CN114097674A - Method for effectively preventing and controlling EMS (energy management system) in salt pan shrimp culture - Google Patents

Method for effectively preventing and controlling EMS (energy management system) in salt pan shrimp culture Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114097674A
CN114097674A CN202011614792.3A CN202011614792A CN114097674A CN 114097674 A CN114097674 A CN 114097674A CN 202011614792 A CN202011614792 A CN 202011614792A CN 114097674 A CN114097674 A CN 114097674A
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Prior art keywords
shrimp
shrimps
pond
culture
ems
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CN202011614792.3A
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Inventor
陈锚
马士玉
张弛
于洋
孙青郁
陈清
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Bohai Fisheries Technology Binzhou Co ltd
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Bohai Fisheries Technology Binzhou Co ltd
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Priority to CN202011614792.3A priority Critical patent/CN114097674A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

An effective EMS prevention and control method for salt pan shrimp culture comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of pond trimming, stress-resistant variety selection, EMS pathogen detection, shrimp fry coarsening and salinization, whole-process feeding of brine shrimp, water quality regulation, water quality detection, biological prevention and control, physical prevention and control and stress prevention.

Description

Method for effectively preventing and controlling EMS (energy management system) in salt pan shrimp culture
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of aquatic products, and particularly relates to an effective EMS (energy management system) prevention and control method for salt pan shrimp culture.
Background
The early death syndrome of prawns, technically known as acute hepatopancreas necrosis syndrome (EMS or AHPNS for short), is a phenomenon occurring in the culture of prawns: at ordinary times, dead prawns cannot be observed in the pond, no obvious disease precursor exists before the prawns die, the prawns sink to the bottom of the pond during disease occurrence and are difficult to observe, and the prawns can be found only after a large amount of dead prawns float to the water surface or rush to the pond after a few days, so that the prawns are greatly damaged in the culture of the prawns in recent years. The group of professors Lightner identified that EMS pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a specific variant of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Fujino et al 1951) Sakazaki et al 1963, is a gram-negative, coryneform, arcuated, oval, non-spore bacterium belonging to the genus Vibrio, a common pathogen. The compound is a halophilic and acidiphilic gram-negative bacterium, and can rapidly propagate in 30-60 per mill, and one cycle is every 8-9 minutes. So the harm to the prawn cultivation in high salinity is larger.
At present, the prawn mortality disease has no effective treatment measures in the outbreak stage, so that the prevention and control can be only adopted in the breeding process. However, single prevention and control is often ineffective.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides an effective EMS prevention and control method for salt pan shrimp culture, which comprises the following steps:
1. big change, shallow change and deep change: most of the primary evaporation ponds of the seawater salt field are 1000-5000 mu, and the water level is 50-60 cm. The water body is large, which is not beneficial to artificial regulation and control; the water body is shallow, which is not beneficial to the prawn to avoid the adverse weather and the enemy. Transformed into a single 100-500 mu water level of 120-150 cm. And (3) arranging ring ditches outside 10-20 meters of the four side slopes, wherein the width of each ring ditch is 20-30 meters, and the depth of each ring ditch is 40-60 cm.
2. Trimming the pond: in non-production seasons, draining water, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, properly using multiple purposes at low-lying positions, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days.
3. Selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties which are bred by focusing on stress resistance characters. The species with the growth speed is emphasized, so that the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp culture mode is increased.
EMS pathogen detection: EMS pathogen detection reports need to be checked for selecting germplasm, larvae and seedlings, and all links are negative and can be used as the seedlings for culturing the shrimps in the salt pan.
5. And (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill to 65 per mill to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan, water is changed once every 2 days after the qualified P5 shrimps are stabilized for 3 days, the water is increased by 4 to 5 per mill each time, the concentration of brine for increasing the salinity is mixed with 100 to 150 per mill prepared normal seawater until the salinity is 15 to 20 per mill higher than that of a primary pond, the brine is added into the primary pond for increasing the salinity, the brine is changed twice every day after the salinity is adjusted to 40 per mill, the salinity is increased by 2.5 per mill to 3.5 per mill each time until the salinity is 65 per mill.
