, makes relative with bud topmost.
3. grafting seedbed arrangement
The seedbed is arranged in the green house, the thick cobblestone of grafting field planting bed bottom shop 10cm, and the thick thin river sand of 30cm is spread on top, on the grafting field planting bed automatic sprayer is installed;
4. the anvil root combines with scion
At the beginning of 4 months, carry out grafting; To adopt the cortex grafting method to carry out grafting by anvil root and scion that 1. and 2. method is chosen and handled: the scion lower end horse ear shape that shears is pinched out cortex with hand; Make and be pocket-shape; Outwards insert the anvil root inclined-plane of cutting in the scion cortex pocket then, can not fall to be advisable to hold the scion of anvil root, colligation is solid again.
5. callus is handled
The anvil fringe that grafting is good is placed on to carry out in advance in the wooden case and carries out, long 2 m of wooden case, wide 1.2 m; High 0.6 m; The electric mattress line is laid in the case bottom, and line and wire gauge lattice are respectively 6 cm and two kinds of specifications of 4 cm, and evenly lay the saw dust of the thick fresh broad-leaved tree of one deck 10 cm.Whenever put one deck anvil fringe and just spread the wet wood chip of one deck, bury layer by layer; The temperature inside the box remains on 24 ~ 26 ℃, and wood chip humidity remains on 50 ~ 55%.Stop to heat behind 15 d, the adaptive training of the temperature that conforms behind 3 ~ 5 d takes out the anvil fringe, is colonizated on the grafting seedbed.
6. grafting period management
Grafting is pressed spacing in the rows 30 cm * 30 cm, 90 oField planting is in the grafting seedbed, and interface exceeds Shamian Island 3 ~ 5 cm, is interfaced to Shamian Island and covers with fresh pine needle.Grafting seedbed humidity is adjusted into one grade at dusk 40%~50% with automatic sprayer, controls water spraying time automatically, 3 d water spray 1 time; Have water droplet to ooze out after water spray presses with sand at the duration and be as the criterion, 60 s with the illumination of sunshade network control system, see astigmatism in 3 d after the field planting; See direct light after 2 weeks gradually, the shading at noon, whole day is seen light behind 30 d, the grafting bed tempertaure is higher 2~3 ℃ than air themperature; And maintain 22~25 ℃, and if air themperature can be sprayed when being higher than 25 ℃ or be aeration-cooling, insert per 1 carbendazim 1000 ppm soup of 7 d spray in back or thiophanate methyl 800 ppm soups, hocket; Grafting grows behind 45 d, in water spray, adds the spray nutrient solution; See table 1, nutrient solution carries out with spray carbendazim soup simultaneously, per 7 d spray 1 time.
7. refine seedling and transplanting: about about 40~45 d, when treating height of seedling 30 cm, refine seedling after the field planting.The inoculation Beijing City Agriculture and Forestry Institute is commercially available during the refining seedling Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.)Microbial inoculum, refining seedling matrix is the peat composed of rotten mosses of 2 parts of volumes and the mellow soil mixture of 1 part of volume, every basin inoculation 20g, the basin of inoculation basin directly is 13cm, the high 13cm of basin; Temperature, illumination condition during the refining seedling are the same, stop spraying the carbendazim soup, each week spray one time of nutrition liquid, the control water yield; Be as the criterion with not dehydration of blade, reduce the water yield gradually, water spray once every night; Water spraying time is 60 s, can open-air field planting behind 90 d, and preceding 1 week of field planting puts the seedling basin in the open.

Claims (1)