6. One-to-one crude salt formation: in the 4 processes, a small pond can be built in the conditional pond according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, a plastic greenhouse is covered for heat preservation, the salinity can be matched with the same, the transportation link of the shrimp seeds can be omitted, the standard thickness can be properly increased, and the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside is increased.
7. Feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: the artemia protein content is high, the crude protein content is 50-60%, the amino acid content is 21-29%, the artemia amino acid composition is similar to the shrimp body amino acid composition, the weight increase of prawns is facilitated, and the growth speed of the prawns eating the artemia is high. And (3) culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting. The fairy shrimp is fed on the day of seedling release, the fairy shrimp is hatched in a secondary brine pond (with the salinity of 65-95 per mill) in advance, 1-1.5 kilograms per mu is fed, and the quantity is increased by 5-10% every day in two times. If the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, the artemia stop feeding, the water change amount is increased, and minced fillet of the lance tail goby (C.stigmaias) fermented by lactic acid bacteria is supplemented.
8. Water quality regulation and control: the water quality can be regulated by using the wheat bran fermented by the bacillus and the lactobacillus, and the wheat bran fermented by the bacillus and the lactobacillus is used once every half month. Bacillus was used on day 1, lactic acid bacteria on day 6 and lactic acid bacteria on day 11 of each cycle.
9. And (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio is administered every three days. The vibrio treating method comprises the following steps: reducing feed (oral administration lactobacillus), and increasing fairy shrimp amount; the water exchange amount is increased.
10. Biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, the prawn grows for about 5cm, 4-5 cm of lance tail goby (C.stigmaias) with consistent salinity with the target pond is released per mu and domesticated, the ratio of the fish to the prawn is 500-1000: 1, reeds can be planted in the saline-alkali soil around the culture pond to attract some birds to lay eggs, the habitat is increased, and the birds can timely clean diseased and weak shrimps floating on the water surface, and the method is also one of effective means for disease biological control.
11. Physical prevention and control: when the shrimps grow to about 7-8 cm, a modified shrimp guide net is placed every 40-50 mu by utilizing the characteristic that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pool and attached to the water surface, a 30-50 m 60-mesh net is pulled from the side slope to 5-10 cm above the water surface under the water by 30-50 cm, the shrimp guide net is arranged at one end far away from the side slope, the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are induced into hubs, and the shrimps are cleaned once every 2-3 days, so that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are prevented from being eaten by healthy shrimps and the infection source is cut off.
12. Stress prevention: the weather mutation causes the prawns to generate stress, the stress is an important factor for the occurrence of the diseases of the prawns, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a whole pool before and after the weather mutation (cold flow, strong wind, high temperature and the like).
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. the invention changes the primary evaporation pond of the seawater salt pan into a single culture pond, thereby enlarging the culture area.
2. The fermented minced fish of the lobster and tiger fish and wheat bran are used as the organic fertilizer water in the whole process.
3. The shrimp larvae are thickened, the standardized breeding is carried out in the early stage, and the salinization thickening is carried out in the later stage, so that the survival rate of the shrimps can be improved, and the yield per mu and the total output are greatly improved.
4. The whole process of the shrimp breeding is carried out by the fairy shrimp, which provides high-quality basic bait for the shrimp larvae, not only reduces the feed coefficient and the water pollution, but also can increase the survival rate and accelerate the growth speed of the shrimp larvae.
5. The disease prevention and control is the combination of biological prevention and control and physical prevention and control: the physical prevention and control is to arrange a shrimp guide net to eliminate the sick shrimps by utilizing the characteristics that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pond and are attached to the water surface; the biological prevention and control is to attract birds to clean up sick shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time by using the tail of the lance goby and the planted reed.
6. EMS pathogen detection: selecting germplasm, larvae and seedlings, checking an EMS pathogen detection report, and taking the seedlings as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan after all links are negative.
The invention takes good effect from comprehensive prevention and control measures such as variety selection, fry detection, pond trimming in cultivation, crude salt marking of shrimp fries, nutrition enhancement, biological prevention and control, physical prevention and control and the like.
Detailed Description
Example 1
An effective EMS prevention and control method for salt pan shrimp culture comprises the following steps:
(1) big change, shallow change and deep change: reconstructing an original seawater salt pan evaporation pond with water level of 60-70 cm and water level of more than one thousand mu to several thousand mu into a single culture pond; the cultivation pond is a single 100-500 mu, the water level is 120-150 cm, a circular ditch is arranged outside 10-20 meters of four side slopes of the primary evaporation pond, the width of the circular ditch is 20-30 m, the depth of the circular ditch is 40-60 cm, and each cultivation pond is provided with an independent drainage system
(2) Trimming the pond: draining off water in non-production seasons, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days;
(3) selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties with emphasis on stress resistance character breeding, and increasing the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp breeding mode by emphasizing the growth speed;
(4) EMS pathogen detection: selecting germplasm, larvae and seedlings, checking an EMS pathogen detection report, and taking the seedlings as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan after all links are negative.
(5) And (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of the qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill-65 per mill so as to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan;
(6) one-to-one crude salt formation: building a small pond according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, covering a plastic greenhouse, and properly increasing the standard thickness of the pond to increase the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside;
(7) feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting; feeding the fairy shrimp 1-1.5 kg per mu on the seedling releasing day, and increasing by 5-10% every day in two times; if the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, stopping feeding the artemia cystokiniana, increasing the water change amount, and supplementing minced fillet of the lobster and tiger fish fermented by lactic acid bacteria;
(8) water quality regulation and control: the water quality is regulated and controlled by the cooperation of the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria, and the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria are used once every half month; using bacillus on day 1, lactobacillus on day 6 and lactobacillus on day 11 of each cycle;
(9) and (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio every three days; EMS detection is carried out once every 15 days;
(10) biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, 4-5 cm of larval tail gobies with consistent salinity with a target pond are released per mu, and the ratio of fishes to shrimps is 500-1000: 1; reed is planted in saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract birds to lay eggs, a habitat is increased, and the birds clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time;
(11) physical prevention and control: when the prawn grows to about 7-8 cm, placing a prawn guide net every 40-50 mu by utilizing the characteristics that the sick prawn and the weak prawn move along the sides of the pond and close to the water surface; pulling a 30-50 m 60-mesh net from the side slope and from 30-50 cm underwater to 5-10 cm above the water surface, arranging a shrimp guide net at one end far away from the side slope, inducing the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps into hubs, and cleaning once every 2-3 days to avoid the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps from being eaten by healthy shrimps and cutting off the infection source;
(12) stress prevention: before and after the sudden change of weather, 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a full pool per mu of land.