1. a shore plum root connects seedling-cultivating method, it is characterized in that being made up of following steps:
1. the anvil root choosing and handling
In grafting morning on the same day; The root of 2 years livings shore plum seedlings is got in pick, chooses thick 1 ~ 2 centimetre of root, has no mechanical damage, do not have the root segment of scab, removes adnation radicula and clean earth on the root segment; Be cut into the segment of 15 ~ 20 centimeter length; 1 centimeters in the root segment upper end is whittled into horse ear shape inclined-plane, and otch is not stained with Ni Heshui;
2. scion choosing and handling
In grafting morning on the same day, get and enrich spring tip branch full, no damage by disease and insect, be cut into 5 centimetres scion, keep the bud of 2 ~ 3 stalwartnesses it on, suitable for readingly cut flat for 1 centimetre apart from bud, the lower end is whittled into horse ear shape, makes relative with the bud of the top;
3. grafting seedbed arrangement
The seedbed is arranged in the green house, the thick cobblestone of grafting field planting bed bottom shop 10cm, and the thick thin river sand of 30cm is spread on top, on the grafting field planting bed automatic sprayer is installed;
4. the anvil root combines with scion
At the beginning of 4 months, carry out grafting; To adopt the cortex grafting method to carry out grafting by anvil root and scion that 1. and 2. method is chosen and handled: the scion lower end horse ear shape that shears is pinched out cortex with hand; Make and be pocket-shape; Outwards insert the anvil root inclined-plane of cutting in the scion cortex pocket then, can not fall to hold the scion of anvil root, colligation is solid again;
5. callus is handled
The anvil fringe that grafting is good is placed on to carry out in advance in the wooden case and carries out, long 2 m of wooden case, wide 1.2 m; High 0.6 m, the electric mattress line is laid in the case bottom, and line and wire gauge lattice are respectively 6 cm and two kinds of specifications of 4 cm; And evenly lay the saw dust of the thick fresh broad-leaved tree of one deck 10 cm, and whenever put one deck anvil fringe and just spread the wet wood chip of one deck, bury layer by layer; The temperature inside the box remains on 24 ~ 26 ℃, and wood chip humidity remains on 50 ~ 55%, stops to heat behind 15 d; The adaptive training of the temperature that conforms behind 3 ~ 5 d takes out the anvil fringe, is colonizated on the grafting seedbed;
6. grafting period management
Grafting is pressed spacing in the rows 30 cm * 30 cm, 90 ° of field planting in the grafting seedbed, and interface exceeds Shamian Island 3 ~ 5 cm, is interfaced to Shamian Island and covers with fresh pine needle, and grafting seedbed humidity is 40%~50%; Automatic sprayer is adjusted into one grade at dusk, controls water spraying time automatically, 3 d water spray 1 time, the water spray duration has water droplet to ooze out after pressing with sand to be as the criterion; 60 s with the illumination of sunshade network control system, see astigmatism in 3 d after the field planting; See direct light after 2 weeks gradually, the shading at noon, whole day is seen light behind 30 d; The grafting bed tempertaure is higher 2~3 ℃ than air themperature, and maintains 22~25 ℃, if air themperature is sprayed when being higher than 25 ℃ or be aeration-cooling; Insert per 1 carbendazim 1000 ppm soup of 7 d spray in back or thiophanate methyl 800 ppm soups, hocket, grafting grows behind 45 d; In water spray, add the spray nutrient solution, the nutrient composition proportioning is: KH 2PO 4Dosage 0.16g/L, KNO 3Dosage 0.51 g/L, Ca (NO 3) 2Dosage 0.80 g/L, MgSO 4Dosage 0.49 g/L, H 3BO 3Dosage 2.86 g/L, MnCl 24H 2O dosage 1.81 g/L, C 6H 5O 7Fe5H 2O dosage 0.03 g/L, ZnSO 47H 2O dosage 0.28 g/L, CuSO 45H 2O dosage 0.08 g/L, H 2MO 4H 2O dosage 0.04 g/L; Nutrient solution carries out with spray carbendazim soup simultaneously, per 7 d spray 1 time;
7. refine seedling and transplanting: 40~45 d after the field planting; When treating height of seedling 30 cm, refine seedling, commercially available Glomus mosseae (the Nicol. & Gerd.) microbial inoculum in inoculation Beijing City Agriculture and Forestry Institute during the refining seedling; Refining seedling matrix is the peat composed of rotten mosses of 2 parts of volumes and the mellow soil mixture of 1 part of volume; Every basin inoculation 20g, the basin of inoculation basin directly is 13cm, the high 13cm of basin; Temperature, illumination condition during the refining seedling are the same, stop spraying the carbendazim soup, each week spray one time of nutrition liquid, the control water yield; Be as the criterion with not dehydration of blade, reduce the water yield gradually, water spray once every night; Water spraying time is 60 s, open-air field planting behind 90 d, and preceding 1 week of field planting puts the seedling basin in the open.
CN 201110287801 2011-09-26 2011-09-26 Root grating and seedling raising method of beach plum Active CN102318502B (en)

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Families Citing this family (7)

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CN103460944B (en) * 2013-09-18 2014-12-10 南京大学连云港高新技术研究院 Prunus maritima marshall hard branch cutting propagation method
CN103718908B (en) * 2014-01-14 2015-03-04 金陵科技学院 Method for cultivating seedlings of prunus maritime root suckers
CN103988692B (en) * 2014-05-30 2015-12-09 山东农业大学 Five step propagation methods of the horizontal press strip of a kind of apple rootstock
CN104115665B (en) * 2014-08-12 2016-01-06 宜宾云辰乔木园林有限责任公司 The blue root of a kind of yellow square rafter connects seedling-cultivating method
CN104255252B (en) * 2014-09-18 2017-07-14 河北省林业科学研究院 Admiring fruit tree root connects mating system
CN105532270A (en) * 2016-01-25 2016-05-04 金陵科技学院 Beach plum scion grafting seedling culture method
CN106818224A (en) * 2016-12-30 2017-06-13 孟凡华 Tea tree root graft method

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