The above-described embodiments are merely preferred embodiments of the present invention, and all equivalent changes or modifications of the structures, features and principles described in the claims of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. An effective EMS prevention and control method for salt pan shrimp culture is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) big change, shallow change and deep change: reforming an original seawater salt pan evaporation pond with 1000-5000 mu and 60-70 cm water level into a single culture pond;
(2) trimming the pond: draining off water in non-production seasons, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days;
(3) selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties with emphasis on stress resistance character breeding, and increasing the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp breeding mode by emphasizing the growth speed;
(4) EMS pathogen detection: selecting germplasm, larvae and seedlings, checking an EMS pathogen detection report, and taking the seedlings as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan after all links are negative;
(5) and (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of the qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill-65 per mill so as to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan;
(6) one-to-one crude salt formation: building small ponds according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, covering a plastic greenhouse, properly increasing the standard thickness and increasing the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside, wherein the salinity is matched the same;
(7) feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting;
(8) water quality regulation and control: the water quality is regulated and controlled by the cooperation of the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria, and the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria are used once every half month; using bacillus on day 1, lactobacillus on day 6 and lactobacillus on day 11 of each cycle;
(9) and (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio every three days; detecting EMS pathogen every 15 days;
(10) biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, 4-5 cm of larval tail gobies with consistent salinity with a target pond are released per mu, and the ratio of fishes to shrimps is 500-1000: 1; reed is planted in saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract birds to lay eggs, a habitat is increased, and the birds clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time;
(11) physical prevention and control: when the prawn grows to about 7-8 cm, placing a prawn guide net every 40-50 mu by utilizing the characteristics that the sick prawn and the weak prawn move along the sides of the pond and close to the water surface; pulling a 30-50 m 60-mesh net from the side slope and from 30-50 cm underwater to 5-10 cm above the water surface, arranging a shrimp guide net at one end far away from the side slope, inducing the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps into hubs, and cleaning once every 2-3 days to avoid the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps from being eaten by healthy shrimps and cutting off the infection source;
(12) stress prevention: the prawn is stressed by the sudden change of weather, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a full pool per mu of land before and after the sudden change of weather.
2. The EMS method for effectively preventing and controlling the shrimp culture in the salt pan as claimed in claim 1, wherein the culture pond in step (1) is a single culture pond with 100-500 mu, water level 120-150 cm, a circular ditch is arranged outside 10-20 m of four side slopes, the width of the circular ditch is 20-30 m, the depth is 40-60 cm, and each culture pond is provided with an independent drainage system.
3. The EMS method for effectively controlling the brine shrimp culture of claim 1, wherein the brine shrimp culture of step (7) is fed with brine shrimp in the whole course: feeding the fairy shrimp 1-1.5 kg per mu on the seedling releasing day, and increasing by 5-10% every day in two times; if the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, feeding by the fairy shrimp, increasing the water change amount, and supplementing minced fillet of the lance tail goby fermented by lactic acid bacteria.
CN202011614792.3A 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 Method for effectively preventing and controlling EMS (energy management system) in salt pan shrimp culture Pending CN114097674A (en)

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GB1291991A (en) * 1969-10-21 1972-10-04 Marifarms Inc Improvements in or relating to methods of culturing shrimp artificially
CN106172121A (en) * 2016-07-11 2016-12-07 青岛农业大学 The method that Litopenaeus vannamei batch production shrimp Seedling salinization mark is thick
CN106818574A (en) * 2017-02-06 2017-06-13 青岛农业大学 The biological Control Technology that a kind of effective prevention Marsupenaeus japonicus disease occurs
CN206547619U (en) * 2017-02-06 2017-10-13 广东海洋大学 A kind of weak shrimp in pond, sick shrimp collection device
CN110122386A (en) * 2019-06-12 2019-08-16 渤海水产股份有限公司 A method of being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn
CN110250061A (en) * 2019-07-18 2019-09-20 渤海水产股份有限公司 A kind of thick method of mark being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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CN106818574A (en) * 2017-02-06 2017-06-13 青岛农业大学 The biological Control Technology that a kind of effective prevention Marsupenaeus japonicus disease occurs
CN206547619U (en) * 2017-02-06 2017-10-13 广东海洋大学 A kind of weak shrimp in pond, sick shrimp collection device
CN110122386A (en) * 2019-06-12 2019-08-16 渤海水产股份有限公司 A method of being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn
CN110250061A (en) * 2019-07-18 2019-09-20 渤海水产股份有限公司 A kind of thick method of mark being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn
CN110278898A (en) * 2019-08-16 2019-09-27 渤海水产股份有限公司 A kind of method of suitable salt-soda soil cultivation litopenaeus vannamei

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Title
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